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Cardi B to Ghana? Yes Its Happening   

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Grammy Award winner and American rapper Cardi B will hit the stage in Ghana this

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MzGee resigns from Multimedia Group   

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Entertainment journalist, MzGee, has officially resigned from the Multimedia Group. According to GhanaWeb, the resignation

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Manager, University Printing Press at University of Cape Coast   

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The University of Cape Coast invites applications from experienced, results-oriented and highly motivated individuals for the position of Manager, University Printing Press. Key Responsibilities Successful applicants will perform the following duties, among other responsibilities: • creating and managing print production schedules • inspecting materials, products or equipment to detect defects or malfunctions • calculating labour […]

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Sales Executives Job Vacancy   

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An Agriculture and Food Processing company is hiring for the following position: Sales Executives Qualification Required & Experience • A driving license is mandatory Location: Accra Closing Date: 04 December, 2019

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Delivery Boys Job Vacancy   

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An Agriculture and Food Processing company is hiring for the following position: Delivery Boys Qualification Required & Experience • A driving license is mandatory Location: Accra Closing Date: 04 December, 2019

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Executive Assistant to High Commissioner Job at Foreign and Commonwealth Office   

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The British Government is an inclusive and diversity-friendly employer.  We value difference, promote equality and challenge discrimination, enhancing our organisational capability. We welcome and encourage applications from people of all backgrounds. We do not discriminate on the basis of disability, race, colour, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, age, veteran status or other category protected by […]

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Business Performance Analyst – Corporate Banking Job at Fidelity Bank Ghana   

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The purpose of this role is to support the development and execution of the Corporate Bank’s strategy. This shall include identifying and assessing business opportunities, growth initiatives, and support with streamlining processes, procedures and major re-structuring decisions. This shall also entail furnishing the Team Lead/Head and by extension the Divisional Director, Corporate Banking (“CB”) with […]

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Management Accountant Job at AngloGold Ashanti (Ghana) Limited   

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AngloGold Ashanti (Ghana) Limited is currently on a journey to redevelop the Obuasi Gold Mine into a modern, efficient and long-term profitable operation. The underground mining operation will be fully mechanized, designed to produce up to an average maximum of 5,000 t/day of ore mined. We are seeking an experienced and self-motivated person to join […]

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Mine Captain Job at AngloGold Ashanti (Ghana) LTD   

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AngloGold Ashanti (Ghana) Limited is currently on a journey to redevelop the Obuasi Gold Mine into a modern, efficient and long-term profitable operation. The underground mining operation will be fully mechanized, designed to produce up to an average maximum of 5,000 t/day of ore mined. We are seeking an experienced and self-motivated person to join […]

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Teachers Recruitment at Reputable School   

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A reputable school  in Accra seeks to employ the following: Teachers (9 Positions) • Head Teacher • Integrated Science Teacher • Pre-Technical Skills Teacher • Science Teacher • Mathematics Teacher • English Teacher • Class Teachers • Pre-School Teacher • ICT Tutor with knowledge in coding Qualification Required & Experience • Applicants trained on the […]

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Digital Marketing Manager Job at Standard Chartered Bank   

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We are a leading international bank focused on helping people and companies prosper across Asia, Africa and the Middle East. To us, good performance is about much more than turning a profit.  It’s about showing how you embody our valued behaviours – do the right thing, better together and never settle – as well as […]

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Regional Chief Geologist Job at Newmont Goldcorp Corporation   

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Newmont Mining Corporation is a leading global gold producer with key assets in Nevada, Peru, Australia, Ghana and Suriname. Newmont’s Africa Operations holds two gold mining operations in Ghana: the Ahafo Mine located in the Brong-Ahafo region and the Akyem Mine located in the Eastern region. There is also near mine exploration and development focus […]

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VIDEO: Kweku Smoke – Time No Dey   

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Ghanaian recording artiste, Kweku Smoke serves up the visual to his recent song titled, “Time No Dey.” Consequently, the new entry is following his Bosom assisted single tagged, “Ku B3“ with production reference from Phredxter. In conclusion, the visual to ‘Time No Dey’ was shot and directed by Yaw Phanta. Watch video and share your […]

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Le député de Kissidougou ,Abdourahamane Sinkoun Camara nommé Ambassadeur en Côte d’ivoire (Décret)   

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Dans un décret rendu public ce 6 novembre 2019,Abdourahamane Sinkoun Camara ,jusqu’ici député uninominal de Kissidougou est nommé Ambassadeur et  Extraordinaire et Plénipotentiaire de la République de Guinée près la République de Côte d’Ivoire en remplacement de Mme  Olga Siradin nommée  dans les mêmes fonctions à Accra,au Ghana.

L’article Le député de Kissidougou ,Abdourahamane Sinkoun Camara nommé Ambassadeur en Côte d’ivoire (Décret) est apparu en premier sur Actuguinee.org.


          

My Biggest Regret In Life Is Engaging In Lesbianism, Actress Says (Photo)   

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Ghanaian actress, Abena Ghana shared her regrets in an interview she sat for with Zion Felix on the ‘Uncut Show’. According to the mother of one, engaging in lesbianism is her biggest regret in life. Abena who pleaded with the public to stop judging her with her past which she isn’t proud of, stated that […]

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A Commitment to Radicalism   

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A Radcliffe Institute conference looks back on the legacy of activist icon Angela Davis and ahead to freedom struggles at Harvard and around the globe.

Angela Davis

Angela Davis

Photograph by Tony Rinaldo


Angela Davis

Photograph by Tony Rinaldo

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Radcliffe Institute conference on activist Angela Davis
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On Tuesday morning, Elizabeth Hinton told everyone to get ready. The second and final—and fullest—day of a Radcliffe Institute  conference honoring radical activist and global icon Angela Davis was about to start. Davis herself was seated in the front row, smiling beneath her instantly recognizable afro, now a shade of silver-gray. A capacity crowd filled the Knafel Center behind her. Hinton, halfway through her welcoming remarks, was talking about the difficult issues and “contested truths” the rest of the conference would grapple with. “If you are not uncomfortable at some point during the day,” said the Harvard historian, who chaired the event’s organizing committee, “then we’re not doing our jobs.”

For the next eight hours, the panelists—scholars, activists, educators—would discuss revolution and liberation and the fight against violent oppression. They’d talk about feminisms (plural) and blackness and queer solidarity; they’d talk about anti-capitalism and the prison-abolition movement. They’d talk about Palestine and apartheid South Africa and northern Syria. And Brazil, where Davis traveled a few weeks ago and met with the family of Marielle Franco, the human rights activist and Rio politician who was assassinated in 2018, a few months before repressive politician Jair Bolsonaro was elected president.

Elizabeth Hinton speaking
Elizabeth Hinton
Photograph by Tony Rinaldo

And the panelists would also talk about Harvard, whose recent acquisition of Davis’s papers—now archived in the Schlesinger Library and available to scholars starting this week—catalyzed the conference. Hinton praised the increasingly prominent University-hosted discussions like this one, but she also pushed back. “We can’t be in a space confronting Angela Davis’s life’s work and its implications,” she said, “without recognizing the struggles against racism and oppression that are very much alive on this campus.” She described a recent incident in which Harvard police confronted a group of students of color in the Yard as they were preparing a poetry installation for a class. And she cited the Harvard Prison Divestment Campaign, whose leaders have been demanding that the University withdraw its investments from prison-related industries. For more than a year, the campaign “has engaged the entire campus in thinking about the kinds of investments Harvard can and should make to advance social justice and equality, including expanding educational opportunities for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated people,” said Hinton, whose scholarly work focuses on the carceral state. She has been pushing Harvard to provide education in prisons since she first arrived in Cambridge six years ago. 

Other speakers, too, declared support for the Harvard divestment campaign, including Davis herself. “Of course I would support your efforts to persuade the University to divest from the prison-industrial complex,” Davis replied to a student who stood up late in the program to ask whether she would take a stand. (She also brought up the Harvard Graduate Student Union, which remains at odds with the University in its contract negotiations; the union voted overwhelmingly last week to authorize a strike. “I want to offer them support and solidarity,” Davis said, referring to the union. She echoed panelist and UCLA historian Robin D.G. Kelley, who earlier in the day had urged Harvard to come to an agreement with the students.)

Ruth Wilson Gilmore, a cofounder with Davis of the prison-abolition organization Critical Resistance, also answered a question about the Harvard divestment campaign. “Everyone should fight how they need to fight,” she said. “But: plan to win.” She explained what she meant: “Let us say that the divest committee gets Harvard to divest tonight. What changes for anybody in a cage tomorrow morning? Nothing.” Divestment, she explained, can be a fight worth having, but she admonished students to be cognizant of the limits of its effect, and also to think about how to build and extend that campaign not only to achieve a circumscribed goal, but also to change public consciousness about prison. “Fight what you’re fighting, but think about what happens the next morning.” 

“That said,” she added, “a multi-, multi-, multi-, multi-billion-dollar empire like Harvard … could use its economic clout” to pressure banks not to issue bonds to state and municipal governments to build new prisons. “If Harvard said, ‘We won’t do business with any bank that will write a bond to build any prison, whether public or not,’ that will be meaningful.”

 

Much of the day seemed to unfold that way: discussions of Davis’s work kept turning into the work itself. In part, that’s because many of the conference participants were old friends and comrades who’d stood alongside Davis for decades in one struggle or another. Some were her very oldest friends. On Monday night, Bettina Aptheker, a childhood companion and fellow radical, recalled meetings with Davis and other members of the youth socialist organization they belonged to in high school. The group would gather in the basement of Aptheker’s parents’ home in Brooklyn, where, under the clothesline in the boiler room, stood a row of metal filing cabinets containing the papers of W.E.B. DuBois. “In that time of McCarthyism and House committees on un-American activities and virulent racism and anti-communism,” she said, “no university library would touch DuBois’s papers.” When DuBois departed for Ghana in 1961, “he left them with my father”—Marxist historian Herbert Aptheker, who would later serve as executor of DuBois’s estate—“until they could be properly housed in a university library.” (They are now at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst.)

Davis’s sister, Fania Davis, an activist for restorative justice—a practice that seeks to repair the harm of criminal behavior through reconciliation between the offenders and victims—recalled growing up in Birmingham, Alabama, in those days nicknamed “Bombingham” because of the dynamite explosions that targeted black residents moving into white neighborhoods. She recalled the sisters learning to read their earliest words—“colored” and “white”—and playing pranks on racist white neighbors and shopkeepers. “Just being African American growing up in the fifties and sixties in the South can, itself be radicalizing,” she said.


Davis greets jazz vocalist Cécile McLorin Salvant, who performed during the conference's opening night. To Davis's left are Gina Dent, Fania Davis, and Bettina Aptheker.
Photograph by Tony Rinaldo

Attorney and law scholar Dorothy Burnham, who defended Davis against murder charges in the trial that made her world-famous, reflected on the case against her friend that followed a deadly 1970 shootout between police and the Soledad Brothers outside the Marin County courthouse. Burnham, a lifelong friend from Birmingham—whose 104-year-old mother, the scientist and civil-rights leader Dorothy Burnham, was in the audience—recalled Davis’s imprisonment and trial and how it not only cemented her fame, but profoundly shaped her activism and political philosophy for the rest of her life: the concepts of freedom and oppression, of solidarity and resistance. In prison, Burnham said, “She grew her voice. She grew her confidence.”  

Earlier in the evening, there was a jazz performance arranged by percussionist Terri Lyne Carrington, another longtime friend of Davis’s, whose setlist included a Herbie Hancock song inspired by the activist’s ordeal during her trial. Harvard music professors Vijay Iyer, a pianist, and Esperanza Spalding, a bassist, played alongside Carrington, trumpter Nicholas Payton and singer Cécile McLorin Salvant.

Again and again, conversations came back to the work. Moderating a panel titled “Revolution,” Brandon Terry, a Harvard assistant professor of African and African American studies, exhorted students to nurture their own “revolutionary practice” and to take the risks required, reminding them that Martin Luther King Jr. was only 25 when he organized the Montgomery bus boycott. “A revolution is not just armed struggle,” he said at one point, quoting from a speech by Davis. “It’s not just a period in which you can take over.…. The society you’re going to build is already reflected in the nature of the struggle you’re carrying out.” 

Film director and Spelman professor Julie Dash, who is working on a biopic of Davis, found herself brainstorming ideas from the speakers’ table. “I’m interested in redefining how African-American women are depicted in historical dramas, reimagining lives in bold and cinematic displays,” she said. “Where do we begin the story of the making of a revolutionary? How do we show the seeds of black radicalism taking root?” 

Gilmore, on stage with Kathy Boudin, a formerly incarcerated woman who codirects and cofounded the Center for Justice at Columbia University, fell into a discussion about the importance of confronting the real harm and violence committed by many those who are behind bars. “People in the movement are afraid to talk about that,” Boudin said. And they also discussed the tension between the need to invest in prison reform to improve inhumane conditions and the importance of preserving the long-term goal of abolition. 

Many who spoke noted the power and potential in the Davis archive—a vast collection of writings, speeches, photographs, and artifacts filed away over a lifetime. “I just knew I shouldn’t throw it away,” Davis said. Historian Jane Kamensky, the Schlesinger’s director, hoped the materials would allow “gatherings in far off years to make connections we have not yet thought of and ask questions we have not yet dreamed of.” Hinton curated an exhibit on Davis’s life and thought drawn from the papers, Angela Davis: Freed by the People, on view at the Schlesinger through March. “The collection was so stimulating for me and so rich,” Hinton said. “I left no box unturned.” 

Lehman College historian Robyn Spencer weighed the Davis archive against “all the violence and erasures and silence, all the things that have shielded black women’s lives from really being known.” She called the collection an act of “self-preservation and self-determination,” by an “unapologetically feminist, blues-loving Afro-wearing, left-leaning black woman. Black women are so rarely allowed universality, unboxed breath.” Her papers will provide “oxygen,” Spencer said, “to people, to movements, and ideas that definitely need to be aired.”

“The Davis papers are not a place for nostalgia,” Spencer concluded. “They demand action.” 

 

As the evening wound to a close, Hinton and Elsa Hardy, a graduate student, and Abbie Cohen, a Radcliffe staff member, shared poetry and other thoughts produced by a reading collective of incarcerated women they work with, who were granted special access to the Davis papers last summer and among the first to study it. Kaia Stern, Radcliffe practitioner-in-residence and visiting lecturer at the Harvard Graduate School of Education who cofounded the Harvard Prison Studies Project and has taught incarcerated people for years, recounted conversations with some of the women she has worked with inside: “Human connection is contraband in jail and prison,” Stern said. “We don’t say that out loud; it’s not written in our policy, but anyone who has spent time in a jail or prison know this. Sharing is punished as extortion.…Yet education in prison is transformative precisely because it is about human connections—to history, to science, to art, and to people.”

 Neferti X.M. Tadiar and Angela Davis speaking
Neferti X.M. Tadiar and Angela Davis
Photograph by Tony Rinaldo

Afterward, Davis herself took the stage, interviewed by her friend and former colleague Neferti X.M. Tadiar, now professor and chair of women’s, gender, and sexuality studies at Barnard. They talked about philosophy and politics and jazz, and the power of art to fortify and inspire and understand. “Art can produce knowledge that nothing else can approximate,” Davis said. Then Tadiar asked her about hope: “When you say we’re at the beginning, I feel like you’re already formulating a way for us to generate hope.” 

Yes, Davis answered. “Historical perspectives are important.… Sometimes we’re too short-sighted; we assume that what is happening right now is what will forever be.” Her mother, Sallye Davis, had trained her to always keep in mind other possibilities, other outcomes, other openings: “That is one of the primary articles of our movement. We have to generate hope.” 

One of the last questions of the night came from a high-school student, who asked Davis how she would define success for movements like hers and newer organizations like Black Lives Matter: “What does success look like?” “It’s a very complicated question,” Davis said. More complicated, for her, than is used to seem. Partly, she said, success is figuring out how to ask the right question in a particular moment, and partly about making new mistakes, not old ones. “I don’t think there’s an ultimate point where you could say, ‘This is freedom, we’re there.’” She paraphrased Nelson Mandela on the long walk to freedom: “Each time one thinks that one has reached the top of the mountain, there is another ahead....If someone had asked me to define freedom 50 years ago, I would’ve said, ‘We have to free the black man.’ That would have been my answer. Now it’s so much more complicated.”  

Radcliffe Institute conference on activist Angela Davis
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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

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↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, the strong upward surge in prices of coarse grains faltered in March but they remained at record or near-record highs, reflecting the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the local currency.

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World: FPMA Bulletin #2, 9 March 2018   

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

KEY MESSAGES

↗ International prices of wheat and maize increased further in February, mainly supported by weather-related concerns and currency movements. Export price quotations of rice also continued to strengthen, although the increases were capped by subsiding global demand for Indica supplies.

↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, continued to increase in February and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of rice hit record highs at the start of the year, as a result of tight supplies following a sharp drop in the 2017 output to a substantially below-average level and a weaker currency.

↗ In West Africa, prices of coarse grains continued to generally increase in February and reached levels above those a year earlier despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to a strong demand for stock replenishment, coupled with localized production shortfalls and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #1, 16 February 2018   

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat and maize were generally firmer in January, supported by weather-related concerns and a weaker US dollar. Export price quotations of rice also strengthened mainly buoyed by renewed Asian demand.

  • In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, rose sharply for the third consecutive month in January and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

  • In West Africa, prices of coarse grains were at relatively high levels in January, despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to strong demand for stock replenishment and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #11, 11 December 2017   

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

↗ International prices of wheat and maize remained relatively stable in November, reflecting good supply conditions, while export quotations of rice strengthened amid increased buying interest and currency movements.

↗ In East Africa, prices of cereals in November continued to decline in most countries with the ongoing 2017 harvests and were at levels around or below those a year earlier with a few exceptions. By contrast, in the Sudan, prices surged and reached record highs in some markets, mainly underpinned by the sharp depreciation of the Sudanese Pound in the parallel market.

↗ In Central America, after the sharp increases recorded in the previous month, prices of white maize eased in November as market flows returned to normal, after disruption caused by severe rains in the previous month. Good domestic availabilities kept prices at levels below those a year earlier.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #10, 10 November 2017   

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • The benchmark US wheat price declined in October mostly because of higher supply prospects while maize quotations firmed due to rain-induced harvest delays. International rice prices strengthened in October, mainly reflecting seasonally tight Japonica and fragrant supplies.

  • In East and West Africa, cereal prices declined in October with the 2017 ongoing or recently-started harvests. However, concerns over crop outputs and civil insecurity kept prices at high levels in some countries, particularly in Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Sudan.

  • In Central America, heavy rains in October led to unseasonal increases in maize and bean prices. They remained, however, at levels well below those a year earlier as a result of adequate domestic supplies, following the overall good outputs in 2016 and the 2017 first season harvests.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #9, 10 October 2017   

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat increased in September mostly because of weather-related concerns, while maize quotations fell further on crop harvest pressure. International rice prices remained generally firm, supported by seasonally tight availabilities of fragrant rice and strong demand for higher quality Indica supplies.

  • In East Africa, prices of cereals remained at levels above those of a year earlier in most countries, particularly in Ethiopia reflecting seasonal tightness amid concerns over the impact of the Fall Armyworm infestation on the main harvest and in South Sudan mainly due to the ongoing conflict.

  • In Asia, prices of rice in Bangladesh increased again in September and reached record highs, with seasonal patterns exacerbated by the reduced 2017 main season output and concerns over the impact of the July-August floods on the second season crop, to be harvested from November.


          

U.S. and Ghana Launch Seed Sector Workshop in Ghana   

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Download logo The U.S. government through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) hosted a Seed Sector Workshop from November 5-6 at the West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement. A part of the Borlaug Higher Education for Agriculture Research and Development (BHEARD) Program, this two-day workshop hosted representatives from the Government of Ghana and various […]

          

RNMA 2019 Elections: We Are At Crossroads!   

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Nursing in Ghana is already facing a myriad of challenges This is partly due to many years of incompetent leadership as well as the phenomenon of nonnurses at the top hierarchy positions making decisions for nurses Nurses do the riskiest job in Gh

          

Not For Profit In Ghana   

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List of NGOs in Ghana Adventist Development ampamp Relief Agency ADRA TRANSCENDInternational Ghana TIG Action Aid Forum of African Women Educationalists Ghana FAWE Aid To Artisans Ghana ATAG Association of African Universities A

          

Ghana Begins Recruitment Of Experienced Nurses For Export To Barbados   

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Ghanas Ministry of Health will today November 5 2019 begin recruitment of experienced Ghanaian nurses for export to Barbados The recruitment is targeted at getting highly motivated nurses with at least three and five years experience in c

          

Germany To Import Nurses From Ghana To Ease Shortage Of Nurses    

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GERMANY IS set to consider the importation of trained nurses from Ghana to help in the provision of proper healthcare in that country Dietnar Brockes Chairman of the Committee for European and International Affairs State Parliament of North Rhi

          

RNMA 2019 Elections: We Are At Crossroads!    

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Nursing in Ghana is already facing a myriad of challenges This is partly due to many years of incompetent leadership as well as the phenomenon of nonnurses at the top hierarchy positions making decisions for nurses Nurses do the riskiest job in Gh

          

Airbnb Accra Ghana (USA)   

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At **[The Dream Africa][1]**, it has a beautiful city of **[Airbnb Accra Ghana][2]** visited. The city is firmly established as Ghana’s most popular destination as well as one of the most visited cities in Africa. To know more, log on to **[https://God.blue/splash.php?url=aH8Qbt1HTWd6fHYq7zZ_PLUS_Ce31wYv91zACSWemz4qpqOPdQd_SLASH_mSpNoZXc_PLUS_gvIqDkx7wguB2L1IgJL8xqMmoXrx1Q_EQUALS__EQUALS_....

          

Mary Gaunt e Casa Camilla a Bordighera   

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Dove adesso [in Bordighera (IM)] c'è questa casa, angolo con via Montello, prima del 2° conflitto mondiale, c'era Casa Camilla, dove abitò per quasi vent'anni una scrittrice australiana, Mary Gaunt.

Mary Gaunt giunse a Bordighera nel 1920 e ci rimase fino al 1940. Ma partiamo dal 1861 quando in una cittadina dell'Australia, a Chiltern, Victoria, nasce Mary Eliza Bakewell Gaunt, figlia di un giudice. Lei era la maggiore di ben otto fra sorelle e fratelli.
Dopo gli studi secondari, è stata una delle due prime donne ad iscriversi all'Università di Melbourne.

Il suo primo romanzo viene pubblicato nel 1894, "Il fidanzato di Dave".

Nello stesso anno si sposa con un dottore H.L. Miller, vedovo, che a sua volta muore nel 1900, lasciandole in eredità un piccolo reddito. Nel 1901, Mary, lascia l'Australia per stabilirsi a Londra, in un piccolo bilocale. Continua a scrivere e comincia ad avere successo e questo le permette di svolgere la sua passione, viaggiare. Ma non viaggi turistici tranquilli, tutt'altro, s'inoltra nelle foreste dell'Africa Occidentale, in quelle dell'America Centrale, nei territori della Cina più misteriosa.

Carattere combattivo e ribelle con in corpo uno spirito femminista, i suoi romanzi sono avvicenti e per niente rilassanti.

Nel 1908-1910 effettua un viaggio avventuroso nel Ghana. Nel 1913 va in Cina e vorrebbe ripercorrere il vecchio cammino delle carovane, a dorso di un mulo, attraversando la Russia Asiatica, ma dopo alcuni giorni deve desistere a seguito di scontri nelle regioni da lei scelte e dalle prime avvisaglie che porteranno all'inizio della prima guerra mondiale.
Nel 1919 trascorre alcuni mesi in Giamaica.
Nel frattempo scrive 5 diari di viaggio e sedici romanzi oltre a vari racconti.

Come tanti ospiti di Bordighera, cagionevole di salute, nel 1920 arriva nella nostra città e soggiorna inizialmente all'Hotel Parigi, sull'attuale passeggiata Argentina, poi si trasferisce, poco distante, per un breve periodo in una casa in via Nazario Sauro per stabilirsi definitivamente nella Casa Camilla, dove occupa un vasto appartamento all'ultimo piano. Chi si prenderà cura di lei, in ogni servizio, dalla salute, alla conduzione della casa, già dopo aver lasciato l'Hotel Parigi, sarà una bordigotta, Anselma, che nel 1928 darà alla luce in Casa Camilla Italo Simonazzi. Sì, proprio lui, quell'Italo che una buona parte dei bordigotti conosce, un baldo giovane, che nei prossimi giorni compirà 89 anni, ma con ancora tanta energia in corpo che potrebbe dare dei punti a tanti babanetti d'oggi.

Ritornando a Mary Gaunt, nel suo soggiorno bordigotto scriverà ancora dieci romanzi e le sue memorie. Con l'inizio della seconda guerra mondiale, a malincuore, nell'estate del 1940, lascerà Bordighera per andare in Francia, a Vence, dove la sua asma con l'aggiunta di complicazioni respiratorie la porteranno al decesso nel 1942 in una clinica di Cannes.

Nel 1980 il biografo Bronwen Hickman pubblicherà un libro sulla vita della Gaunt dove c'è un lungo capitolo su Bordighera e sulla permanenza di Mary. Nel giorno internazionale della donna nell'anno 2002, lo stato di Victoria, in Australia, nell'ambito delle celebrazioni per il riconoscimento delle conquiste delle donne dello stato australiano le ha assegnato il premio Vittoriano Honor Roll of Women. Purtroppo nelle mie ricerche, non ho trovato nessun romanzo o racconto, scritto dalla Gaunt, che sia stato tradotto in italiano.

di Giancarlo Traverso



          

Wheelchair sprinter Nkegbe: 'I'm carrying the hopes of 5m disabled Ghanaians'   

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Paralympian Raphael Botsyo Nkegbe says wheelchair racing means more to him than just being an athlete.

          

Shipping to Oman   

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We offer the following shipping cargo services either by air freight or sea freight and we also do Europe by road: Shipping to Ghana Shipping to Oman Shipping to Jamaica Shipping to Dubai

          

FC Utrecht werkt met bijna complete groep toe naar Ajax-uit   

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UTRECHT - FC Utrecht mist aanvallers Adrian Dalmau en Issah Abass in de voorbereiding op het uitduel tegen koploper Ajax. Trainer John van den Brom beschikt voor de rest over een compleet fitte selectie.

Woensdag ontbraken Dalmau (geblesseerd) en Abass (toernooi met Jong Ghana) op de trainingsvelden van Zoudenbalch. De rest van de selectie was present en trainde in diverse partijvormen richting zondag.

[Image:2383026|Een grote groep tijdens de training]

Dinsdagavond zag FC Utrecht dat de aankomende tegenstander in de Eredivisie gelijkspeelde in de Champions League. Het Ajax van voormalig Utrecht-trainer Erik ten Hag speelde op bezoek bij Chelsea met 4-4 gelijk na een knotsgek duel.

UITSUPPORTERS
De wedstrijd in de Johan Cruijff Arena is in trek bij de supporters van FC Utrecht. De eerste 450 kaarten zijn uitverkocht. De Utrechters hebben een aanvraag gedaan om extra kaarten te regelen voor het uitvak in Amsterdam.

[Kader:De Eredivisie-wedstrijd tussen Ajax en FC Utrecht begint zondag om 12.15 uur. Het duel is live te horen in Namen en Rugnummers op Radio M Utrecht.]

LEES OOK

          

Shipping to Jamaica   

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We offer the following shipping cargo services either by air freight or sea freight and we also do Europe by road: Shipping to Australia Shipping to Bahrain Shipping to Dubai Shipping to Ghana Shipping to Jamaica Shipping to Nigeria Shipping to Oman Shipping to USA

          

Bakr Al- Baghdadi Wife reveals ISIS Secret   

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The wife of slain Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi revealed “a lot of information” about the jihadist group’s “inner workings” after she was captured. The official said that Baghdadi’s spouse identified herself as Rania Mahmoud but was in fact Asma Fawzi Muhammad Al-Qubaysi. She was said to be the “first wife” of the IS …

The post Bakr Al- Baghdadi Wife reveals ISIS Secret appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Audio Endorsement ?? – Mercy Deletes Moet Henessy Endorsement Photos From Her Page   

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Reality TV star, Mercy Eke is in the news this morning after she yanked off her Instagram, photos that captured the moment she snagged a reported endorsement deal with Moet. The BBNaija 2019 Winner recently signed an endorsement deal with Moet and Chandon and it sparked uproar after some fans claimed it was false. Recall …

The post Audio Endorsement ?? – Mercy Deletes Moet Henessy Endorsement Photos From Her Page appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

I want to visit Ghana – American rapper Wale   

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The Year of Return fever seems to have gripped American rapper Wale as he has indicated that he wants to come to Ghana. The rapper, who is of Nigerian descent, indicated in a tweet on Tuesday that he will love to visit the gateway to Africa. Born Olubowale Victor Akintimehin, the rapper wrote, “Yo @WalesAgent …

The post I want to visit Ghana – American rapper Wale appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Son sends message to Gomes after scoring twice in Tottenham’s 4-0 win over Red Star   

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Tottenham Hotspur forward, Son Heung-min has apologised to Everton midfielder, Andre Gomes after scoring twice in his side’s UEFA Champions League 4-0 victory over Red Star Belgrade. Son said he still feels ‘really, really sorry’ for his involvement in Gomes’ horrific ankle injury last weekend. GhanaMotion recalls Son was sent off for his tackle on …

The post Son sends message to Gomes after scoring twice in Tottenham’s 4-0 win over Red Star appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Zlatan Rocks DJ Cuppy At His Concert (Photos)   

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Billionaire daughters’ DJ Cuppy was so excited recently as she performs her hit single ”Gelato” which features zlatan on stage for the very first time at Zlatan concert held in Abuja. Zlatan Ibile was seen rocking DJ Cuppy at his ‘Zanku To The World’ show. See More Photos Below;

The post Zlatan Rocks DJ Cuppy At His Concert (Photos) appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Wenger reacts as Emery strips Xhaka of Arsenal captaincy   

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Former Arsenal manager, Arsene Wenger, has spoken on Unai Emery’s decision, to remove Granit Xhaka as his captain. Emery took the action, following Xhaka’s angry reaction to abuse from supporters, during their 2-2 draw against Crystal Palace last month. Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang has been confirmed as the new skipper. Wenger, speaking to beIN Sport, believes swift …

The post Wenger reacts as Emery strips Xhaka of Arsenal captaincy appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Nothing Can Stop Shatta Wale’s Shine – Michy (Video)   

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Michy has claimed that her ex-boyfriend Shatta Wale is living his dream and nothing can stop his shine. The singer and entrepreneur in an interview on ‘E with Becks ‘ disclosed that her baby daddy is on top of his game and he is unstoppable. “This man is living his dream and nothing can stop …

The post Nothing Can Stop Shatta Wale’s Shine – Michy (Video) appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Crowning DJ Switch ‘DJ of the Year’ will put pressure on her – KOD   

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Radio personality and Fashion designer Kofi Okyere Darko, popularly known as KOD,  believes ‘DJ of the Year’ award will mount pressure on 12-year-old DJ Switch. DJ Switch was crowned the overall best DJ of the Year at the recently held Ghana DJ Awards at the Accra International Conference Centre (AICC). KOD in an interview on …

The post Crowning DJ Switch ‘DJ of the Year’ will put pressure on her – KOD appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

I’m sorry – Ms Forson apologizes to Bullet   

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Ms Forson has finally apologized to her former manager MyNewsGh.com reports. Bullet gave Ms Forson a three-day ultimatum to retract and apologize to him over some comments made by the latter in recent interviews that he deemed as defamatory. Well, the songstress is on her knees now according to a statement signed by her management, …

The post I’m sorry – Ms Forson apologizes to Bullet appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

”Don’t dissect my God to be Jesus” – Efia Odo   

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Ghanaian actress, Efia Odo has sparked debate once again after she shared her opinion on her belief in God and religion. Efia in an interview with Sammy Kay on the Go online show said she is not religious, not a Christan but believes in God. She also doesn’t believe in religion because it is man-mad. …

The post ”Don’t dissect my God to be Jesus” – Efia Odo appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

30 People Injured as Police, Lawyers Clash in India   

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Police officers in India, staged a protest on Tuesday after a clash with lawyers in the country over a parking space According to reports, three advocates were shot, as a  police officer harged gangs of armed men and women. The original dispute started over who had rights to a particular Delhi parking spot,  escalated on …

The post 30 People Injured as Police, Lawyers Clash in India appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

ICYMI: 67 year-old woman emerges the Oldest new Mother in China   

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A 67-year-old woman has given birth in China, a hospital said Monday, claimed she and her husband they are the country’s oldest couple to conceive a baby naturally. The woman, surnamed Tian, delivered a healthy girl by Caesarean section on Friday, Zaozhuang city’s Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital told AFP. “The child was bestowed …

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Iraqi authorities shut down internet amid Protest   

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The Iraqi authorities has decided to cut internet access in Baghdad and the south overnight following renewed clashes around official buildings in the capital. Cyber security NGO NetBlocks said Tuesday that the blackout is “the most severe telecommunication restriction to have been imposed by Iraq’s government since protests began” on October 1. While civil disobedience …

The post Iraqi authorities shut down internet amid Protest appeared first on Ghanamotion.com.


          

Rescuers Retrieve Two Dead Bodies From South Korea Chopper Crash   

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Two bodies were retrieved from among  the seven that went missing after their chopper crashed into the sea shortly after taking off from islets disputed with Japan, officials said Sunday. The helicopter had just picked up an injured fisherman from Dokdo, which is known as Takeshima in Japan, when it went down on Thursday night. …

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Donald Trump Impeachment Process to go Public Next Week   

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The first Impeachment hearings for US President Donald Trump will begin next week, the congressman leading the probe said Wednesday, as it heads into a highly-anticipated public phase. William Taylor, Washington’s top diplomat to Ukraine, and deputy assistant secretary of state George Kent will testify on Wednesday next week, House Intelligence Committee chairman Adam Schiff …

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Search Cheap Flights in London | Best UK Travel Services   

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Bright Holidays is a Top Travel Agency in the UK. We provide quick and fast services e.g Flights, Search Cheap Flights, Flights To Abuja, Nairobi Airlines, Car Hiring, Flights from London . You can also find International Flights Manila, Cheap Flights To Accra Ghana, Cheap Flights To Harare, Flights To Johannesburg, Plane Tickets To Durban, Cheap Flights To Dubai In London, Cheap Airlines To Toronto.

          

AFRICA SCIENCE LEADERSHIP PROGRAMME (ASLP) FROM FUTURE AFRICA AT PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA. Deadline : 20th December 2019   

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AFRICA SCIENCE LEADERSHIP PROGRAMME (ASLP) FROM FUTURE AFRICA AT PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA. Deadline : 20th December 2019


Download the call

Africa Science Leadership Programme (ASLP)
Call for applicants 2020

Background
The speed and quality of the development of science capacity in Africa and the rest of the developing world depends not only on infrastructure and the technical training of people, but is intimately linked to the quality of leadership to lead change. It is widely accepted that the future of scientific development lies in enabling interdisciplinary, interconnected and often large, international teams. Training structures are, however, often not set up to prepare a next generation of scientists for the complexities that an interconnected, interdisciplinary approach to science entails. There is an internationally emerging paradigm that recognizes that the focus on individual leadership is often inadequate to address complex challenges, which require skills across many sectors and collaborative processes. The ASLP will therefore focus on developing collective leadership skills that will help fellows contribute to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Overview of the Programme
The ASLP is an initiative of the University of Pretoria in partnership with the Global Young Academy, funded by the Robert Bosch Stiftung. It serves early- to mid-career researchers in basic and applied science, engineering, social sciences, arts and the humanities. The programme aims to grow mid-career African academics in the areas of thought leadership, team development, engagement and collaboration, with the intention of enabling them to solve the complex issues that face both Africa and the global community.

The leadership programme:

  • Identifies early- to mid-career academics who have demonstrated leadership potential and an interest in developing key leadership skills
  • Supports them to apply the acquired skills to projects that are relevant to the academic development on the continent and its impact on society
  • Creates a network of academic leaders on the continent, spanning not only across countries, but also across disciplinary boundaries
  • Advances a curriculum for academic leadership development, which can be utilised in institutions in Africa and beyond.

 

 

Programme Structure
The programme will use a highly interactive approach to training, application of skills to a leadership project, peer support, and mentorship. Fellows will attend an initial 5 day, intensive on-site programme in Pretoria, South Africa from 20-25 March 2020 (departing on the 26th). The process will involve an approach that cycles between theory, application and reflection. Participants will be challenged to work collaboratively to design initiatives that advance a new paradigm for African science.

The training will cover:

  • Core elements of collective leadership
  • Creative and systems thinking
  • Development of effective networks
  • Stakeholder engagement for change
  • Maximising the efficiency and impact of collaborative efforts
  • Advanced dialogue and communication skills
  • Effective problem solving and decision making

Following the first training week, fellows will apply their skills to a project relevant to their context and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As described above, projects will aim to contribute to a new paradigm for Africa science. During the year, participants will continue to engage with the group and have access to professional support. The costs incurred during the workshop (training, relevant travel, meals and accommodation) will be covered by the programme. In March 2020, fellows will complete their projects and present them at the second in-person training, which will consist of 3 days.

Expected commitment
The ASLP is seeking candidates who are committed to developing leadership in Africa. The training itself requires the time commitment of the two multi-day training sessions. Furthermore, fellows will be expected to develop their leadership project and engage with other fellows for peer support.

There will be some costs, which are not covered by the programme, such as visas, vaccinations or local transport expenses, for which you may need to seek support from your local institution or fund personally. You will also be required to provide us with your personal travel insurance details as a condition of participation.

Selection criteria and application process
To be selected, applicants need to display a compelling vision of their future involvement in the development of research projects, programmes, human capacity, specific policies or societal structures. The selection process will consider individual qualities but also focus on ensuring a diversity of culture, subject background (Natural and Social Sciences, Humanities) and gender among the fellows. Where possible the programme will also attempt to create small ‘cores’ of leadership; multiple strong applicants from the same centre or country will thus be considered.

The following criteria are used as a guide for the nomination and selection of fellows:

  • A PhD degree or equivalent qualification;
  • A faculty or a continuing research position at a research institution;
  • Active in research and teaching at an African institution of higher education or research;
  • A sustained record of outstanding scientific outputs;
  • Interest in translating and communicating the results of their work for impact in society;
  • Demonstrated leadership ability in research and beyond;
  • Interest in the role of research in addressing complex issues affecting society;
  • Interest in collaborations across disciplines and sectors (e.g. industry, government, etc.);
  • Commitment to participate in all the activities of the fellowship; and
  • Intent to share what is learned in the programme with their broader networks.

All applicants have to provide two support letters by academic referees (details are provided in the application form). One of the two referees has to commit to be involved in future communications and mentorship in case of selection of the applicant into the programme. This referee will be informed about the progress of the fellow and should be willing to support the fellow if he or she requires it.
All applications will be reviewed and shortlisted by representatives of the University of Pretoria, the Global Young Academy, national young academies, and ASLP Management. The ASLP Management team will make the final selection of candidates.

Key dates:

20 December 2019 Applications close
01 February 2020 Outcome letters sent to applicants
19 March 2020 Arrival of fellows, to begin training on the 20th

 

CLICK HERE TO APPLY\

 

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Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019)   

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Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019)

Commonwealth Shared Scholarships are for candidates from least developed and lower middle income Commonwealth countries, for full-time Master’s study on selected courses, jointly supported by UK universities.

Funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Commonwealth Shared Scholarships enable talented and motivated individuals to gain the knowledge and skills required for sustainable development, and are aimed at those who could not otherwise afford to study in the UK.

These scholarships are offered under six themes:

  1. Science and technology for development
  2. Strengthening health systems and capacity
  3. Promoting global prosperity
  4. Strengthening global peace, security and governance
  5. Strengthening resilience and response to crises
  6. Access, inclusion and opportunity

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

Eligibility
Terms and conditions
Selection Process
How to apply
Enquiries

Eligibility

To apply for these scholarships, you must:

  • Be a citizen of or have been granted refugee status by an eligible Commonwealth country, or be a British Protected Person
  • Be permanently resident in an eligible Commonwealth country
  • Be available to start your academic studies in the UK by the start of the UK academic year in September/October 2020
  • By September 2020, hold a first degree of at least upper second class (2:1) standard, or a second class degree and a relevant postgraduate qualification (usually a Master’s degree). The CSC typically does not fund a second UK Master’s degree. If you are applying for a second UK Master’s degree, you will need to provide justification as to why you wish to undertake this study.
  • Not have studied or worked for one (academic) year or more in a high income country
  • Be unable to afford to study in the UK without this scholarship

The CSC aims to identify talented individuals who have the potential to make change. We are committed to a policy of equal opportunity and non-discrimination, and encourage applications from a diverse range of candidates. For further information on the support available to candidates with a disability, see the CSC disability support statement.

The CSC is committed to administering and managing its scholarships and fellowships in a fair and transparent manner. For further information, see the CSC anti-fraud policy and the DFID guidance on reporting fraud.

Eligible Commonwealth countries

Bangladesh
Cameroon
Eswatini
The Gambia
Ghana
India
Kenya
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Tanzania
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Zambia

Terms and conditions

For full terms and conditions – including further details of the scholarship themes, value of the scholarship, and general conditions – see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships terms and conditions 2020.

Selection process

Each participating UK University will conduct its own recruitment process to select a specified number of candidates to be awarded Commonwealth Shared Scholarships. Universities must put forward their selected candidates to the CSC in March 2020. The CSC will then confirm that these candidates meet the eligibility criteria for this scheme. Universities will inform candidates of their results by July 2020.

Applications will be considered according to the following selection criteria:

  • Academic merit of the candidate
  • Potential impact of the work on the development of the candidate’s home country

For further details, see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships 2020 selection criteria.

How to apply

You can apply to study one of the taught Master’s courses offered in the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship scheme. These scholarships do not cover undergraduate courses, PhD study, or any pre-sessional English language teaching, and are usually tenable for one year only. View a full list of eligible courses.

You must also secure admission to your course in addition to applying for a Shared Scholarship. You must check with your chosen university for their specific advice on when to apply, admission requirements, and rules for applying. View a full list of university contact details.

You must make your application using the CSC’s online application system, in addition to any other application that you are required to complete by your chosen university. The CSC will not accept any applications that are not submitted via the online application system.

You can apply for more than one course and/or to more than one university, but you may only accept one offer of a Shared Scholarship.

The CSC particularly welcomes applicants from the following countries:

Eswatini
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tanzania
The Gambia
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

All applications must be submitted by 16.00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 at the latest.

You are advised to complete and submit your application as soon as possible, as the online application system will be very busy in the days leading up to the application deadline.

Your application must include the following supporting documentation by 16:00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 in order for your application to be eligible for consideration:

  • Proof of citizenship or refugee status – uploaded to the online application system
  • Full transcripts detailing all your higher education qualifications including to-date transcripts for any qualifications you are currently studying (with certified translations if not in English) – uploaded to the online application system

The CSC’s online application system is now open.

Enquiries

If you have any queries about applying for a Commonwealth Shared Scholarship, you can Contact us. We will not use your email address for any purpose other than responding to your enquiry.

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

 

CLICK HERE TO APPLY

The post Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019) appeared first on mucuruzi.com.


          

STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019   

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STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019

Shared Scholarships

Commonwealth Shared Scholarships are for candidates from least developed and lower middle income Commonwealth countries, for full-time Master’s study on selected courses, jointly supported by UK universities.

Funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Commonwealth Shared Scholarships enable talented and motivated individuals to gain the knowledge and skills required for sustainable development, and are aimed at those who could not otherwise afford to study in the UK.

These scholarships are offered under six themes:

  1. Science and technology for development
  2. Strengthening health systems and capacity
  3. Promoting global prosperity
  4. Strengthening global peace, security and governance
  5. Strengthening resilience and response to crises
  6. Access, inclusion and opportunity

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

Eligibility
Terms and conditions
Selection Process
How to apply
Enquiries

Eligibility

To apply for these scholarships, you must:

  • Be a citizen of or have been granted refugee status by an eligible Commonwealth country, or be a British Protected Person
  • Be permanently resident in an eligible Commonwealth country
  • Be available to start your academic studies in the UK by the start of the UK academic year in September/October 2020
  • By September 2020, hold a first degree of at least upper second class (2:1) standard, or a second class degree and a relevant postgraduate qualification (usually a Master’s degree). The CSC typically does not fund a second UK Master’s degree. If you are applying for a second UK Master’s degree, you will need to provide justification as to why you wish to undertake this study.
  • Not have studied or worked for one (academic) year or more in a high income country
  • Be unable to afford to study in the UK without this scholarship

The CSC aims to identify talented individuals who have the potential to make change. We are committed to a policy of equal opportunity and non-discrimination, and encourage applications from a diverse range of candidates. For further information on the support available to candidates with a disability, see the CSC disability support statement.

The CSC is committed to administering and managing its scholarships and fellowships in a fair and transparent manner. For further information, see the CSC anti-fraud policy and the DFID guidance on reporting fraud.

Eligible Commonwealth countries

Bangladesh
Cameroon
Eswatini
The Gambia
Ghana
India
Kenya
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Tanzania
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Zambia

Terms and conditions

For full terms and conditions – including further details of the scholarship themes, value of the scholarship, and general conditions – see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships terms and conditions 2020.

 

 

Selection process

Each participating UK University will conduct its own recruitment process to select a specified number of candidates to be awarded Commonwealth Shared Scholarships. Universities must put forward their selected candidates to the CSC in March 2020. The CSC will then confirm that these candidates meet the eligibility criteria for this scheme. Universities will inform candidates of their results by July 2020.

Applications will be considered according to the following selection criteria:

  • Academic merit of the candidate
  • Potential impact of the work on the development of the candidate’s home country

For further details, see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships 2020 selection criteria.

How to apply

You can apply to study one of the taught Master’s courses offered in the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship scheme. These scholarships do not cover undergraduate courses, PhD study, or any pre-sessional English language teaching, and are usually tenable for one year only. View a full list of eligible courses.

You must also secure admission to your course in addition to applying for a Shared Scholarship. You must check with your chosen university for their specific advice on when to apply, admission requirements, and rules for applying. View a full list of university contact details.

You must make your application using the CSC’s online application system, in addition to any other application that you are required to complete by your chosen university. The CSC will not accept any applications that are not submitted via the online application system.

You can apply for more than one course and/or to more than one university, but you may only accept one offer of a Shared Scholarship.

The CSC particularly welcomes applicants from the following countries:

Eswatini
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tanzania
The Gambia
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

All applications must be submitted by 16.00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 at the latest.

You are advised to complete and submit your application as soon as possible, as the online application system will be very busy in the days leading up to the application deadline.

Your application must include the following supporting documentation by 16:00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 in order for your application to be eligible for consideration:

  • Proof of citizenship or refugee status – uploaded to the online application system
  • Full transcripts detailing all your higher education qualifications including to-date transcripts for any qualifications you are currently studying (with certified translations if not in English) – uploaded to the online application system

The CSC’s online application system is now open.

Enquiries

If you have any queries about applying for a Commonwealth Shared Scholarship, you can Contact us. We will not use your email address for any purpose other than responding to your enquiry.

CLICK HERE TO APPLY

The post STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019 appeared first on mucuruzi.com.


          

Flights | Hotels, Car Hiring & Umra Packages | Bright Holiday   

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Bright Holidays is a Top Travel Agency in the UK. We provide quick and fast services e.g Flights To Abuja, Nairobi Airlines, Car Hiring. You can also find International Flights Manila, Cheap Flights To Accra Ghana, Cheap Flights To Harare, Flights To Johannesburg, Plane Tickets To Durban. Contact Us. 0800 0622 599. We also deal with Cheap International Flights To Lagos Nigeria, British Airways Freetown, Cheap Airline Tickets To Entebbe, Cheap International Flights Manila, Nairobi Airlines, Airline Tickets To Johannesburg, Airline Tickets To Durban, Abuja Cheapest Flights.

          

Papa celebra registro de braceros indocumentados en parroquias de Italia   

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El papa Francisco celebró hoy el acuerdo al que han llegado la diócesis de San Severo en Apulia (sur de Italia) y su Ayuntamiento para registrar como residentes en algunas parroquias rurales a los braceros africanos indocumentados que trabajan durante el verano en el campo.

Papa celebra registro de braceros indocumentados en parroquias de Italia

Tras el rezo del Ángelus, el papa agradeció a la diócesis y al Ayuntamiento la firma el pasado 28 de octubre de este memorando de entendimiento, que "permitirá a los trabajadores de los llamados 'guetos de la Capitanata', en la zona de Foggia, obtener una domiciliación en las parroquias y la inscripción en el registro municipal".

Francisco alabó que este acuerdo, que no tiene precedentes en Italia, otorgará documentos de identidad y una residencia a estas personas y "les ofrecerá una nueva dignidad", además de permitirles "salir de una condición de irregularidad y explotación".

Cada verano, miles de inmigrantes procedentes de países como Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal y Gambia, pero también del este de Europa, trabajan en la recogida de cosecha en la zona de La Capitanata, en la provincia de Foggia, pero lo hacen en negro, porque son irregulares.

No pueden inscribirse como residentes en Italia ni pagar sus impuestos, ya que carecen de un domicilio fijo durante un periodo determinado de tiempo, tal y como exige la ley.

Para ellos, ser inscritos en los registros municipales como residentes en estas parroquias les permitirá poner en regla su situación, disfrutar de servicios sociales y tener la posibilidad de firmar un contrato de trabajo.

Uno de los principales impulsores del acuerdo ha sido el limosnero del papa, el cardenal Konrad Krajewski, que visitó a los inmigrantes indocumentados en esta zona el pasado septiembre, informa el portal de información vaticana Vatican News.

"Los braceros quieren pagar sus impuestos, ser reconocidos, trabajar dignamente, pero sin documentos no pueden", declaró Krajewski a los medios italianos durante su visita. EFE

IR

Categoria: 

          

ASA’s African Royale Ball Celebrates African Culture   

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Natalie Irula Opinion Editor Blue and white balloons lined the halls of the Innovation Center’s third floor last Friday as students, faculty, friends, family and everyone alike gathered to celebrate African culture.  The African Royal Ball, hosted by the African Student Association (ASA), embraced the African-American population at ESU, honoring the school’s diversity.  Doors opened at 6:30 p.m. and attendees waited until 7 p.m. for the event to begin with ticket sales going towards the newly established club.  “This is our second annual African Royal Ball,” said Sarah Owusu, an ASA member. “The event is basically to capture African culture, music, food, and dance. It’s a way for everybody to come out, dress up and socialize.” The atmosphere was electric as students came dressed in traditional ensembles and showed off their heritage flags, hanging off their backs like capes.   The green and white of the Nigerian flag and the red, yellow and green of the Ghanaian flag were hard to miss among the represented African countries that night.  The main ballroom was filled with vibrant colors, laughter, and music by African artists. “I couldn’t resist playing this event because it is like family,” said Jamal Avery, the DJ for [...]

The post ASA’s African Royale Ball Celebrates African Culture appeared first on The Stroud Courier.


          

Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review   

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Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

 

Manuel Monti1, Maria Pia Ruggieri2, Giovanni Maria Vincentelli3, Fernando Capuano4, Francesco Rocco Pugliese5

 

1 Emergency Department - AUSL UMBRIA1 Assisi (Perugia) Via V. Muller 1, Assisi (Perugia), Italy
2 Emergency Department - San Giovanni Hospital Rome
3 Emergency Department - Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Isola Tiberina Via Fatebenefratelli 1 Roma
4 Antel National President Rome
5 Head of Emergency Department - Pertini Hospital Rome

 

 

Abstract

Background: Ischemic heart disease is increasing dramatically in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing toincreasing prevalence of risk factors, and to some characteristics of the African people that make the African population subject to the effects of major cardiovascular risk factors. The pace and direction of economic development, rates of urbanization, the changes in life expectancy, associated with different pathophysiological factors are causing an increased rate of atherosclerotic disease in these countries.

Results: In the next twenty years, the prevalence of ischemic heart disease in SSA will increase, due to increasedrisk factors,especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use and the dyslipidemia, mainly due to an increase in urbanization. Moreover, thanks to new knowledge, it has been pointed out the difference of individual risk factors in the African population and other populations due to genetic differences. It is estimated that age-standardized approach for ischemic heart disease mortality rates will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015 and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030.

Conclusion: More research is neededin Africa to provide evidence for cardiovascular prevention and treatment to mitigate the oncoming epidemic. Healthinterventions are needed for prevent or reduce the morbidity / mortality need to be addressed in both children and adults, including modifiedscore of the risk stratification, starting early therapy and aggressive, if necessary.

 

 

 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disabling growing epidemic that causes premature death and decreased quality of life. Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, rheumatic heart disease (RHD), cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases, represent the leading cause of death (1).Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (2). Despite evidence to suggest that CVD-related mortality rates are increasing in the region,  it is only now being recognized  as an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with coronary artery disease shown to rise in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa(3-4) . Cardiovascular diseases are the main non-communicable conditions in SSA and now 9.2% of total deaths in the African region are caused by CVD (5) , being the leading cause of death in the population over 45 years of age (6) .Cardiovascular diseases account for 7-10% of all adult medical admissions to hospitals in Africa, with heart failure contributing to 3-7% (7) .When studies on urban and rural populations were analyzed, the prevalence of CVD  was found to be higher in the urban than the rural population (8-9).

Behavioural risk factors

 The important contributors to this transition are the so-called “globalization” of dietary  habits and urbanization. Urbanization is the prime driver for nutrition transition and emergence of obesity, themetabolic syndrome and other NCDs in developing countries, especially SSA. The current average annual growth of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa is 4.5%. Over the period 1980-2050, the urban population of Africa, as a whole, is expected to increase from 134 million to 1.264.000 million (10). The rural-to-urban migration in many of the developing countries exposes migrants to urbanized diets and lifestyle. Dietary changes associated with urbanization are related to the fact that rural dwellers tend to be more self-reliant in obtaining food and also tend to eat traditional diets that are high in grains, fruit and vegetables, and low in fat. Once they arrive in urban areas, these same people tend to rely more on external forces for sustenance, resulting in a shift from production of their own food to the purchase of processed foods (11).Major dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar and decrease in cereal and roughageintake (12).  This involves major changes of the main cardiovascular risk factors between the two areas(13) (tab.1). There was evidence of a significant increase in edible oil, indicating a major change in diet; dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar, associated to the decrease in cereal and fiber intake(14) (Fig.1). In fact, recent global figures from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that the prevalence of obesity is not just affecting the developed countries, but is also increasing in the developing countries, where over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems (15) .

Psychosocial factors

Psychosocial factors increase the number of risk factors. Some studies have shown that the number of countries registering , in recent years, a rise in the number of households owning televisions and computers is directlyproportionate to the reduction in physical activities, contributing arise in obesity in children (16-17). Alcohol and tobacco smoking are risk factors towards heart failure, ischemic stroke, heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (18). Many studies show how alcohol and tobacco use are related to poverty and low socio-economic positions. Rural areas inhabitants are highly affected by such habits, especially compared to the other risk factors, which are  more common in urban areas(19-20) Smoking tendency is increasing among men and women in SSA, mainly in the age group between 30 and 49, with particular reference in women, increasing together with ageing (21). Furthermore, in many developing countries, psychosocial attitude toward obesity is not seen a negative factor (22-23). Mvo et al. and Puoane et al. reported that even if a large percentage of African women were overweight and obese, only a few perceived themselves so (24-25). Gambian populations were reported to be more obesity tolerant (acceptance of obese body size as normal) than African-Americans, and much more tolerant than white Americans (26) .Moreover, the double burden of under and over-nutrition presents a potentially grave situation, which should deserve more attention from both health and economic agencies engaged in development. While they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are experiencing a rapid upsurge in disease risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, especially in urban settings. It is not uncommon to find under-nutrition and obesity existing side-by-side within the same country, the same community and the same household. Children in low and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition. Simultaneously, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which is usually lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity, while undernutrition issues remain unsolved(27). Recently, the rise of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were also seen in rural areas of some countries of the developing world. It has to be pointed out that many so-called rural areas are no longer genuinely rural: people are becoming more urbanized even in areas far from cities. This phenomenon, to some extent, is linked to the so-called "Remittance economy”. Migrant workers remittance led to a relative wealth, even in rural areas influencing some lifestyles (28).Such epidemiological transition is due, in part, to an improved longevity starting from the 1950s, so that more people are exposed to these risk factors, for long enough periods, to cause CAD. Globally considering risk factors, it has to be highlighted how the risk-factor burden experienced by blacks differs from that of whites. A recent study conducted in Ghana shows low median levels of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalences of obesity, hypertension, dysglycaemia or diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were low too. The preponderance of moderately elevated levels of CRP was also low.However, the evidence has shown that younger patients (<55 years) were prone to a higher risk of atherosclerotic disease, which decreased ageing (29). Such difference, could be partially explained by the difficult collection of data about the actual incidence of risk factors among African population, which may lie in the complexity of conducting proper surveys in many countries, in order to perform an accurate risk stratification. In addition, women do not smoke or drink publicly, but it can assume that the women exhibit these behaviours privately in smaller proportions (30). Moreover there are some pathophysiological peculiarities in the African population, boosting an increased susceptibility to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

Arterial hypertension

The prevalence of hypertension among urban dwellers in SSA appears to be particularly high, ranging from 8–25 per cent. At the dawn of the twentieth century, high blood pressure was virtually nonexistent among indigenous Kenyans and Ugandans. Starting from 1975, high blood pressure became established in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda (31-32). In December 2006, among the adults living in Addis Abeba, the prevalence of hypertension was 50.9% between males and 47.1% among females (33). In  Cameroon the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 15-99 years in 2004 was 20.8%, a common issue especially among men (34). In Sub-Saharan Africa, age-adjusted hypertension prevalence and age-specific rates of death from stroke are higher among urban blacks than equivalent white populations (35). Yameogo et al showed resistant hypertension is common in black Africans, most affected subjects are people over 60 years old, with limited economic income and living in rural areas (36). Numerous studies have found that such population has an excess prevalence of salt sensitivity, hypervolemia, and low plasma renin activity (37-38).

Diabetes mellitus

In 2010, an estimated 12.1 million people with diabetes mellitus (4.2% of the global estimate of 285 million) were living in sub-Saharan Africa (39). The following year, diabetes prevalence rose to 14.7 million (4.02% of the global 366 million). By year 2030, a 90% projected increase in diabetes prevalence throughout SSA, skyrocketing the number of Africans with diabetes to 28 million. (39) The incidence of diabetes mellitus in IHD remains uncertain because many studies show that, among African population, the main complication of diabetes is the micro-angiopathies compared to Western countries, where the macrovascular complication is the most important (40-41). One common pathogenic mechanism for microvascular disease, is rooted in the chemical by-products of reactions between sugars and proteins occurring over the course of days to weeks, producing irreversible protein cross-linked derivatives AGE (42). The increase in AGE produces growth inhibition and apoptosis of retinal pericytes, also inducing an overproduction of endothelial growth factors and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation too (43-44). Such actions lead to an increased microthrombosis, capillary blockage, retinal ischemia and the activation of endothelial cells, responsible of important shortcomings involving mesangial cells and stimulating glomerular fibrosis (45-46). It has been suggested that, among black population, microvascular damage is due to a different genetic predisposition that stimulates the accumulation of AGEs with all the after-effects (45-46). The strong association between diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the African population, compared to the white population, worsens dramatically microvascular damage (47-48).

Visceral Fat

The phenotype of obesity, found among several ethnic groups in developing countries, appears to be different than among the Caucasian population. Several studies reported a correlation between  visceral fat (VF) and insulin-resistance, rise of triglycerides, blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, VF  is correlated to all the conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors and with sedentary life-styles. VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile, playing a pivotal role in coronary atherogenesis. The expansion of adipocytes with triglyceride is thought to be trigger the increased expression and production of inflammatory cytokines - such as TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1β, −6, and −8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)  and decreased expression and production of leptin and vasoprotective adiponectin. Furthermore, VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile (49-50) (Fig.2). During the International Day for evaluation of abdominal obesity, a study, related to the waist circumference data, involving 63 countries, showed highest prevalence of visceral fat in SSA and South Asians, compared with North Europeans and other Asian ethnic groups (51). In fact, it was shown that a parity of average value of waist circumference and BMI in SSA, especially Nigeria and Cameroon, visceral adiposity is significantly higher than other populations (52). High percentage of body fat with low BMI value could be partly explained by body build (trunk to leg length ratio and slender body frame), muscularity, adaptation to chronic calorie deprivation, and ethnicity (53). Some studies also shown how the populations of SSA have an accumulation of visceral fat in other tissues where usually are not deposited (ectopic fat): this feature has the potential to affect insulin sensitivity (54) . A number of studies highlighted how African populations have a lower amount of epicardial fat than the white population: such matter is of considerable interest, as the epicardial fat is now considered an important emerging independent cardio - vascular risk factor (55) (Fig.3).

The markers of body fat distribution, including waist-hip ratio, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat diner a heritable component, support the thesis of unique genetic variants associated with ectopic fat depots(56-57-58). Fox et al identified a single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) near the TRIB2 locus, which is associated with pericardial fat but not with body mass index or visceral abdominal fat (59). This is the reason why we must carry out studies in order to highlight, among the African population, the genetic variants responsible for the increase in visceral fat but not in epicardial ectopic. This would allow the identification of subgroups among the population, with BMI and amount of visceral fat compiling the standard, who are at greater risk of atherosclerotic disease (60). Other factors, such as genotype, could make the African population very susceptible to visceral fat. Among others genetics, a pivotal role is fulfilled by LOX-1, a type-II membrane protein belonging to the C-type lectin family. The LOX-1 has a crucial part in amplifying local inflammatory responses during atherosclerotic development (61) (Tab.2). The study performed by Predazzi showed a higher frequencies of two polymorphisms associated with the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), among the South-Saharan rural populations (61)   Furthermore, it must be considered the identification of other  deleterious alleles lying on CVD associated genes (GJA4, SERPINE1 and MMP3), which have a higher frequencies in African population in respect to Europeans. (62)

Communicable Diseases

Several studies reported associations between the exposure to various infectious agents and the prevalent coronary disease(63-64-65). In 1891, Huchard was the first to suggest the involvement of infectious agents in the process of atherosclerosis. Subsequently, several reports shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases (66-67).  Several types of microbes are now also being implicated as possible causative agents in acquired CVD, and a few bacterial agents have been a research topic for several years. Organisms such as the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) or the Treponema pallidum (syphilis), and flagellated bacteria such as the streptococci, have well-recognized atherosclerotic potential. Interest in the role of infection in atherosclerosis was renewed with the observation that patients with coronary artery disease were more likely than matched controls to have an elevated antibody titer to Chlamydia pneumonia (68-69). Multiple complex processes are involved in the development of CVD. The increased incidence of infectious diseases has highlighted the expression of proinflammatory immune system to survive up to older ages. Although the increase of the protein Cwas not related to an increase of atherosclerotic disease, other acute-phase reactants, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, appear to be associated with vascular risk.This selection of a proinflammatory status is confirmed by the higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, including the interleukin-6 (IL6) (70). The macrophage is a critical component in the pathway to atherosclerotic inflammation. During an infectious process causes the activation of macrophages, including the  secretion of numerous factors (AGF; TGF; 1,2,4 FGF;VEGF). These substances stimulate the appearance of endothelial cells and are responsible for the creation of a systemic hypercoagulable state (71-72). In addition, mitogenic factors are released through an NF-Kβrelated mechanism, leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and however there is an increase of monocytes through transendothelial migration at the level of the coronary (73-74). This  means that the activated macrophages stimulate bothlocal lipid accumulation and the instability that presages plaque rupture (75-76-77).

Coronary Heart Disease

IHD remains relatively uncommon in SSA despite an increasing prevalence of risk factors but its incidence is rising. A study of the 1954 have evidenced by 3,500 postmortem studies in Ghana in which only three cases of CHD were found (78). In Uganda, the National Heart Institute at Mulago alone, currently receives at least 100 patients every day with 5-8 being new cases (a total of about 36,500 patients per year with 1,825-2,920 being new cases). In 2011,heart cases increased by 20% bringing the number to 12,000 with  256 new cases registered in January alone (79). The WHO estimated that in 2005, IHD caused approximately 261 000 deaths in the African region, and current projections suggest that this number will nearly 600.000 by 2030. It is estimated that age-standardized mortality rates for IHD will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015, and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030 (80) (Fig.4). The increase in IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s is presumably because of the increasing prevalence among African populations of the classical risk factors for CAD, include hypertension, smoking, diabetes, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, as a result of developments in combating communicable diseases and a decrease in childhood mortality, life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen since the 1950 and  the number of individuals aged over 60 years is predicted to increase from 39 to 80 million by 2025 in SSA. This meaning that more people are exposed to these risk factors for long enough periods to cause CAD (81-82).

Conclusion

This review attempts to assess the prevalence, levels of risk and major risk factors for developing  cardiovascular disease in SSA.This article answered specific research questions and hypotheses on issues relating to sedentary lifestyles, nutritional behaviours, knowledge on CVDs risk factors, and especially some of the key knowledge on the genetic differences between the African population and other populations. Among the socio-economic and behavioral risk profile study variables, the review documented a high prevalence of active smoking, high consumption of edible oil and fat, an increase in physical inactivity and current active alcohol usage. The economic and social important consequences of the CVD Epidemics in the SSA will be devastating. Important gene - environment can play a crucial role in the increased risk of the IHD of the African population. The detection and management of hypertension and diabetes are still unsatisfactory in inner city areas and show variations by ethnic origin. A priority should be the development of scores for the population of Africa, also using the emerging risk factors such as Calcium Score and visceral fat and considering genetic differences. Increasing burden of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CVD in SSA has created an urgent need to strategize mass health policies and intervention programs to tackle nutrition and continuing efforts to manage undernutrition. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health / community-based and clinic-based strategies with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and relatively chronic diseases have a low priority in the global health agenda and that requires this additional emphasis. Finally, we must consider, in the light of the differences between races, strategies for the control of CHD and stroke cushion adopted in European countries directed mostly to white rural populations may be inappropriate for the African population. In conclusion, evaluations must be performed carefully for correct risk stratification, the timing of initiation of treatment and the goals of the therapeutic treatment to be achieved in the African population. In addition, further evaluations should be done to perform a correct public health / community-based strategies targeted at risk factors, including decrease in taxes and prices of fruits and vegetables, more playgrounds, parks, walking and bicycle tracks, provide information to parents about nutrition (particularlymothers), the change of food policy through country-specific guidelines for healthy nutrition for adults and children.

 

 

Tables

 

Tab. 1 The main risk factorsof urban and ruralarea

 

Urban

Rural

BMI (kg/m2)

25.8 ± 6.9

19.3 ± 3.2 *

Waist (cm)

85.2 ± 9.9

67.8 ± 9.9 *

Waist-hip ratio

0.88 ± 0.09

0.81 ± 0.08 *

Triceps skinfold (mm)

17.3 ± 6.8

9.8 ± 5.4 *

% overweight

(BMI > 25)

53.4

5.8 *

p <0,001, ageand gender adjusted                                 

 

Tab.2 Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1

Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1 interaction on atherogenesis

Endothelial cells Alteration of vascular tone

Increased intracellular oxidative stress

 Induction of apoptosis

Induction of proliferation and angiogenesis by increasing VEGF expression

Increased expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 , ICAM-1 , Selectins)

Increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

Reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Release of matrix metalloproteinases

Smooth muscle cells Induction of apoptosis

Monocytes Induction of monocyte adhesion and activation

Increased oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation

VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor; VCAM1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule1; ICAM1 Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1.

 

 

Figures

Fig.1 Date of  consumption of fats (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

 

Fig.2 Main mechanisms ofcardiovascular damage caused by visceral fat

 

Fig.3 Epicardial fat around the myocardial tissue

 

Fig.4 Projection of death from IHD in men and women in the WHO African regions for the year 2005,2015 and 2030 (WHO,2008)

 

 

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