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Linda Robson took to Instagram on Monday to share a picture of herself becoming godmother to two children she had never met before.
Bobcat The neighborhood bobcat passed by again. This picture was taken about 30 minutes after a picture of my cat in the same spot. Bobcat by chicken run The bobcat passing by the Omlet Eglu chicken coop and run, which still seems to... Read more
this essay, but I hated the way it sounded (too whiny), so I started over entirely. Blank page. And now I am on page 234 of the new and improved version, which is from a much deeper point of view, much more internal. I am getting ready to head into the second half of the book, which deals with disinheritance. I have to say I'm a little overwhelmed at the idea of delving a new into such a hairy topic, but here I go anyway. What makes things all a bit unfun is the fact that my family wants me to stop writing about the topic. I think they wish I would shut the F*** up, or fall off the planet, but I have to write this book. I have to figure out what exactly happened to me and why. I've even found a decent literary method for never mentioning any of them by name: I write about my brothers as The Three. How about that for clever? But, whatever. They don't get it, and never will.
Wisewatches.in, Timecarts.in, Shree Shyam Trading, 89 MPKS2, Delhi 110085 Complaint – Fraud Sent A Cheap Product Than What Was Shown On Website, Misleading AdvertisementCache
Subject: Fraud sent a cheap product than what was shown on website, misleading Advertisement
The complaint Wisewatches.in, Timecarts.in, Shree Shyam Trading, 89 MPKS2, Delhi 110085 Complaint – Fraud Sent A Cheap Product Than What Was Shown On Website, Misleading Advertisement appeared first on Grahak Suraksha.
What you published was very logical. But, think about this, what if you were to write
a awesome headline? I ain't saying your content isn't solid, however suppose you added something that makes people desire more?
I mean Hallo Welt! - Wolfslaile | Entlebucher Sennenhunde is a little vanilla.
You could peek at Yahoo's front page and see how they create post headlines to get people interested.
You might add a related video or a picture or two to get readers excited
about everything've written. Just my opinion, it could make your blog a little livelier.
Please note: When boarding a plane, the TSA would prefer you have a ticket, a boarding pass, or at least some form of ID better than a picture on your phone [Florida]Cache
UAV has become the focus of business and media attention. McNeill Bill, a freelance writer, uses this article to introduce the reader to the basic situation of the UAV and analyze its huge market potential in the future.
After that, WiFi technology is applied to the UAV, which is the first person (FPV). Equipped with WiFi cameras, such as GoPro camera and DJI, Parrot's integrated camera, smart phones or tablet computers will appear real-time flight data flow, that is, even if the aircraft is not in your sight, when it is independent of the time you can see what it is. So the operator can raise or extend the flight route, or even the next flight.
2 composition of UAV
Below is a Robotics LA100 3D camera with fixed wing UAV and Aviation Lehmann. Fixed wing aircraft in the flight process is very stable and therefore do not need a fixed frame.
Needs to mention is that although the UAV data collection has been commonplace, but to truly realize the function of collecting data is no computer equipped with various payloads. As long as the installation of the application, infrared cameras, high precision air pressure meter, multi spectral scanner, laser radar or high spectral sensors can collect data.
Most of the data is needed to deal with the data processing, the various developers have their own data processing software, providing accurate correction, image mosaic and terrain extraction, etc.. Because the software is also a part of the UAV, so many industry insiders call for the UAV (UAV) was renamed as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAS) system.
3 application of UAV
UAVs are not generated by the new GIS application, but it is lower than the existing methods of data acquisition, the cost is lower, so it can quickly expand the existing GIS application market. In other words, the same is a low altitude flight over the forest to collect data, no chance to drive a plane to a large extent save the cost of the pilot aircraft.
There is a part of the industry can be replaced with unmanned aerial vehicles: remote sensing, air monitoring, oil and gas detection, transmission line monitoring, measurement, film production, precision agriculture, terrain extraction, and the shooting image mosaic, digital image analysis and 3D terrain image analysis.
Figure 2 is a picture of the Skycatch site, is a case of the UAV to collect data.
Figure 2A real-time image monitoring map
The AKAapps team is proud to present the "4K Cat Wallpaper", the most amazing application ever created for Mobilephone, Desktop and etc wallpapers ... All wallpapers are from original 1000 pixel images.
Submitted on Sat, 5 Oct 2019 - 04:00 PM
The hashtag #royalmotorcade has soared on Twitter despite legal restrictions on criticism of the royal family as concerned citizens reported traffic problems caused by a royal motorcade. A twitter user has faced threats over their comments and an activist received a threatening message claimed to be sent by the Palace, but an official at the Bureau of Royal Household said it was unlikely to be from there.
Activist faced a threat from a sender who claimed to be from the Palace.
Tuesday 1st October saw the hashtag #ขบวนเสด็จ or #royalmotorcade trending on Twitter in Thailand as innumerable critical tweets were posted in response to a motorcade causing a traffic jam around Victory Monument, Bangkok, in the evening rush hour. It remains unknown who was being transported in the royal motorcade.
A tweet has been posed on Twitter, with 36.6K retweets, that an ambulance had to turn off its emergency siren when the royal motorcade passed by. Another reported with 46k retweets that 2 ambulances were halted.
A Twitter user also posted a similar tweet with 10.4k retweets, but the tweet is no longer accessible along with the account because of a witch hunt. A post appeared on Facebook saying that the tweet was fake news and an act of instigation. The post also revealed pictures which were claimed to be of the owner of the Twitter account. The post has been deleted.
A picture by a Twitter user showing that an ambulance was halted.
Thai Lawyers for Human Rights reported that an activist who commented on the hashtag also faced a threat from a sender who claimed to be from the Palace. The message says “Please delete all your social network accounts by tonight for your safety.” Thai Lawyers for Human Rights said the threat had no legal basis and the Palace should investigate if it was made by an imposter.
Our reporter contacted the Bureau of the Royal Household on this matter by calling the number given on the website (022243275). The person who answered said that the Bureau was not in charge of this matter and therefore was unable to give an answer, but personally believed that it was unlikely to come from the Palace because usually they have never responded to anything in this way.
In Twitter also sees a report that pedestrians were not allowed to walk to BTS Victory Monument Station. According to Thai custom, feet cannot be at any point above the head of a royal family member.
The hashtag #royalmotorcade existed earlier, but it does not go viral until Tuesday night and the afternoon of Wednesday 2nd October when the hashtag topped Thailand’s trends with 250k tweets.
Also viral was posts on social media about a news report from June of the Japanese Emperor Naruhito who stopped a royal motorcade at a side lane so that an ambulance could go first.
Bangkok is the 8th worst city in the world for traffic jams with an average congestion rate of 53% according to TomTom, a traffic data provider from the Netherlands.
ilaw, an independent organization, reported that according to the 2019 Road Traffic Act an emergency vehicle is allowed to cross any red light and park at any restricted area. Pedestrians must stop and stay at the side of the road. Other vehicles (including animals) must stop or park on the left and must not stop in an intersection.
But while an ambulance fits the legal definition of an emergency vehicle, along with fire trucks and other vehicles with sirens authorized by the Royal Thai Police, it is not clear if a royal motorcade has the same status, nor which will prevail when emergency vehicles use the same route.
In 2010, the Principal Private Secretary of the late King Bhumibol established a committee to design a protocol for royal motorcades so that they would cause the least inconvenience to people. The idea was based on the late King’s concerns expressed in 2001.
The protocol includes no enforced stoppage on frontage roads and opposite lanes. Pedestrians can also walk on overpasses as long as there are no safety concerns. BBC Thai reported Superintendent of Phayathai Police Station saying that the police still followed the protocols.
Critics of the traffic jam caused by the motorcade may risk prosecution under Section 112 of the Criminal Code, which criminalizes defamation, insult, or threats to the King, Queen, Heir-Apparent, or Regent and carries a maximum jail term of 15 years, with currently at least 25 people reportedly in jail for lèse majesté. Any such prosecution would depend on who was in the motorcade.
Section 14 of Computer Crime Act, enforced more frequently in recent years, may also apply. This carries a maximum jail term of 5 years and/or fine of 100,000 Baht for anyone who imports into a computer system data, such as tweets, that is deemed a danger to national security.
Hi friends round the world - I'm looking for 2
I'm building a banjo with tortoise shell (fake) binding. I have a picture in my mind of a blackish finish with it, but so far have been unable to come up with something that pleases me on test pieces. The samples I've made don't seem to have the depth of color I desire. Any suggestions?
Governor Quagmire sits on her you know what and is doing nothing as it appears we have a MAJOR DISASTER with November’s unemployment numbers for the State of Washington. The numbers came in at levels signaling what I have been saying for 6 months: WE ARE IN A DOUBLE DIP RECESSION IN WASHINGTON STATE. To give you a picture of this disaster, 322,700 folks were collecting unemployment insurance in November in this state and that’s up almost 6,000 from October. Total unemployment in Washington was 602,846 or 17% in November up about 12,000 from the previous month. In the Tri-county area: King 9.1% or 134,270, Snohomish 38,110 or 10% and Pierce County 36,530 or 9% of the total workforces in those counties were collecting unemployment benefits. At the national level the US Department of Labor is reporting that 577,279 folks showed up to file for NEW unemployment benefits last week up more than 52,000 in the previous week (read the unadjusted numbers at this site). As I have said many times in the past SEASONABLY ADJUSTED NUMBERS ARE NOTHING LESS THAN A MAJOR LOAD OF MALE BOVINE EXCREMENT!
John Koster’s campaign has been questioning the vote counting in Whatcom County during the last election the grape vine tells me and that does not surprise me one bit. Larsen came in with 13,500 plus votes when the polls at the time showed him down against Koster county wide, yet the almost tie vote between the two swung the election to Larsen. Hmmm?
There was a major shakeup in the Snohomish County GOP with a whole new slate of leadership during the last central committee meeting. Activist Bill Cooper has taken over from Jim Kellett as county chair, Billye Brooks-Sebastiani takes over as Vice Chair, Olga Farnam takes over as State Committee Woman and Councilman Michael Plunkett assumes the State Committee Man position at the State central committee meetings.
A major battle is shaping up between conservative Bill Rennie and former radio talk show host Kirby Wilbur to take over the State Chairmanship of the Washington State Republican Party from the very unpopular Luke Esser (who is on his way out!). If I were to bet on the race I would say that right now it is to close to call with Kirby having a slight edge. The problem for Wilbur is that the Tea Party folks and most of the conservative wing of the state GOP are supporting Bill Rennie!
Foreclosures continue to pile up and threaten to destroy Washington State’s housing market. In the month of November, according to RealtyTrac, 4,067 homes were foreclosed on statewide. That brings year to date through November: 40,722 homes foreclosed on in the State of Washington. Here is the map for the month of November. I would like to clarify that a number of the 40,000 plus homes foreclosed on so far this year have been sold, but not enough to impact the continued decline in home values in Western Washington. To make matters worse many who signed up for ARM’s (Adjustable Rate Mortgages) a few years ago will find their mortgage payments double or triple during 2011 because a huge number of these ARM’s are expiring this year at the 3,5,6, and 10 year time frames all converging on this new year. That could mean that foreclosures could skyrocket in the first and second quarters of 2011.
The State of Washington’s tax revenue took a big hit this holiday season according to my sources at the State Legislature. Not with standing these bogus reports from the worst newspaper in the state: The Washington Post owned Everett Herald, the real number of this coming budget shortfall are already being talked about at the 5 Billion dollar plus level and that does not count unfunded liabilities for State Pension funds that could total as much as 20 Billion dollars according to my sources.
Breaking news: The US Department of Labor is saying that December's U3 number (the number of people collecting unemployment benefits) dropped to 9.4%. What they did not say was the fact that the reason for the drop is because a large number of people nationally left the work force because they have given up trying to find a job; that depresses the U3 number mathematically. Even though some 100,000 jobs were added in December, most of these jobs are TEMP/contractor jobs that ended at the end of the retail Christmas season. So if you see the "brain dead" media falling all over themselves saying this is good news, you may know the truth.
During the week ending 1/8/2011 770,413 people signed up for unemployment benefits for the first time up 191,686 from the previous week; an all time record! Meaning that all of those temp retail jobs for the holidays are over and the people are out of work. The total number of people collecting unemployment benefits as of 12/25/2010 was 9,193,838 folks, an all time record.
Good designers know that a picture can be worth more than 1,000 words. It can also be worth a fair paycheck if you find the right image. That's why you might want to take advantage of these premium stock photo services, both offering access to thousands of original pics and both on deep discount this month.
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For a full-featured plan that provides graphics professionals with plenty of versatility on storage, there's the picjumbo Designer Plan. Rightly billed as the "Netflix for stock photos," picjumbo has more than 100 collections stocked with over 6,000 high-res images. There's more than 50 added each month, and you'll get three premium fonts as a bonus just for signing up. Download them as zip files or send them to Dropbox for easy retrieval.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has made its way into the lexicon, thanks in part to the brave openness of comedian Pete Davidson, who revealed on SNL's Weekend Update a couple years ago that he had been diagnosed with the disorder. But while more and more people are becoming aware of BPD, it's still widely misunderstood. Unlike anxiety or depression, which are often talked about and recognized, BPD is a mental health disorder with a much more complicated diagnostic process and a wide range of symptoms.
We spoke with mental health professionals who explained what BPD is and its symptoms. If you think you may have borderline personality disorder, be sure to visit a psychiatrist or other health professional who can properly make the diagnosis. For more information on resources and treatment, visit the New York-Presbyterian Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center or the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI).
What Is Borderline Personality Disorder?
"Borderline Personality Disorder is a mental health diagnosis that is broadly characterized by instability and inability (exaggerated changes in mood) in one's emotions, attachment to others, and sense of self," licensed clinical psychologist Giulia Suro, PhD, told POPSUGAR. "It's often difficult to pin down because there are usually at least one or two other diagnoses present," she explained, including PTSD or an anxiety disorder.
Unlike depression disorders, anxiety disorders, or bipolar disorders, which are each their own classification of disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), BPD is a personality disorder. Dr. Suro said people may not take personality disorders as seriously as other mental illnesses. "Often, [BPD] is stereotyped in a negative light and a picture is painted of a hysterical woman or vindictive girlfriend," she explained. "However, BPD is an incredibly severe mental illness."
Although people may be more familiar with depression and anxiety disorders, personality disorders - which are a separate classification in the DSM-5 - aren't as often discussed. Other personality disorders include antisocial personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.
"Borderline personality disorder involves disruptions of mood and behavior that are generally triggered by external stresses, real or misperceived," explained David M. Reiss, MD, a psychiatrist in private practice in Boston, San Diego, and New York City. People with other mental illnesses, such as depression or bipolar disorder, have moods and symptoms that are more based on brain chemistry than external triggers, he explained.
Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
Pinpointing the symptoms specific to BPD is tough since BPD is usually present with other mental illnesses, such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder. In general, people with BPD may experience intense mood swings and view things in extremes, such as all good or all bad, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Other signs and symptoms include effort to avoid physical or emotional abandonment, unstable self-image, pattern of unstable relationships with friends and family, impulsive and often dangerous behavior, chronic feelings of emptiness, difficulty trusting, and problems controlling anger.
According to the NIMH, people with BPD may become angry and stressed over seemingly ordinary events, such as minor separations from people (i.e. traveling on a business trip). "While it may take one person a long time and an extreme situation to get to a nine or 10 in terms of anger, someone with BPD may shoot up the intensity scale due to something objectively small," Dr. Suro said. Like other mental illnesses, BPD varies from person to person and no two people experience BPD the same way. Some people may only have a few symptoms while others have many.
How Borderline Personality Disorder Is Diagnosed
There is no one test to diagnose BPD and diagnosis must be done by a mental health professional after a comprehensive clinical interview. The DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing a personality disorder, and diagnosing BPD in particular, is complex. To diagnose BPD, several criteria must be met, including:
But while there are certain boxes to check for a proper diagnosis according to the DSM-5, Dr. Reiss said adhering strictly to the DSM-5 isn't always viable for treating an actual patient with BPD. "Basically, you can go by this number of symptoms or that number of symptoms or this combination, but what I'd like to say is that it's great for insurance companies, but it's lousy for diagnosing people," he explained. "When I'm really diagnosing someone, I'm looking at how they function in life." He added that the best way to diagnose a full-blown borderline personality disorder is not if the patient meets a certain number of the criteria but if the symptoms are chronically present and problematic.
"There's some people who can fall into it, but then have the ability to realize and pull themselves out and I would describe that as having borderline traits as opposed to a personality disorder," Dr. Reiss explained. "So it is a spectrum and there's no clear place where on that spectrum it becomes a disorder as opposed to traits." Overall, he evaluates each patient individually and determines a diagnosis based on how problematic his or her behavior is on the ability to function.
"The bottom line is when I'm working with someone clinically, I don't go by the diagnosis - I go by what they're presenting," he said. "So whether I make the diagnosis on paper is really dependent on what we're working with in the treatment."
Risk Factors For Borderline Personality Disorder
"The cause of BPD is multifactorial with research indicating that genetics and environmental factors both play a big role," Dr. Suro said. Although it's tough and inaccurate to pinpoint exact instances that could trigger BPD, there are some risk factors associated with the disorder. Some of these include having a family history of BPD, and brain factors; people with borderline personality disorder may have structural or functional changes in the brain that affect impulse control and emotions, according to the NIMH. There are other environmental, cultural, and social factors that impact someone's susceptibility to having BPD, such as trauma, and unstable childhood, or abandonment.
To develop BPD, Dr. Reiss explained, "you probably need some degree of biological vulnerability and some degree of external stress," he said. "But whether that's 90/10 or 50/50 in either direction really depends on the individual and the individual's underlying biochemistry and life stresses."
How Borderline Personality Disorder Is Treated
Borderline personality disorder is typically treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Dr. Reid said therapy is needed to tease out the symptoms of BPD and separate it from other coexisting disorders and is key in managing and treating BPD long-term, although which therapy and which medication to use are highly individualized from person to person.
"The best way I can put it is that you treat the person, not the diagnosis," Dr. Reiss said. To make matters more complicated, people with BPD tend to cycle through symptoms and can be more open to therapy and intervention at differing times. In fact, Dr. Reiss said he sees a lot of what he calls "polypharmacy," where patients are on a little bit of everything - antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics - as opposed to deliberately taking medication to target specific symptoms at the right times. Dr. Reiss prefers prescribing a low-level antidepressant as a "safety net" and antianxiety medication that's not a benzodiazepine (Xanax, Valium, Klonopin) since benzodiazepines can be addictive, especially for people with BPD, he said.
If the patient is experiencing mood swings or dysphoria (profound state of unease), they may be prescribed mood stabilizers, or antipsychotic medication, which may help with other symptoms of BPD. What medication you take and when you should take it should be determined by your doctor.
"The idea of using irreverence or confrontation - interventions that you wouldn't normally use in a typical therapy - is essential in dealing with borderline," he explained. "A lot of times I can engage a person on that level; a person who's pretty borderline will engage on respecting my irreverence and my willingness to just use whatever language I feel comfortable with and they feel comfortable with, which is very different from a more classical therapy."
Borderline personality disorder is still widely misunderstood, but it's nothing to be ashamed of or stigmatized. It is estimated that 1.6 percent of the US population has BPD, but that number could be as high as 5.9 percent, according to NAMI. And while it may take some trial and error to come to a proper diagnosis and seek proper treatment, help is available. People with BPD can go on to live happy, successful lives.
If you or a loved one need mental health help or treatment, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) has several resources, including a helpline at 1-800-950-6264. You can also text "NAMI" to 741741 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Everybody knows that Nikola Tesla was awesome, and that the Tesla coils are one of the coolest pieces of science out there, at least from a purely visual perspective. This patch bears a pair of Tesla coils with glow-in-the-dark lightning arcing between them on black cotton canvas.
Question: What would be the appropriate price for a butt ton of cassette tapes? (Please answer as soon as possible)?Cache
I found a metric ton of cassette tapes that I found while I was looking for a thumb drive that I, allegedly, had. My dad wanted me to pitch them, but I’ve recently started to question that choice because there are people who collect vintage stuff, and that possibly includes cassette tapes.
I want to know what would be the right price for all of the cassette tapes. Here’s a picture of some of them. The reason why I’m asking this is because I personally want to sell the cassette tapes. There’s more cassettes than this. There are cassettes in 4 suitcase like cases, and a bunch more in bookshelves.
Note: To download the mp3 file directly from this page, right click the download button and choose Save Link As… Browse to where you want to save the file and click save. Also you can subscribe to the podcast feed in your favorite RSS reader or on iTunes using the options in the sidebar. This […]
The post A Picture of Christ and The Church – Merle Burkholder appeared first on Bethel Mennonite Church.
Right now, Chinese users of WeChat, an app that includes text, video, and picture messaging plus a Facebook-style news feed (among many other features), can't message each other a meme of Winnie the Pooh. Why not? Because, being short and rotund, he supposedly evokes an unflattering comparison to President Xi Jinping. So, at the behest of the Chinese government, WeChat censors pictures of a beloved children's character in order to crack down on government criticism. Here in the U.S., if the Attorney General gets his way, Facebook and other U.S. services will be able to do the same to your private chats.
Late last week, Attorney General William Barr and the acting secretary of Homeland Security joined British and Australian officials in a letter to Facebook head Mark Zuckerberg that asked Facebook not to go forward with its plan to implement end-to-end encryption across its messaging services. The October 4 letter coincided with an event held by the Department of Justice (DOJ) that day, which featured Barr, the letter’s British and Australian co-authors, and FBI Director Christopher Wray, among others. Both the letter and the event focused on the use of online communications platforms for the transmission of child sexual abuse material (CSAM), warning that the roll-out of end-to-end encryption for messaging would risk stymying law enforcement efforts to detect, investigate, and prosecute that activity. The letter and event came hot on the heels of a New York Times article about the problem of CSAM on online platforms like Facebook. Barr’s demand may be the precursor to rumored anti-encryption legislation that might come out of the Senate Judiciary Committee soon, more than three years after the embarrassing debacle over a bill proposed by Senators Richard Burr and Dianne Feinstein (who is on that committee).
This is a significant escalation in the current Crypto Wars. The U.S. government has not gone so directly head-to-head over encryption with a specific company since its showdown with Apple in early 2016, when the government blinked first. (Well, it hasn’t done so in public, anyway.) The suddenness of this new push is alarming. Also noteworthy is that suddenly the main reason to demonize encryption is CSAM, with terrorism and other ills playing second fiddle. Even as recently as late July 2019, when Barr revived his predecessors’ habit of castigating encrypted service providers, it was drug cartels he invoked. But CSAM is the dominant focus now, suddenly and thoroughly.
It is beyond question that CSAM is a real and serious problem for Facebook (and every tech company that has ever given users the ability to upload, store, send, share, post, or otherwise communicate files). It is radioactive, it is illegal everywhere, and no legitimate company wants it on their servers. Nevertheless, this new single-minded focus on CSAM in the revived anti-encryption push feels like an exceedingly cynical move on the part of the U.S. government. Out of the Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse (terrorism, drug trafficking, CSAM, and organized crime), terrorism didn’t work to turn public opinion against encryption, so the government has switched horse(men) midstream.
It also feels like cynical exploitation of the “techlash,” as I’ve observed (a year ago, and a year before that). The techlash has made it more politically palatable to pick on tech companies -- particularly Facebook. Never mind that people distrust Facebook because of its privacy screw-ups, and so they should be glad that Facebook is adding end-to-end encryption to more of its services, because that will make Facebook less able to invade users’ privacy. It’s not important, for Barr’s purposes, that average people (or congressmembers) actually understand what Facebook’s end-to-end encryption plan will do; only that they create a mental link between encryption and crime, and another link between the problem of criminal activity on Facebook’s platform with the problem of Facebook’s own repeated privacy misdeeds, such that the privacy-related distrust commutes into distrust of the end-to-end encryption plan.
Who is the antagonist to be bested in this fight against Facebook’s effort to enhance the security and privacy of over a billion people? Not pedophiles -- or at least, not just pedophiles. The “problem” that Barr, Wray, and their counterparts are trying to solve is that of people being able to talk to each other privately without government ability to snoop on them. This was made plain in the October 4 letter. It stated, “Companies should not deliberately design their systems to preclude any form of access to content, even for preventing or investigating the most serious crimes.” All well and good so long as there’s the focus on crimes, right? But later, the letter called on Facebook “and other companies” to “[e]nable law enforcement to obtain lawful access to content in a readable and usable format.” All content should be accessible by law enforcement. To get at evidence of crime, law enforcement must be able to get access to everything. Every text, every private message, every call. Every communication you make with another person through an electronic medium like Facebook.
Of course, as is the norm in government exhortations to the tech industry, the letter doesn’t say how Facebook should go about doing that. Governments have been wary of making concrete suggestions ever since the failure of the Clipper Chip in the ‘90s. But in recent times, when they do, there’s been some change. As I wrote in a whitepaper last year, Wray and former Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein both advocated around late 2017 and early 2018 for some kind of key escrow scheme. More recently, in November of last year, GCHQ (the UK’s NSA) made what’s called the “ghost proposal” for silently adding the government as a party to encrypted conversations. This reflects an evolution: by and large, government officials now understand that if they are going to make some sort of actual suggestion (rather than stating their goal of access to plaintext and leaving it to the tech companies to figure out how to get there, as the Oct. 4 letter does), rule #1 is now “don’t touch the crypto.” If you can say “this proposal isn’t a ‘backdoor,’ it doesn’t require breaking the encryption,” then that changes the proposal’s security impact -- and most law enforcement officials presumably do sincerely want to minimize adverse impact on user security. (Most of them.) So it changes the response by information security professionals. It also changes the optics of the proposal in terms of public relations, since the public learned from the Apple vs. FBI showdown that “breaking encryption” and “backdoors” are bad news.
Enter “content moderation.” One proposal for enabling law enforcement access is to build a system where the provider (Facebook) would check content, such as a photo attached to a message, before it’s encrypted and transmitted to another user -- i.e. while the content is on the sender’s device, not traveling through the provider’s server -- to try to figure out whether that content is or might be abusive content such as CSAM. Jonathan Mayer has just published a very good short first-draft discussion paper about what content moderation for end-to-end encrypted messaging might look like. This is a technical paper. It is not a policy paper. Mayer expressly says that he is not claiming that the concepts he describes “adequately address information security risks or public policy values, such as free speech, international human rights, or economic competitiveness.”
So, allow me to state the obvious: There is no way in hell that Facebook or anyone else could introduce content moderation for end-to-end encrypted messaging without it inevitably sliding into abuse. It would start with CSAM, but it would not stop there. The predictable result is surveillance and censorship, a chill on privacy and free speech. No, client-side pre-encryption content moderation “doesn’t touch the encryption,” in keeping with snooping governments’ new rule #1 for proposals to “solve” the encryption “problem.” But that doesn’t put it in the clear (and, again, Mayer is emphatically not suggesting it does). As Jon Callas of the ACLU said in response to the GCHQ ghost proposal: this “proposal would not ‘break’ encryption, but it would nonetheless have the same effect by creating a situation in which people are no longer confident they are securely talking to their partners.”
A variant of this content moderation is already done in various contexts. Facebook already scans for attempts to upload and share CSAM on the parts of its service that are not (yet) end-to-end encrypted -- that’s the visibility that government officials are worried would go away if Facebook proceeds with its plan. Email service providers scan your email attachments against a hash database of known CSAM, as the Times article describes. Upload filters are also already in use for other purposes besides interdicting CSAM: for example, upload filters that are intended to prevent copyright-infringing material from being posted to YouTube. Upload filters have also been proposed for preventing the posting and sharing of “violent extremist” content such as the Christchurch shooting video. Indeed, as my colleague Daphne Keller explains, it appears that filtering requirements of some sort will now be the law of the land in the European Union thanks to a defamation case, though nobody knows what that filter is supposed to look like, exactly. So already, we are seeing CSAM, plus defamation, copyright infringement, and violent extremism (all concepts that are much harder to accurately spot on sight than child sex abuse), as the driving forces behind existing and government-demanded filters on people’s ability to engage in “one-to-many” speech online, through such mediums as YouTube or Facebook.
And already, “upload filters are inherently inconsistent with fundamental freedoms.” It’s a problem as-is from a fundamental-rights standpoint when filters are applied to interdict attempts to share content broadly to many people, through a channel that is not end-to-end encrypted. But it is even more troubling when the same idea is applied to flag blacklisted content (be it words or images) in a one-on-one or small-group conversation -- something we reasonably consider private. Particularly where the interlocutors are using end-to-end encryption to try to assure that their conversation is private (rather than broadcast it to the world à la YouTube). And it is especially troubling if the provider designs its messaging service so that this scanning for blacklisted content happens automatically, for every single user’s conversations, not just those users who are reasonably suspected of crime and for whom a wiretap order has been issued for their electronic communications.
I understand that the approaches Mayer describes include technical measures intended to respect the privacy of conversations as much as possible and winnow down the amount of unencrypted content that is ever actually reviewed by a human (though the potential false positive rates are very troubling given the criminal consequences). Designing privacy-enhancing technologies to deal with the trash fire that is the Internet is certainly an interesting, if depressing, research area. And I understand that ostensibly we are talking about systems that are only for CSAM, at present. But when you’re checking content against a blacklist (or fuzzily trying to predict whether content your system hasn’t seen before should be blacklisted), ultimately you are talking about a system that keeps a list of things that must not be said or shared, and that monitors and reports people if they do so.
Interdicting and reporting unencrypted content pre-transmission surely sounds like a good idea when applied to CSAM (content the recipient is unlikely to report as abusive, if the content is being sent from one pedophile to another). Or malicious attachments that could do harm if you opened them — content you the recipient might think you wanted to look at and wouldn’t report as abusive because you didn’t realize it to be abusive (until it was too late).
But we do not live in a world where that system always stays tightly confined to CSAM, or malware scanning, and doesn’t end up enabling censorship of individuals’ private personal conversations with other people over content that is not illegal or harmful. That already happens in China (which is increasingly an object of envy by U.S. law enforcement). China uses its online censorship capabilities to keep its citizens from using WeChat to talk about Winnie the Pooh or “Tiananmen Square”. An end-to-end encrypted messaging system that would do client-side scanning of content against a blacklist before it’s encrypted and report the positive hits? China would rush to fund that work, and likely already has.
The affinity for censorship is not limited to China. Here in the U.S., Hollywood, whose copyright supramaximalist views have long found favor in Congress, would be all too glad to have your private conversations filtered. Other Western democracies such as the European Union countries and New Zealand would want your end-to-end encrypted messages to be pre-scanned for “violent extremist content” and defamation. Never mind how hard it is to define “violent extremist content,” much less accurately identify it without false positives, and the fact that as a concept it covers speech that is not illegal in many countries. And the censorship demands won’t be just for images, but also for text. The recent EU court decision that Daphne discusses imposes a requirement to filter for defamatory textual phrases.
And from CSAM, copyright claims, “violent extremist content,” and defamation, the blacklist will keep expanding. Tired of getting unwanted dick pics? Fine, the nudity filters Facebook would be called upon to implement in its end-to-end encrypted messaging apps might help you in some circumstances. But don’t be surprised when they deploy their Nipple Detection Systems, which have long come under fire for censoring Facebook and Instagram posts, to intervene to keep you from sending a nude to your romantic partner over Messenger or WhatsApp.
And on and on. “Hate speech” is impossible to define, but that won’t stop the calls to censor it, so that even willing recipients can’t get it, in addition to the people who would otherwise be abused by receiving such speech. There will be demands to stop and report any user who tries to send a picture of a swastika, followed by demands to do similar for the Confederate flag. Again, China is instructive: in the latest version of iOS, the soft keyboard no longer includes the Taiwan flag for users in Hong Kong and Macau. That’s a more extreme version of not allowing the user to transmit a message containing the flag—which seems so reasonable by comparison, doesn’t it?
When a government prevents you from speaking certain things or depicting certain pictures, it’s called prior restraint and, with narrow exceptions, it is almost invariably unconstitutional. When a platform does it at the behest of government, as Facebook might do if Barr had his way, we call it “content moderation.” That anodyne phrase obscures the evil at work here: of government ordering a private third party to censor speech that is, or under any human rights-respecting regime should be, legal. Yes, CSAM is and should be illegal everywhere. No one disputes that. But it is staggeringly naive to believe that, even in the United States of America, client-side pre-encryption “content moderation” would stop at CSAM.
And lest we forget, those measures won’t catch all content they’re intended to interdict. As Mayer notes, users could still encrypt their content separately and then send it. That means pedophiles can encrypt CSAM before transmitting it — just as they can now on services that are not end-to-end encrypted. So, getting Facebook to implement client-side pre-encryption content moderation would catch the pedophiles who are bad at opsec, but as Mayer notes, the rest would adjust, evolve their techniques for evasion, and teach those strategies to each other (which, again, they do already).
Meanwhile, Hollywood would make damn sure you can’t just send someone a meme over WhatsApp unless you go to the extra effort of separately encrypting it first. Everyone’s perfectly legal speech would be burdened and chilled — because who wants to spend time separately encrypting everything? It’s easier just to not say the thing you wanted to say, to not send the picture that would be worth 1000 words, to express yourself in some other way. Some way that won’t trip up the censorship filter. Sure, you’ll find new ways, as the Chinese did by coming up with Winnie the Pooh as a stand-in for Xi. And then, as with Pooh, the filter will be updated, and you can’t say that either. So you stop saying the forbidden words or sharing the forbidden images. And then, eventually, you stop thinking them too.
If you are willing to accept Facebook (or Google, or Apple, or any other encrypted messaging service provider Bill Barr bullies into compliance) censoring all your private text conversations — and everyone else’s — because it might make it a little easier for the government to catch the most inept pedophiles, then I’m not sure I’ve got a lot else to say to you. But if this idea bothers you — if you don’t like the thought that before very long from now, you won’t be able to say what you please in private discussions over text, while pedophiles learn how to continue operating without detection — then I hope you’ll see Barr’s demand to Facebook for the grave danger it is. If so, let Facebook know. More importantly, let your congressional representatives know.
Now, this post isn’t a careful position paper like Jonathan Mayer wrote. All of the above is what is known as a “slippery slope” argument, and it’s easy to dismiss as hysterical. “Of course we would never do Y just because we are doing X,” platforms and the government would assure you. Then, once mission creep inevitably happens — which it always, always does — the official line would switch to: “Of course we would never do Z just because we are doing Y.” Slippery slope arguments might sound hysterical at the top of the slope; from the bottom, they sound premonitory.
Let’s look to China again. The highly intrusive surveillance of Uighurs in China used to be “just” for Uighurs in Xinjiang at first. Then it was “just” for them and people who visited Xinjiang, regardless of the visitors’ own religion or ethnicity. Then it was “just” for them and, oh, also Tibetans too, a totally different ethnic and religious group that China is fond of persecuting.
The ratchet of surveillance has a pronounced tendency to only go one way. End-to-end encryption is one of the best measures we have for pushing it back and maintaining our security and privacy. But while end-to-end encryption may be necessary to protect those rights, it is not sufficient, as proposals for measures like client-side pre-encryption moderation of private conversations demonstrate.
The rationale may change — national security and terrorism one day, and if that doesn’t work, child abuse the next — but the goal is the same: for governments to have the ability to eavesdrop on your every conversation, the legal power to require that all your conversations be recorded, and the authority to make private-sector providers do their bidding in the process. To have total control. And, if they really succeed, they will reach the ultimate goal: to not even need to exert that control to restrict what you say and do and hear and think — because you’ll do that yourself. You will save them, and Facebook, a lot of time.
It starts with something nobody could possibly oppose: reducing the scourge of child sex abuse. It will not end there. That is the slippery slope.
I don’t pretend to have the answer for how to fight CSAM without simultaneously opening the door to mass surveillance and censorship. I’m not sure there is one, but I appreciate the efforts of the technologists who are trying to find one, or at least to elucidate different technical approaches to different aspects of the encryption debate (such as Jonathan Mayer, who is hardly pro-surveillance). And I know that as long as I don’t have affirmative proposals of my own, just objections to others’, it makes me easy to dismiss as just another hysterical absolutist zealot. That is unfortunate, because, as some of my academic colleagues have privately observed, there is far more nuance to information security experts’ and civil libertarians’ positions in the debate than it might often appear from the outside, or than Bill Barr wants you to think there is.
That said, this is not the most nuanced of blog posts. I find everything I’ve said above to be painfully obvious. And yet I feel it will still keep needing to be said as long as the Attorney General keeps pretending this debate is only about universally-reviled conduct such as terrorism and child sex abuse. After all, he is also the same Attorney General who was chosen to be, basically, the capo to a mob boss, one who wants Barr to investigate his political opponents. The sitting Attorney General of the United States is the last person we should trust with the ability to read everyone’s messages. We cannot afford the polite fiction that the nation’s law enforcement officials, even those at the very top, are all “the good guys.”
Those who work for providers, in academia, or in civil society may be tempted to start down the slippery slope we can all see ahead of us, partially out of the commendable desire to help children, partially to show the U.S. government how “reasonable” and “adult” and “mature” we are when it comes to the encryption debate. Let me be clear: It is not reasonable for any government to demand that platforms build the ability to surveil and censor everyone’s private communications. You do not have to help brainstorm, design, build, rationalize, or excuse a system for pervasive surveillance and censorship. Technologists must design and build systems that acknowledge the uncomfortable truth: that China is much closer than we think.
Police have released a picture of two people they wish to speak with after Waitrose staff were threatened with a "big knife" during a theft.
Demonstrators were arrested in a wave of US protests that are part of a global week of action by the UK-based groupExtinction Rebellion climate crisis activists protest at New York City’s famous Charging Bull statue. Photograph: Mike Segar/ReutersMore than 20 people were arrested by police in New York City’s financial district after Extinction Rebellion climate protesters poured fake blood over the famous Charging Bull statue, a symbol of American capitalist might.The protesters launched a wave of disruptive protests in the city on Monday. A smaller number of arrests were made at a “die in” outside New York’s stock exchange, with protesters subsequently blocking a nearby road to traffic.Protests are also taking place in other US cities, including Washington DC and Chicago, as part of a global week of action by the UK-founded activist group, which is seeking to make its first major mark in America.Climate crisis activists demonstrate in New York City where Extinction Rebellion organizers expect several thousand to congregate this week. Photograph: Shannon Stapleton/ReutersExtinction Rebellion organizers expect several thousand people will congregate in New York’s Washington Square Park for a week of protests and speeches that are expected to involve actions that will prompt further arrests.“There will be broad disruption of business as usual,” said a New York-based Extinction Rebellion spokesman. “Frankly we don’t have time to wait for an opportune moment. Climate breakdown is under way and we can’t afford to wait.”Extinction Rebellion has a philosophy of nonviolent direct action aimed at pushing governments to confront the climate crisis. A key demand is that planet-warming carbon dioxide emissions are reduced to net zero within six years.A climate crisis activist covered in fake blood is arrested in New York City during the Extinction Rebellion demonstration. Photograph: Timothy A Clary/AFP via Getty ImagesThe activist network has gained a high profile in the UK, following successful attempts to shut down parts of central London. Activists are hoping for a similar impact in the US, despite concerns over a more aggressive style of policing and an unsympathetic federal government, led by Donald Trump, that actively promotes fossil fuels and is regularly derisive of climate science.“We need to account for the damage caused by fossil fuels because we have the chance of losing it all,” said Jim Navarre, a protestor from New York’s Long Island who help up a sign reading “You can’t comb over climate change” with a picture of Trump’s hair atop the globe.Climate crisis activists gather in Battery Park during Extinction Rebellion demonstrations in New York. Photograph: Timothy A Clary/AFP via Getty ImagesYana Landowne, also from New York, said she was inspired to join the protests by British friends. “I see this as a movement I need to get behind, I realized I had to bring my whole being to this movement,” she said.The stock exchange protest featured a mock funeral with people strewn on the ground, covered in blood. Tombstones mentioning hurricanes and fires made worse by the climate crisis were held aloft, along with a coffin with the words “Our future” written on the side. A New Orleans-style funereal band played for the several hundred protestors.“It’s a powerful message,” Landowne said. “But more than death I fear living amongst the terror of people killing each other for water and food.”
A newly planted butterfly garden at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge was aflutter with butterflies last Saturday.
A Common Buckeye posed nicely for me on an Indian Blanket flower, which happens to be one of its host plants.
Host plants are important in attracting butterflies to your garden. Each variety of butterfly has specific types of plants that it will lay its eggs on. That plant then become food for the caterpillars when the eggs hatch.
The Cowpen Daisy, also known as Golden Crownbeard, was the most popular flower in this garden. It was attracting dozens of Palamedes Swallowtails as well as other butterflies and pollinators. Based on what I saw, this is a flower that I should add to my own garden.
I'd love to attract the Palamedes Swallowtail to our garden, though I've never seen any in our area. Perhaps we are out of its range, however it wouldn't hurt to try by planting one of its hosts, Sweet Bay, which is also a host plant of the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail which we see frequently.
Also attracted to Cowpen Daisy for its nectar was a small butterfly which I think is called Horace's Duskywing. Oaks are its host plants.
This butterfly was a little bit faded and missing the tip of one of its forewings, but it was still going strong. I've observed butterflies far more tattered than this one maneuvering in flight like they were newly emerged from the chrysalis. I've learned that butterflies are tougher than they look.
Soon we began to notice clusters of caterpillars on the Cowpen Daisies. A plant that is a great source of nectar and a caterpillar host is a bonus in any butterfly garden. I'm definitely planting this flower as soon as I can locate a source.
We later identified the caterpillars as the larva of the Bordered Patch butterfly. I wish I would have been able to get a picture of one. There were probably some around, judging from all the caterpillars we saw.
The butterfly garden at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge was just planted this year in April, but it's off to a great start.