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Tuesday, March 31, 2020 — DT 29153   

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Puzzle at a Glance
Puzzle Number in The Daily Telegraph
DT 29153
Publication Date in The Daily Telegraph
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Setter
Jay (Jeremy Mutch)
Link to Full Review
Big Dave's Crossword Blog [DT 29153]
Big Dave's Crossword Blog Review Written By
2Kiwis
BD Rating
Difficulty - ★★★ Enjoyment - ★★★★
Falcon's Experience
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███████████████████████████████████
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┘
Legend:
- solved without assistance
- incorrect prior to use of puzzle solving tools
- solved with assistance from puzzle solving tools
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by puzzle solving tools
- solved but without fully parsing the clue
- unsolved or incorrect prior to visiting Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by solutions from Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- reviewed by Falcon for Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- yet to be solved

Introduction

The solutions to a couple of clues in this puzzle (18a, 16d) prompted considerable discussion on Big Dave's Crossword Blog.

I invite you to leave a comment to let us know how you fared with the puzzle.

Notes on Today's Puzzle

This commentary is intended to serve as a supplement to the review of this puzzle found at Big Dave's Crossword Blog, to which a link is provided in the table above.

Symbols and Markup Conventions
  • "*" - anagram
  • "~" - sounds like
  • "<" - indicates the preceding letters are reversed
  • "( )" - encloses contained letters
  • "_" - replaces letters that have been deleted
  • "†" - indicates that the word is present in the clue
  • "solid underline" - precise definition
  • "dotted underline" - cryptic definition
  • "dashed underline" - wordplay
  • "double underline" - both wordplay and definition
Click here for further explanation and usage examples of the symbols and markup conventions used on this blog.

Across

1a   Carry // drink left on board (7)

"drink" = SUP (show explanation )

As a verb, sup[5] is a dated or Northern English term meaning to take (drink or liquid food) by sips or spoonfuls ⇒ (i) she supped up her soup delightedly; (ii) he was supping straight from the bottle.

As a noun, sup[5] means
  • a sip of liquid ⇒ he took another sup of wine
  • (in Northern England or Ireland) an alcoholic drink ⇒ the latest sup from those blokes at the brewery
hide explanation

5a   Group importing revolutionary rum // fold (7)

Rum[5] is used in a dated informal British sense meaning odd or peculiar ⇒ it’s a rum business, certainly.

9a   Language // rejected by cryptographer (5)

10a   International relations // destabilising Olympic day endlessly (9)

11a  Cycling Leeds roads will make you this! (6-4)

Leeds[5] is an industrial city in West Yorkshire, northern England. It developed as a wool town in the Middle Ages, becoming a centre of the clothing trade in the Industrial Revolution.

A Note on Markup Notation
Today, I am introducing a small adjustment in markup notation. You will notice that a portion of the clue above has a double underline. This indicates that that portion of the clue plays two roles — in this case, serving as both the wordplay as well as being part of the definition.

The clue is a semi-all-in-one clue in which the entire clue is the definition (which I have marked as a cryptic definition as it certainly does not seem to be a precise definition) in which we find embedded wordplay. The markup is intended to show that the dotted underline is considered to extend under the entire clue while the portion of the clue marked by the double underline also plays a second role, in this case as wordplay.

Over the years, I have played around with different ways to mark such a clue. Most recently, I had come up with a way to explicitly place a dotted line under the entire clue and a separate dashed line under the portion of the clue providing the wordplay. However, this was not only very time-consuming to apply, but it did not necessarily display properly on all browsers and/or all devices. The new method — while perhaps not as intuitive as the old method — should address both of these issues. It is both easy to apply and relies on standard HTML markup functions.

Click here for a fuller explanation of the symbols and markup conventions used on this blog. This article has recently been revised to incorporate the change described here.

12a   Run off // a quantity of cloth (4)

14a   Establishment // play for time beset by independent people (12)

"Independent" = I (show explanation )

I[1] is the abbreviation for independent, in all likelihood in the sense of a politician with no party affiliation.

hide explanation

18a   Hears about policeman arresting Republican // tenant farmer (12)

"Republican" = R (show explanation )

A Republican[5] (abbreviation R[5] or Rep.[5])  is a member or supporter of the Republican Party[5], one of the two main US political parties*, favouring a right-wing stance, limited central government, and tough, interventionist foreign policy. It was formed in 1854 in support of the anti-slavery movement preceding the Civil War.

* the other being the Democratic Party

In the UK, republican[5] can refer to an advocate of a united Ireland but the abbreviation does not seem to apply to that usage.

hide

Here and but not There
As can be seen from the comments on Big Dave's Crossword Blog, the North American term that is the solution to this clue was a mystery to a good number of Brits.

Sharecropper[10] is a mainly US term for a farmer, especially a tenant farmer, who pays over a proportion of a crop or crops as rent.

21a   Go out /and/ send back couple carrying cross (4)

22a   Instigator /of/ heavy metal in bell (10)

25a   Working dog getting hold of bird // without delay (2,3,4)

On the nail[10] [a British expression, it would seem, based on the dictionaries in which it is found]  means (with respect to payments) at once (especially in the phrase pay on the nail).

Delving Deeper
Four bronze tables — called nails[7] — are located outside The Exchange in Bristol, England. These were probably modelled after mobile tables which were taken to trade fairs and markets. The bronze nails, with their flat tops and raised edges which prevent coins from tumbling onto the pavement*, were made as convenient tables at which merchants could carry out their business. The oldest of the four is undated but believed to be from late Elizabethan times while the newest is dated 1631.

Deals could be closed by payment on the nails—the popularly supposed origin of the saying "pay on the nail" or "cash on the nail". However, this origin of the term is disputed.

* 'Pavement'[5] is the British term for sidewalk, a raised paved [covered with paving stones] or asphalted path for pedestrians at the side of a road. North American pedestrians visiting the UK may well be surprised to be admonished to "Keep to the pavement"!

26a   Area in shade /will be/ soil (5)

27a   Ridicules // date disheartened with fairground attractions (7)

28a   Full of regret about church // magic (7)

"church" = CE [Church of England] (show reference )

The Church of England[10] (abbreviation CE[10]) is the reformed established state Church in England, Catholic in order and basic doctrine, with the Sovereign as its temporal head.

hide

Down

1d   Poles initially expecting /to be/ thin on the ground (6)

2d   Ornamental building /needing/ a party space set up (6)

"party" = DO (show more )

Do[5,12] is an informal British[5] or chiefly British[12] term* for a party or other social event the soccer club Christmas do.

* although Webster’s New World College Dictionary[12] supports the contention by Oxford Dictionaries Online[5] that this usage is British, two other US dictionaries do not characterize do[3,11] used in this sense as a British term

hide

3d   Got the better of // untalked-of criminal (10)

4d   ID subsumed by rising group // trends (5)

5d   Article in office // journal cut (5,4)

6d   Decline // work under medical professional (4)

"work" = OP (show explanation )

In music, an opus[5] (Latin 'work', plural opuses or opera) is a separate composition or set of compositions.

The abbreviation Op.[5] (also op.), denoting opus, is used before a number given to each work of a particular composer, usually indicating the order of publication. The plural form of Op. is Opp..

Opus[5] can also be used in other contexts to denote an artistic work, especially one on a large scale ⇒ he was writing an opus on Mexico.

hide

7d   Speaker has one old // piece set to music (8)

8d   Islands with shade -- /that's/ the central point (8)

13d  A person who's followed /could be/ quiet and expert compiler of crosswords (10)

"quiet" = P [music notation] (show reference )

Piano[3,5] (abbreviation p[5]), is a musical direction meaning either (as an adjective) soft or quiet or (as an adverb) softly or quietly.

hide

15d   Ends // trials with men undergoing a change (9)

16d   Help around new store, // like a star (8)

This solution to this clue generated a bit of consternation on Big Dave's Crossword Blog,. However, as an adjective, asteroid[10] means shaped like a star.

17d   Jesting about one's // 1 Across on flight (8)

The numeral and directional indicator "1 Across" is a cross reference indicator to clue 1a (show more ).

To complete the clue, a solver must replace the cross reference indicator with the solution to the clue starting in the light* identified by the cross reference indicator.

As is the case today, the cross reference indicator may include a directional indicator but this is customarily done only in situations where there are both Across and Down clues originating in the light that is being referenced.

* light-coloured cell in the grid

hide

19d   Recommendation /of/ a daughter on immorality? (6)

"daughter" = D [genealogy] (show reference )

In genealogies, d[5] is the abbreviation for daughter Henry m. Georgina 1957, 1s 2d*.

* Henry married Georgina in 1957. Their marriage produced 1 son and 2 daughters.

hide

20d   Rather // narrow-minded about head of religion (6)

23d   Talk about Liberal repeatedly // causes annoyance (5)

Gas[3] is used in the informal sense of (noun) idle or boastful talk or (verb) to talk excessively.

"Liberal" = L (show more )

The Liberal Party[5] (abbreviation Lib.[5] or L[2])* in Britain emerged in the 1860s from the old Whig Party and until the First World War was one of the two major parties in Britain. In 1988 the party regrouped with elements of the Social Democratic Party to form the Social and Liberal Democrats, now known as the Liberal Democrats.

However, a small Liberal Party still exists (founded in 1989 by members of the original Liberal Party opposed to its merger with the Social Democratic Party) although it has no representation in the UK Parliament, no Members of the European Parliament (MEP), no members of the Scottish Parliament, nor any members of the National Assembly for Wales. Today, the party holds only a handful of seats at the local government level.[7]

* Although Lib.[5] may be the more common abbreviation for the Liberal Party in Britain — likely to distinguish it from the the Labour Party[5] (abbreviation Lab.[5]) — Chambers 21st Century Dictionary indicates that L[2] may also be used.

show less

24d   Pay attention to // river rising below hospital (4)

The Dee[5,7] could be any of several rivers in Scotland and England not to mention Ireland and Australia the most prominent being:
  • a river in northeastern Scotland, which rises in the Grampian Mountains and flows eastwards past Balmoral Castle to the North Sea at Aberdeen
  • a river that rises in North Wales and flows past Chester and on into the Irish Sea
Key to Reference Sources: 

[1]   - The Chambers Dictionary, 11th Edition
[2]   - Search Chambers - (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary)
[3]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (American Heritage Dictionary)
[4]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[5]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Dictionary of English)
[6]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Advanced American Dictionary)
[7]   - Wikipedia
[8]   - Reverso Online Dictionary (Collins French-English Dictionary)
[9]   - Infoplease (Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
[10] - CollinsDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[11] - TheFreeDictionary.com (Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary)
[12] - CollinsDictionary.com (Webster’s New World College Dictionary)
[13] - MacmillanDictionary.com (Macmillan Dictionary)
[14] - CollinsDictionary.com (COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary)
Signing off for today — Falcon

          

Monday, March 30, 2020 — DT 29052 (Published Saturday, March 28, 2020)   

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Puzzle at a Glance
Puzzle Number in The Daily Telegraph
DT 29152
Publication Date in The Daily Telegraph
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Setter
Chris Lancaster (Telegraph Puzzles Editor)
Link to Full Review
Big Dave's Crossword Blog [DT 29152]
Big Dave's Crossword Blog Review Written By
Mr K
BD Rating
Difficulty - ★★★ Enjoyment - ★★★★
Falcon's Experience
┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┐
███████████████████████████████████
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┘
Legend:
- solved without assistance
- incorrect prior to use of puzzle solving tools
- solved with assistance from puzzle solving tools
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by puzzle solving tools
- solved but without fully parsing the clue
- unsolved or incorrect prior to visiting Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by solutions from Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- reviewed by Falcon for Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- yet to be solved
Notes
This puzzle appears on the Monday Diversions page in the Saturday, March 28, 2020 edition of the National Post.

Introduction

After an absence of several months, I have decided to return to weekday blogging duties today. I can't guarantee that I will be able to produce a blog every day — they may be somewhat hit and miss. However, we will see how things work out.

I spent much of the hiatus in hospital and the past several weeks convalescing at home (which will continue for some as yet undetermined period of time). As a result, life under the COVID-19 social isolation regime is little changed from what I was already experiencing.

I invite you to leave a comment to let us know how you fared with the puzzle.

Notes on Today's Puzzle

This commentary is intended to serve as a supplement to the review of this puzzle found at Big Dave's Crossword Blog, to which a link is provided in the table above.

Click here for an explanation of symbols and markup conventions used in explaining the parsing of clues.

Across

1 Threaten // close friend hiding papers (10)

6a   Counterfoil // that’s difficult to remove? Not half (4)

9a   Rush to capture northern // pirate (5)

Captain Flint[7] is a fictional 18th-century pirate captain created by the Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894). Flint first appears in the classic adventure yarn Treasure Island, which was first serialised in a children's magazine in 1881, and later published as a novel in 1883.

10a   Policeman circling about in court’s // grounds (9)

PC[5] is a British designation for a police constable PC Bartholomew made his report.

12a   Cherish floating voter // that was collected by 9? (8-5)

Scratching the Surface
Floating voter[5] is a British term for a person who has not decided which way to vote in an election, or one who does not consistently vote for the same political party ⇒ the party leader stepped up his efforts to appeal to floating voters.

14a   Changes to plan // visibly embarrassed crowds (8)

15a   Rep condemned great // post-war building (6)

The earliest account of a prefab building[7] (1160 to 1170) would appear to be a castle transported by Normans in 'kit' form and erected overnight (including digging a moat around it). In the United States, several companies including Sears Catalog Homes began offering mail-order kit homes between 1902 and 1910. This innovation in construction seems to have taken off in the UK after the Second World War, with more than 156,000 prefabricated homes being built between 1945 and 1948.

17a   No d-drink? // Drink! (6)

A noggin[10] is a small quantity of spirits, usually 1 gill (one quarter of a pint).

19a   Happy // church always not quite crowded (8)

21a   Hurry /in/ rain, perhaps (13)

Precipitation[5] is an archaic term denoting the fact or quality of acting suddenly and rashly ⇒ Cora was already regretting her precipitation.

24a   A boy harbours criminal since // uprising (9)

25a   Abuse when one pulls out /in/ traffic (5)

26a   Hiker tired somewhat over // long journey (4)

27a   Moving anecdotes about beginning to love // one’s young (10)

In the definition, the 's (which denotes possession in the surface reading) transforms into a contraction for the verb 'is'.

Down

1 Bar opponent reportedly /getting/ data (4)

2d   Contaminated // meat ain’t edible? Just slice away outside bits! (7)

3d   Ham can imitate cast /in/ summer (13)

As an anagram indicator, cast[5] is used in the sense of to shape (metal or other material) by pouring it into a mould while molten ⇒ when hammered or cast, bronze could be made into tools.



A summer[1] is someone or something that does sums*, a sum[5] being an arithmetical problem, especially at an elementary level ⇒ (i) we did sums at school, Mummy; (ii) You saw crates of certain sizes, and then you would do your sums and then do your deductions from that.

* I had supposed this sense of the word to be a whimsical invention of the setter, but it is found in The Chambers Dictionary as a noun corresponding to the verb sum.

4d   Journalist brought up advances /for/ banks (8)

5d   Thrive, strangely, having lost five // of them (5)

7d   Credit cancelled /for/ carpet (4,3)

Tick[5] (used in the phrase on tick) is an informal British term meaning credit ⇒ the printer agreed to send the brochures out on tick.

Origin: The term apparently originates as a short form for ticket in the phrase on the ticket, referring to an IOU or promise to pay.



Carpet[5] is British* slang meaning to reprimand severely the Chancellor of the Exchequer carpeted the bank bosses.

* Although we do not use this expression in North America, we certainly use the possibly related expression to be called on the carpet[5].


Here and There
Across the pond, the term "tick off" has quite a different meaning than it does in North America. Whereas, here, to tick someone off[5] means to make someone annoyed or angry ⇒ Jefferson was a little ticked off, but he’ll come around, in Britain it means to reprimand or rebuke someone ⇒ (i) he was ticked off by Angela; (ii) he got a ticking off from the magistrate.

8d   Relax, then film dance /and/ game (10)

"film = ET (show explanation )

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial[7] (often referred to simply as E.T.) is a 1982 American science fiction film co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg. It tells the story of a lonely boy who befriends an extraterrestrial, dubbed "E.T.", who is stranded on Earth. He and his siblings help the extraterrestrial return home while attempting to keep it hidden from their mother and the government.

hide

11d   Trainees timed changing // tyres (13)

Tyre[5] is the British spelling of tire (in the sense of an automobile component).

 An intermediate[1] is a racing-car tyre with a tread between that on a slick and that on a wet tyre.

13d  Change of heart? (10)

16d   Change // disrupted her plans (8)

Shrapnel[1,5,10] is an informal British term for loose change or small change ⇒ little more than a few pounds [British currency] and a handful of shrapnel.

18d   Delight when officer enters // valley (7)

Unfortunately, the numeration would appear to be incorrect for the name of the valley. Glen Coe[7] is a glen (valley) in the Lochaber area of the Scottish Highlands, while Glencoe[7] is the main settlement in the glen. The glen is the site of the Massacre of Glencoe[5], a massacre in 1692 of members of the Jacobite MacDonald clan by Campbell soldiers, which took place near Glencoe.

20d   Blast // food for supporters? (7)

A double definition with the second being whimsical.

22d   Long story /in/ Independent upset Irish parliament (5)

"Independent" = I (show explanation )

I[1] is the abbreviation for independent, in all likelihood in the sense of a politician with no party affiliation.

hide explanation

The Dáil[5] (in full Dáil Éireann) is the lower house of Parliament in the Republic of Ireland, composed of 166 members (called Teachtai Dála). It was first established in 1919, when Irish republicans proclaimed an Irish state.



The Iliad[5] is a Greek hexameter epic poem in twenty-four books, traditionally ascribed to Homer, telling how Achilles killed Hector at the climax of the Trojan War.

Scratching the Surface
The Independent [7] (nicknamed the Indy) is a British online newspaper. (show more )

Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010. It began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003. The last printed edition of The Independent was published in March 2016, leaving only its digital editions.

hide

23d   Overcome // famous footballer (4)

George Best[5] (1946–2005) was a Northern Irish footballer [soccer player]. A winger for Manchester United, he was named European Footballer of the Year in 1968.
Key to Reference Sources: 

[1]   - The Chambers Dictionary, 11th Edition
[2]   - Search Chambers - (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary)
[3]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (American Heritage Dictionary)
[4]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[5]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Dictionary of English)
[6]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Advanced American Dictionary)
[7]   - Wikipedia
[8]   - Reverso Online Dictionary (Collins French-English Dictionary)
[9]   - Infoplease (Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
[10] - CollinsDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[11] - TheFreeDictionary.com (Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary)
[12] - CollinsDictionary.com (Webster’s New World College Dictionary)
[13] - MacmillanDictionary.com (Macmillan Dictionary)
[14] - CollinsDictionary.com (COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary)
Signing off for today — Falcon

          

Lead Veterinarian/ Medical Director Oxford PA | Community Veterinary Partners   

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Oxford, Pennsylvania, Candidates should meet the following qualifications: DVM or VMD in the state of Pennsylvania 2+ years leadership experience preferred Strong communications skills, with both the clients and st
          

[원서] Tugendhat, Michael - Liberty intact human rights in English law-Oxford University Press (2017)   

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Download : Tugendhat Michael Liberty intact human rights in English law Oxford University Press (2017).pdf




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[원서] Tugendhat, Michael - Liberty intact human rights in English law-Oxford University Press (2017)
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[원서] Tugendhat, Michael - Liberty intact human rights in English law-Oxford University Press (2017) , [원서] Tugendhat, Michael - Liberty intact human rights in English law-Oxford University Press (2017)기타솔루션 , 솔루션
[원서] Tugendhat, Michael - Liberty intact human rights in English law-Oxford University Press (2017)

다.
          

[원서] Joel Feinberg - Problems at the Roots of Law Essays in Legal and Political Theory (2002)   

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Download : Joel Feinberg Problems at the Roots of Law Essays in Legal and Political Theory (2002).pdf






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[원서] Joel Feinberg - Problems at the Roots of Law Essays in Legal and Political Theory (2002)

[원서] Joel Feinberg - Problems at the Roots of Law Essays in Legal and Political Theory (2002)






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순서





癤 Problems at the Roots of Law

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Problems at the Roots of Law

Essays in Trial and Political Theory

Joel Feinberg
2003

198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford It furthers the University`s objective of excellence in research, scholarship,
and education by publishing worldwide i

癤 Problems at the Roots of Law

This page intentionally left blank

Problems at the Roots of Law

Essays in Trial and Political Theory

Joel Feinberg
2003

198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10xxx
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford…(drop)
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다.
          

2020 Water Scholarship At Cranfield University - UK   

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The Cranfield Water Science Institute is, in collaboration with the International Water Association (IWA), offering 15 full-fee scholarships across our MSc courses in Water & Wastewater Engineering, Water & Sanitation for Development and Advanced Water Management. 
The scholarships will be awarded on a competitive basis and you can apply only once you have been offered a place on one of the three eligible courses. Successful applicants will have a strong academic or work experience record and will be effective communicators.
Application Deadline: 30th April 2020
Eligible Countries: International
To Be Taken At (Country): Cranfield University, UK
Type: Masters
Eligible Fields of Study: 
  • Water and Sanitation for Development MSc
  • Advanced Water Management MSc
  • Water and Wastewater Engineering MSc
Number of Awards: 15
Value of Award: Full tuition fees for those studying a full-time master’s course in water.
Duration of Program: 1 Year
Eligibility: Interested applicants must be applying to study full-time on an eligible master’s course and hold a relevant first class or 2:1 honours degree, or demonstrate significant practical experience and achievements in water or an aligned sector.
Application Process: 
  • Please complete the online application form.
  • Once you have your six-digit Cranfield application number use the link below to submit your scholarship application.
  • APPLY NOW
  • You must complete the online application form and upload a short written submission (500 words) on one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Please explain in your submission how you think this SDG is best delivered and what new tools, technologies or innovative interventions are available to deliver it.​​​​​​​

Visit The Scholarship Webpage For More Information

          

Eni-Oxford Africa Scholarship – UK 2020   

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Applications are currently invited for the Eni-Oxford Africa Scholarship which will be awarded to African who are interested in pursuing their studies at University of Oxford – UK. The School’s aim is to help businesses grasp the opportunities of Africa’s favourable demographics by supporting the education of talented African students. These students are able to make valuable pan-African and international connections while at Oxford.
Application Deadline: Ongoing
Eligible Countries: Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, South Africa and Tunisia.
Type: MBA
Number of Awards: 2
Value of Award: The Eni-Oxford Africa Scholarship will cover MBA course fees, a living expenses stipend and one return air fare. Two places will be available for the 2020-21 academic year, and the remaining eight places will be opened in subsequent years.
Eligibility: To be eligible, applicants must;
  • be citizens of the above mentioned countries
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Hegel's Aesthetics: The Art of Idealism   

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Philosophy News image
2020.03.25 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Lydia L. Moland, Hegel's Aesthetics: The Art of Idealism, Oxford University Press, 2019, 333pp., $74.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780190847326. Reviewed by William Desmond, Villanova University This very welcome book opens with the reminder that Hegel has been credited with being both the father of art history and the prophet of art's end. The first claim has ensured Hegel's place in art history as a discipline; the second controversial claim has guaranteed the longevity of Hegel's philosophy of art within the field of aesthetics. The combination of these two considerations constitutes a double irony, itself contributing to claim and counterclaim in the interpretation of the significance of Hegel's aesthetics. It has also meant that both analytic and continental philosophers, as well as art theorists, have continued to engage diversely with Hegel's philosophy of art. In all of this, no shared understanding has emerged concerning what Hegel means by the... Read More

Continue reading . . .

News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News


          

[WATCH] Rapid Covid-19 test in the works   

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Researchers at Oxford University are waiting to get clinical validation for a 30 minutes coronavirus test they developed in their laboratory. They hope that, “in a matter of weeks”, hundreds of thousands of tests will be produced by manufacturers. – April 1, 2020.


          

Minimus has never been so popular   

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There's no tower bell ringing at the moment, and handbell ringing is almost entirely limited to people who have a band living in the same house (apart from some experiments with remote online ringing). The Pipes have rung a peal of Stedman Triples, and the Perrinses have rung one of spliced surprise major, but most of the performances on BellBoard these days are minimus.

What can you ring on four? There are 11 plain minimus methods whose plain course is an extent of 24 changes. Instead of showing lines, I will give links to CompLib. The methods are Plain Bob, Reverse Bob, Double Bob, Canterbury, Reverse Canterbury, Double Canterbury, St Nicholas, Reverse St Nicholas, Single Court, Reverse Court and Double Court. (I'm not absolutely sure of my ground here, but I seem to remember that 11 is the magic number).

A surprising number of minimus methods have been rung and named, but I will focus on some traditional well-known four-bell versions of standard methods.

Kent Treble Bob and Oxford Treble Bob each have a plain course of 48 changes, which contains every change twice. The methods are recognisable from their familiar structure, and Oxford turns out to be a double method.

Another old favourite is Bristol Minimus, which now seems to be called Demi-Bristol Alliance. This is based on three bobbed leads of Bristol Major, in which 2, 3 and 4 all stay in the front 4 places. The treble, after dodging 3-4 up, takes the place of 5th place bell on the front, until the half lead; after that it takes the place of 6th place bell. The plain course is 96 changes but it doesn't contain every change 4 times, because the treble doesn't ring the same number of times in each place. An unnamed method with a similar structure extended to have double symmetry is this one. The plain course is 144 changes, containing each change 6 times.

The idea of taking a method in which 2, 3 and 4 stay in the front four places, and using the treble to fill in the work of other bells, can be applied to other methods than Bristol. Norwich Alliance is based on Norwich Surprise Minor. Warkworth Alliance is based on Warkworth Surprise Minor. This unnamed one is a bit like Bourne Surprise Minor.

Some other surprise major methods can be treated in this way. Here's one based on Rutland, in which the treble takes over the work of 7th place bell. 


          

Finance Manager   

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University of Oxford - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics<br />Salary: £32,817 to £40,322 p.a., Grade 7
          

Sigrid (19) er Au-pair i Oxford: - Mange har reist hjem   

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Sigrid Svendsrud jobber som Au-pair for en småbarnsfamilie i England. Hun har valgt å bli igjen i landet til tross for at koronaviruset allerede har tatt mange menneskeliv. RØYKEN/ENGLAND: 19 år gamle Sigrid Svendsrud har jobbet i den engelske byen Oxford siden i fjor sommer. Hun bor sammen med en småbarnsfamilie som trenger ekstra hjelp i hverdagen. Nå som myndighetene i landet har innført strenge tiltak for å hindre spredningen av Covid 19, er de mange mennesker under samme tak til enhver tid. \- Det å bo med en annen familie i en slik periode er litt merkelig. Før jeg kom hit hadde jeg bare møtt de over nett. Men de trenger meg nå mer enn noen gang, da skolene er stengt, forteller Svendsrud, som i utgangspunktet skal oppholde seg i Oxford fram til juli. Svendsrud bor i en enebolig sammen med en familie på fem. Hennes ansvarsoppgaver er å passe barn og lage mat. Til sammen er de nå seks personer i husstanden, da foreldrene jobber hjemmefra og skolen er stengt. Risikabelt å reise hjem 19-åringen flyttet til England på egen hånd, men har blitt kjent med andre som også arbeider som Au pairer. Hun er en av de få som har valgt å ikke returnere til hjemlandet. \- Om jeg hadde dratt hjem nå så måtte jeg avsluttet oppholdet mitt her helt, og det er jeg ikke klar for med tanke på at jeg fortsatt har fire måneder igjen. I tillegg anser jeg det som ganske risikabelt å reise med fly og vil ikke risikere å dra med meg noe hjem til familien min. De fleste jeg har blitt kjent med her nede har imidlertid valgt å dra tilbake til sine hjemland. Så langt er over 20.000 mennesker smittet av viruset i England. England var blant landene som var senest ute med å innføre tiltak for å hindre spredning av Covid 19. Det gjorde at Svendsrud tok egne forholdsregler. \- Jeg har forholdt meg til myndighetene i Norge, bare for å være på den sikre siden. Tiltakene kom sent i gang her. Men nå er retningslinjene relativt strenge og jeg føler meg ikke lenger komfortabel med å gå i byen for eksempel, forteller hun. Ensomt Tiltakene i England ble satt i gang for en drøy uke siden. Blant annet er det kun apotek og matbutikker som holder åpent. I tillegg er det forbud mot å samle mer enn to personer, som ikke bor i samme husstand. \- Jeg tror det kommer til å bli vanskeligere etter hvert, siden det har bare gått en uke siden myndighetene kom med de strenge reglene. Det kan til tider bli litt ensomt her nede, men jeg vet hvor mye familien jeg er hos trenger meg. De hjemme i Norge er også veldig støttende med tanke på at jeg har bestemt meg for å bli værende her nede. Når du sier at ting kommer til å bli vanskeligere, hva legger du i det? \- Jeg tror reglene kanskje blir enda strengere i tiden som kommer. Det blir nok vanskelig å være sosial og å i det hele tatt være utendørs. Image info: I ENGLAND: Sigrid Svendsrud jobber som Au-Pair i byen Oxford. Hun har valgt å forbli i landet til tross for koronaviruset. I England er nærmere 20.000 mennesker smittet av Covid 19.
          

Fulle oljelagre etter coronakrisen kan dempe oljeprisen i lang tid   

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\- Da vil det kunne hjelpe å holde tilbake på produksjon, sier Bjørnar Tonhaugen i Rystad Energy. Sjelden har verden sett så dramatiske bortfall av økonomisk aktivitet og oljeetterspørsel som etter coronakrisen. Globale oljelagre er nå i ferd med å fylles til randen. Det kan legge en demper på oljeprisen i lang tid, også etter coronakrisen, tror Rystad Energy. De mener at en global kuttavtale kan bidra til raskere oppgang. Uvanlige tider krever uvanlige tiltak, påpeker leder for markeder Bjørnar Tonhaugen i Rystad Energy. \- Når etterspørselen etter hvert tar seg opp igjen, da er det svært mye olje på lager, sier han til E24. \- Da vil det kunne hjelpe å holde tilbake på produksjon for å fremskynde gjenopphentingen, og da kan en eventuell global avtale om oljekutt hjelpe, legger han til. Skylder på fallende etterspørsel Inntil videre vil oljeprisen trolig holde seg svært lav, fordi etterspørselen rammes kraftig av at fly står på bakken og store deler av næringslivet ligger brakk. Saudi-Arabia og Russland er fortsatt i en priskrig og har lovet å øke sin produksjon, men det er ikke den største utfordringen. Oljeprisen vil fortsette å rammes av det dramatiske fallet i etterspørsel, tror Tonhaugen. \- Vi snakker nå om at karantenebestemmelsene i store deler av verden kan få oljeetterspørselen på 100 millioner fat per dag til å bli redusert med opptil 20 millioner fat per dag, mens Russland og Saudi-Arabia har snakket om å øke produksjonen med to millioner fat per dag, sier han. \- Så den skyldige part i at oljemarkedet vil gå på den største kollapsen noensinne er i stor grad bortfall av etterspørsel, legger han til. \- Kan bli relevant Tonhaugen påpeker at det ikke er noen som har tatt til orde for noen global kuttavtale ennå, og at det ikke er noe som ligger i kortene. Men slike avtaler har vært inngått tidligere, i perioder når oljeprisen har vært nede mellom 10 og 20 dollar fatet. Oljeprisen var mandag nede i 21 dollar fatet, men steg til 27 dollar fatet tirsdag. \- Dette er ting som kan bli relevant på ett eller annet tidspunkt. «Ingen» er tjent med en så stor priskollaps i oljeindustrien som det vi ser nå, og hverken Russland eller Saudi ønsker det, sier Tonhaugen. \- Selskaper kan gå konkurs Hvis forbruket faller til ned mot null i alle de landene som nå har satt i gang tiltak mot coronaviruset, vil det kunne gi et bortfall i etterspørsel på 36 millioner fat per dag, opplyser Rystad Energy. Inntil videre regner selskapet med at bortfallet blir på 20 millioner fat per dag. Skulle oljeprisen fortsette nedover i takt med bortfallet av etterspørsel, vil det kunne forsterke den dramatiske smellen for oljebransjen, tror Rystad Energy. Blir det mange konkurser, kan det bli dyrt å rydde opp igjen og øke kapasiteten i næringen når etterspørselen etter hvert begynner å stige igjen. \- Produksjon kan bli stengt ned og aldri bli startet opp igjen, og selskaper kan gå konkurs. Og det kan skape ustabile oljepriser senere, sier Tonhaugen. Diskuterer produksjonsstans i USA Også produksjon på norsk sokkel kan rammes hvis oljeprisen faller til under 20 dollar fatet, noe Rystad tror kan skje i april. Så langt fortsetter Russland og Saudi-Arabia priskrigen. USAs president Donald Trump snakket mandag med Russlands president Vladimir Putin om oljemarkedet, og de to ble enige om at energiministrene deres skulle følge opp. Trump omtalte også mandag priskrigen mellom Saudi-Arabia og Russland som «galskap», og sa at prisene måtte opp hvis ikke oljeindustrien skulle dø. Oljeprisen har i deler av USA vært nede i under 10 dollar fatet, og enkelte spesielle typer olje har også sett negative priser lokalt. To amerikanske skiferoljeprodusenter har nå bedt myndigheten Texas Railroad Commission om å gripe inn og stanse produksjon for å unngå at de 361.000 oljejobbene i delstaten rammes, ifølge Houston Chronicle. Image-text: FULLE LAGRE: Overproduksjon etter coronakrisen kan bidra til å fylle opp lagre som her i Cushing, Oklahoma. Nick Oxford / X03416 Bjørnar Tonhaugen, Rystad Energy. Rystad Energy
          

VIDÉO. Covid-19 : l'université d'Oxford met au point des tests disponibles en 30 minutes - L'Express   

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VIDÉO. Covid-19 : l'université d'Oxford met au point des tests disponibles en 30 minutes  L'Express
          

The Coronavirus Pandemic as the Crisis of Civilization   

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March 29, 2020
Author: 
Kamran Nayeri
Chinese masses in transit
Chinese made a half billion trips before the start of the Lunar New Year.
The Coronavirus pandemic (endnote 1) underscores how infectious diseases are presenting the fourth existential threat to humanity. All are caused by the crisis of the anthropocentric industrial capitalist civilization; The other three are already acknowledged: catastrophic climate change, the Sixth Extinction, and nuclear holocaust. The trend has been marked by the outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, dengue, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and influenza, and by the looming threat of rising antimicrobial resistance. The danger is increasing due to rapid population growth in areas with weak health systems, urbanization, globalization, climate change, civil conflict, and the changing nature of pathogen transmission between human and non-human animal populations (Bloom and Cadarette, 2019).  Not only does the deepening of each existential threat undermines human society, beginning with its most vulnerable groups and regions, but all threats interact in a nonlinear dynamic that amplifies the overall crisis.  Unless this crisis of civilization is addressed in the coming decades, the collapse of global anthropocentric industrial capitalist society is nigh inevitable, and humanity may not survive the consequences. 

 

The Coronavirus and the economic crisis

Global stock markets lost $16 trillion in less than a month (CBS News, March 13, 2020) and their losses continue as the evidence for an economic recession in the U.S. and worldwide mounts (Officially a recession is always called well after the fact since it is defined by two successive quarters of GDP decline) (2).  The financial and economic crisis the Coronavirus has touched off is exposing the structural weaknesses of the U.S. and world economies.  As Warren Buffet famously quipped, “You only find out who is swimming naked when the tide goes out.” (April 2, 2009) There is mounting evidence of a financial crisis. Joseph E. Stiglitz, the Nobel laureate economist, has already remarked about the similarity with the 2008 Great Recession: “In many ways, it’s far worse than 2008.” (Goodman, March 13, 2020) As the crisis spreads and deepens daily, the central banks in the U.S. and around the world have employed what is left in their toolbox to slow, if not stop, the unfolding recession. Republican and Democrat politicians, the Congress and the White House have come together to devise fiscal policies to do the same.  
 
There is nothing in mainstream neoclassical and Keynesian economic theories or Marxist economic theory that account for the emergence and the damage caused by “natural” events such as the Coronavirus.  In neoclassical theory, Keynesian theory, and even Marxist economic theory (e.g., Shaikh 1978, 2014, 2016) such events are treated as “external shock,” that is, a “given” factor external to the economic system. 
 

Philosophical and methodological issues

It is important to recall the philosophical and methodological underpinning of these theories and why “natural events” fall outside their scope.  Both neoclassical and Keynesian theories are rooted in the liberal social philosophies of the nineteenth century that view society as an aggregate of individual human action driven by human nature — expressed as Homo economicus — assumed to be most fully expressed in a capitalist market economy. The labor theory of value as developed by Karl Marx in his Capital: A Critique of Political Economy is a specific application of his materialist conception of history. What is often overlooked is the underlying philosophical anthropology of Marx, who held human nature to be the sum total of social relations among all humans:
 
“This mode of production must not be considered simply as being the production of the physical existence of the individuals. Rather it is a definite form of activity of these individuals, a definite form of expressing their life, a definite mode of life on their part. As individuals express their life, so they are. What they are, therefore, coincides with their production, both with what they produce and with how they produce. The nature of individuals thus depends on the material conditions determining their production.” (Marx and Engels, 1945)
 
Thus for Marx, history is made through class struggle.  In The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) Marx and Engels argued that class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would lead to socialism. The primary purpose of Marx’s critique of political economy was to lay bare the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production that invariably lead to a systemic crisis, hence class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. 
 
Thus, neither bourgeois economic theories nor Marxist economic theory require the inclusion of ecology in the workings of the capitalist economy, except in limited cases such as the theory of ground rent, where soil fertility or other qualities such a mineral deposit or location of land matters. But even then, this is mostly treated as a given.
 
In the last two decades, John Bellamy Foster and his colleagues at Monthly Review have provided important insight into what they call the ecological aspects in Karl Marx’s writings, from which they derive the notion of “metabolic rift.” To put this characterization in historical perspective, the term oekologie (ecology) was coined in 1866 by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), a passionate disciple of Charles Darwin whose On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection appeared in 1859.  If Marx’s insights are to be characterized as ecological, then we must acknowledge ecological insights in the Western tradition going back to the ancient Greeks, particularly Theophrastus who first described the interrelationships between organisms and between organisms and their nonliving environment. And the host of writers with “ecological insight” would even include for some scholars Thomas Malthus who is credited with inventing “population ecology.” 
 
Michael Friedman, a biologist writing in Monthly Review summarizes “metabolic rift” as follows:
 
“‘Metabolic rift’ is the concept popularized by environmental sociologist John Bellamy Foster, following Marx and others, to describe the disruption of ecological processes and the tendency to sever the connection between ecological and social realms. Foster attributes the metabolic rift to the intrinsic dynamic of capitalist production, with its private ownership of the means of production, drive for profits, ever-expanding markets, and continuous growth. Marx employed this idea to describe the effects of capitalist agriculture on the degradation of soil fertility. Foster and his co-thinkers have employed the concept in analyses of climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, fisheries, and many other aspects of human interaction with our biosphere.” (Friedman, 2018, emphasis added) 
 
Thus, in this rendition of “metabolic rift” the ecological crisis is seen as the outcome of the process of capital accumulation (endnote 2).   This raises a number of questions.
 
First, how does the discovery of Marx’s ecological concerns influences the makeup of ecological socialist theories that also build on capitalist accumulation as the root cause for the eco-social crisis, say for example, Joel Kovel’s The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? (2007)?  Kovel and others have also made critical assessments of Marx’s work.  But in terms of what is causing the ecological crisis, it would be hard to argue that Kovel and Foster hold uncompromisingly different views. 
 
Second, while the scholarly work of Foster and his colleagues is a commendable enrichment of our understanding of Marx, it offers no innovations as to the root cause of the ecological crisis. To put it differently, the task of a scientifically based study of the ecological crisis and the task of discovering what Marx thought about the ecological damages done by the process of capitalist accumulation are not one and the same thing. It is perhaps no accident that the entire scientific effort to understand climate change and the Sixth Extinction is carried by scientists in the related scientific disciplines, not by Marxists generally or by those who subscribe to metabolic rift conception in particular.
 
Third, the attempt to pack all knowledge and understanding about various ecological crises into Marxist categories has blinded its practitioners to some factors so obviously related causal factors. One example would suffice: exponential population growth since 1800 is closely related to the rise, dominance, and global expansion of the capitalist system.  Is it lost on anyone that the emergence and spread of the Coronavirus and the danger it poses to humanity is closely related to high population density? Yet, the metabolic rift advocates like most other socialists have consistently ignored or even labeled as “Malthusian” or “populationist” anyone who argued that the exponential rise in human numbers is a contributing factor to the ecological crisis such as species extinction. But that is what biodiversity and conservation biologists have shown to be the case historically and in modern times (Nayeri, 2017). For example, the authors of a 2017 review essay in Science conclude: 
 
“Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings—especially for food—imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world.” (Crist, Mora, and Engelman, 2017)
 
The authors propose: 

“An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women’s education, and achieving gender equality.” (ibid.)
 
Finally, the concept of “metabolic rift” leaves out non-economic and pre-capitalist factors and in effect ignores the fact that ecological crises have been endemic to human society since the dawn of civilization. 
 

The Ecocentric Socialist approach

For about a decade, I have proposed another approach to rethinking Marx and Marxism that takes a very long view of ecological and social crises (For the most recent statement, see Nayeri, 2018; also, see, Nayeri, 2013A and 2013B). Central to my reconsideration is the recognition of the scientific understanding of who are and where we come from so that we can better understand where we are going.  
 
We are literally the product of our natural and social history and the sum total of our ecological-social (eco-social) relations in any given social formation.  Marx would have reconsidered his own philosophical anthropology as from the 1840s he replaced philosophy in favor of scientific inquiry. Even in The German Ideology, Marx and Engels wrote:
 
“The first premise of all human history is, of course, the existence of living human individuals. Thus the first fact to be established is the physical organisation of these individuals and their consequent relation to the rest of nature. Of course, we cannot here go either into the actual physical nature of man, or into the natural conditions in which man finds himself – geological, hydrographical, climatic and so on. The writing of history must always set out from these natural bases and their modification in the course of history through the action of men.” (Marx and Engels, 1845, emphasis added)
 
Thus, the founders of the materialist conception of history believed that “the consequent relation to the rest of nature” would matter to historical investigation even though they clearly and consciously set aside the “actual physical nature of man” and his/her “natural conditions” of which they named the “geological, hydrographical, climatic” aspects.
 
But if we are not just the sum total of our social relations but instead the sum total of ecological and social relations, then we must revise and update the materialist conception of history in light of 150 years of accumulated scientific knowledge.
 
In recent decades, the study of the human microbiome, the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with human cells and organs, has advanced greatly, although our knowledge of their relationships is still in infancy. 
 
“These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses. Bacteria in an average human body number ten times more than human cells, for a total of about 1000 more genes than are present in the human genome. Because of their small size, however, microorganisms make up only about 1 to 3 percent of our body mass (that's 2 to 6 pounds of bacteria in a 200-pound adult).” (National Institute of Health Human Microbiome Project, accessed March 17, 2020)
 
Although most biologists separate the microbiome from the human body, they also acknowledge its essential role in human health:
 
“These microbes are generally not harmful to us, in fact they are essential for maintaining health. For example, they produce some vitamins that we do not have the genes to make, break down our food to extract nutrients we need to survive, teach our immune systems how to recognize dangerous invaders and even produce helpful anti-inflammatory compounds that fight off other disease-causing microbes. An ever-growing number of studies have demonstrated that changes in the composition of our microbiomes correlate with numerous disease states, raising the possibility that manipulation of these communities could be used to treat disease.”  (ibid. Emphasis added)
 
In his essay entitled “Metabolic Rift and the Human Microbiome” cited earlier, Michael Friedman notes that:
“Some biologists conceive of our microbiota as a hitherto unrecognized organ or organs fulfilling important physiological functions and networking with other organ systems, while many microbial ecologists propose that we are not ‘individuals,’ but collective organisms comprised of the person (mammal) and its entire microbiome. Many other species are also collective organisms, termed holobionts, tightly bound by evolution ever since the earliest eukaryotic cells arose from fusions of independent prokaryotes (non-nucleated cells, such as bacteria).”  (Friedman, 2018)
Thus, not only humans but all other complex species might more fruitfully and accurately be called “collective organisms.” In a scientific sense, a human is an organic whole that is greater than the sum of its multiple constituent parts. Biologists call such phenomena emergent properties. Life itself is understood as an emergent property.  I suspect this is much closer to the holistic view of Hegel (1817) and Marx, that "the truth is in the whole."  Indeed, recent research has found a correlation between gut microbiota and personality in adults (Han-Na Kim, et.al. 2018). If microorganisms in humans can affect even our personality, how could they not have an impact on our history as a species?  
 
This view of the ecological nature of humans, as the interpenetration of multiple kinds of beings, validates yet another reconsideration of Marx’s philosophical anthropology. As revolutionary as Marx’s advance over Feuerbach’s materialism was in his Theses on Feuerbach (1845) where humans are viewed as the agency in history, his view still remained firmly anthropocentric. We now know that other organisms and species play a decisive role in history. As I will outline in a moment, infectious diseases caused by various pathogens have been particularly crucial at certain moments throughout the history of civilization. But let me first cite one example of how the application of the materialist conception of history to explain the successful occupation of the Americas by the European colonists fell short of the historical truth.  As a young socialist, one of my teachers was George Novack, an American Marxist philosopher.  In 1975, I translated his essay “The Long View of History” (1974) into Farsi; it was published in Iran after the 1979 revolution. Novack used the interpretation of the materialist conception of history that privileges forces of production to explain how the colonists overcame the Native American population.  In a nutshell, Novack attributed this to the superior firearms of the Europeans who overwhelmed the Native population armed with bow and arrow.  However, in the decades since, historical research has shown that the European colonists exposed the Native Americans to new infectious diseases for which they lacked immunity. These communicable diseases, including smallpox and measles, devastated entire Native American populations which numbered in millions. Smallpox was one of the most feared because of the high mortality rates in infected Native Americans. 
 
Marx’s anthropocentric view was invalidated even in his own time with the publication of Darwin’s researches.  As Darwin clearly stated that  “the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, is certainly one of degree and not of kind.” He went on: 
 
“We have seen that the senses and intuitions, the various emotions and faculties, such as love, memory, attention, curiosity, imitation, reason, etc., of which man boasts, may be found in an incipient, or even sometimes in a well-developed condition, in the lower animals. (Darwin, 1871/1981, p. 105)
 
The philosopher James Rachel adds:
 
“In thinking about non-humans, Darwin said, we have always under-estimated the richness of their mental lives.  We tend to think of ourselves as mentally complex, while assuming that ‘mere animals’ lack any very interesting intellectual capacities. But this is incorrect. Non-humans experience not only pleasure and pain, but terror, suspicion, and fear.  They sulk. They love their children. They can be kind, jealous, self-complacent, and proud.  They know wonder and curiosity.  In short, they are much more like us, mentally and emotionally, than we want to admit.” (Rachels, 1990: 57) 
 
Thus, human nature is the sum total of our eco-social relations shaped by the dynamic interrelation of three trends: (1) The transhistorical trend which recognizes and celebrates our continuity with other animals, in particular the primates. We are animals, mammals, an evolutionary cousin of the chimpanzee. Therefore, we share certain traits with them. (2) The historical trend of our species, Homo sapiens, that goes back at least 300,000 years, including cultural heritage from earlier Homo genera: We inherited the knowledge to use of fire from Homo erectus who domesticated it 400,000 years ago.  And, (3) the trend specific to the mode of production influences, e.g. capitalistically developed global culture today. 
 
This dynamic mixture of nature and nurture makes us who we are and is key to how history unfolds. 
 
In “The Crisis of Civilization and How to Resolve It: An Introduction to Ecocentric Socialism” (Nayeri, 2018) I began the task of reconsideration of the materialist conception of history in the spirit of the above insight gained from Marx and Engels including factors they acknowledged but never had the opportunity to sufficiently elaborate, and drawing as well on the scientific knowledge we have gained since the latter years of the nineteenth century. I will not recapitulate that discussion here in the interest of brevity.  Let us now return to the Coronavirus pandemic from the perspective just laid out. 
 

The origins of the Coronavirus

Virologists and other experts are not yet certain about the origins of the current Coronavirus (there is a large family of Coronaviruses).  But there is little doubt among the experts that a confluence of anthropogenic factors is responsible for the present pandemic. 
 
Rob Wallace (2020), an evolutionary biologist and public health phylogeographer and the author of Big Farm Makes Big Flu (2016), has highlighted factors that may have played a role in the emergence of novel pathogens in China. 
“… wet markets and exotic food are staples in China, as is now industrial production, juxtaposed alongside each other since economic liberalization post-Mao. Indeed, the two food modes may be integrated by way of land use.
"Expanding industrial production may push increasingly capitalized wild foods deeper into the last of the primary landscape, dredging out a wider variety of potentially protopandemic pathogens. Peri-urban loops of growing extent and population density may increase the interface (and spillover) between wild nonhuman populations and newly urbanized rurality.
“Worldwide, even the wildest subsistence species are being roped into ag value chains: among them ostrichesporcupinecrocodilesfruit bats, and the palm civet, whose partially digested berries now supply the world’s most expensive coffee bean. Some wild species are making it onto forks before they are even scientifically identified, including one new short-nosed dogfish found in a Taiwanese market.”
Wildlife meat market in China
 
Thus, Wallace highlights the complex interaction of traditional Chinese culinary preferences, the newly emergent industrial capitalist economy, and the reshaping of the ecology of China’s hinterlands to suggest the eco-social context of the emergence of the Coronavirus. 
 
Wallace’s emphasis is on Chinese capitalist industrialization.  However, Tong et. al. (2017) highlights the interplay of economic growth, urbanization, globalization and the risk of emerging infectious diseases in China. 
 
“Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. (1) Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. (2) Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. (3) Globalization—the closer integration of the world economy—has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a ‘cradle’ of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.” (Tong, et. al. 2017; numerals inside parentheses are added to emphasize contributing factors) 
Key to the development of any capitalist economy is division of labor, which depends in turn on the extent of the market, which itself depends on population growth and the rise in per capita income. Even though the Chinese economy has followed an export-led growth model capitalizing on the international market for developing its division of labor, hence industrialization, by hundreds of millions of Chinese have been moved from rural areas to ever-expanding cities and lifted out of poverty.  According to a 2013 report by McKinsey & Company, a major international business consulting firm, by 2022, “more than 75 percent of China’s urban consumers will earn 60,000 to 229,000 renminbi ($9,000 to $34,000) a year.” In 2018, some 823 million Chinese, more than half the population, was urban.  The population density in China which in 1950 had 551,960,000 people (the Chinese revolution was 1949-51) in 2018 had 1,433,783,686 people, almost three times as many despite the one-child policy introduced in 1979 and modified in the mid-1980s.   Meanwhile, population density in China increased from 57.98 persons per square kilometer in 1950 to 150.1 persons in 2019. (macrotrend.com, China Population: 1950-2020) The epicenter of the Coronavirus outbreak Wuhan had a population of slightly more than 1 million in 1950. Today it has 8.3 million.
 
Live meat market in China

To better understand the Chinese demand for exotic animals, let me cite a recent article by Yi-Zheng Lian (February 20, 2020) that offers further insight into how Chinese cultural mores have contributed to the emergence of novel viruses in China.  He discusses the ancient Chinese beliefs about the powers of certain foods known as “jinbu" meaning roughly “filling a void.”  He writes:
 
“I’ve seen snakes and the penises of bulls or horses — great for men, the theory goes — on offer at restaurants in many cities in southern China. Bats, which are thought to be the original source of both the current coronavirus and the SARS virus, are said to be good for restoring eyesight — especially the animals’ granular feces, called “sands of nocturnal shine” (夜明砂). Gallbladders and bile harvested from live bears are good for treating jaundice; tiger bone is for erections.
“More mundane yet no less popular is the palm civet (果子狸), a small, wild quadruped suspected of having passed on the SARS virus to humans. When stewed with snake meat, it is said to cure insomnia.”
 
Wildlife meat market in China
 
It must be plain that the Coronavirus pandemic has as much to do with centuries-old Chinese traditions as it does with the rise of China as the second-largest industrial capitalist economy in the world.  
 

Crisis of civilization and infectious diseases

While the “metabolic rift” writers focus attention on capitalist industrialization, the deeper underlying cause of the ecological crisis lies in the emergence of fixed human settlement and farming before the rise of early states between approximately 10,000 to 5,000 years ago. 
 
 If we wish to speak in the language of the metabolic rift in discussions of infectious diseases, we must trace it all the way back to the dawn of farming in Mesopotamia. The farm itself is an entirely human-made ecosystem, which, in combination with the sedentary and crowded lifestyle of early farmers, also attracted a host of species from ticks and flees to rats and cats, sparrows and pigeons. These brought with them a host of infectious diseases.  Yale University political scientist and anthropologist James C. Scott (2017) argues these were a major contributing factor in the collapse of many early civilizations. In a chapter entitled “Zoonoses: A Perfect Epidemiological Storm” in his 2017 book, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States. Scott details the confluence of factors that gave rise to the early chronic and infectious diseases. He compares the chronic ailments of early farmers to the modern-day repeated motion syndrome, a family of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or daily activities. Scott calls this the rise of drudgery in early farming.  Hunter-gatherers’ rugged mobile lifestyle in contrast never included such tedium as those introduced by farming activities.  Furthermore, sedentism brought with it crowding: 
“[V]irtually all infectious diseases due to microorganisms especially adapted to Homo sapiens came into existence only in the past ten thousand years, many of them perhaps only in the past five thousand.  They were, in a strong sense, a ‘civilizational effect.’ These historically novel diseases—cholera, smallpox, mumps, measles, influenza, chicken pox, and perhaps malaria—arose only as a result of the beginning of urbanism and, as we shall see, agriculture.”  (Scott, 2017, p. 101)
A key role in the rise and spread of infectious diseases was played by livestock, commensals, cultivated grain and legumes, where the key principle of crowding again is operative. 
“The Neolithic was not only an unprecedented gathering of people but, at the same time, a wholly unprecedented gathering of sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, dogs, cats, chicken, ducks, geese. To the degree that they were already ‘herd’ or ‘flock’ animals, they would have carried some species-specific pathogens of crowding. assembled for the first time to share a wide range of infective organisms. Estimates vary, but of the fourteen hundred known human pathogenic organisms, between eight hundred and nine hundred are zoonotic diseases, originating in non-human hosts. For most of these pathogens, Homo sapiens is a final ‘dead-end’ host: humans do not transmit it further to another host.” (ibid. p. 103)
Thus, there is an unmistakable similarity between the conditions that gave rise to infectious diseases thousands of years ago and what we find happening in the twenty-first century, including the current pandemic caused by the Coronavirus.  
 
What is markedly different is the scope, scale, and speed by which the Coronavirus has impacted the world population.  This is due to the anthropocentric industrial capitalist civilization.  Wallace cites the “connectivity” of the world population in his discussion of the Coronavirus pandemic, and Tong, et. al. (2017) cite “globalization.”  In 2018, according to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) there were 4.1 billion passengers on scheduled services, an increase of 7.3% over 2016.  Air travel is projected to reach 5.4 billion passengers by 2030 (this was before the pandemic).  Clearly, infectious diseases can and will spread across the globe like wildfire in the coming years and decades.  
 
Thus, there is no doubt in my mind that infectious disease must be seen as the fourth existential crisis humanity faces. Again, the other three are: catastrophic climate change, the Sixth Extinction, and nuclear holocaust. Scott argues that infectious diseases were a contributing factor in the collapse of earlier civilizations. There is no reason to doubt that the collapse of anthropocentric industrial capitalist civilization would be any different.  To overcome the crisis, we must transcend civilization, a Herculean task no doubt given that even Marxists, whether socialist or ecosocialist, still conceive of a post-capitalist anthropocentric industrial civilization. This is in part due to a theoretical blind spot. Marxists remain hostage to the anthropocentric ideology that has been at the base of every civilization all based on agriculture in which domination and control of nature are paramount for the extraction of wealth from it. The Marxian theory promises only to do away with the exploitation of the working masses who perform such extraction of wealth from nature. There is no environmental ethics built into their socialist or ecosocialist theories which are based on socialist humanism.
 
Ecocentric Socialism argues that the root cause of social alienation, hence all forms of exploitation since the dawn of civilization, is alienation from nature. Human emancipation, even human survival, demands a process of de-alienation from nature.   
 

Transcending civilization as de-alienation

All civilization is based on a 10,000-year-old anthropocentric detour that constitutes only a mere 3.3% of the history of our species which, as we recently learned, emerged in Africa about 300,000 years ago.  During the 290,000 years before the rise of early farmers, humanity lived and prospered as ecocentric hunter-gatherers.  While it is true that the successful life of hunter-gatherers which led to population growth sometimes caused ecological damage, including extinction events, by-and-large they lived in relative harmony with the rest of nature. There was no systematic attempt to dominate or control nature, something that became the cornerstone of every civilization since, reaching its zenith in the industrial capitalism of the past 250 years. The combination of the anthropocentric world view, advances in science and technology, and the capitalist drive for ever more accumulation of capital has brought us to the Anthropocene (Age of Man) and the existential planetary crisis.  
 
Ecocentric ecological socialist politics is the wisdom and the art of undoing power relations that have been thrown up during the past 10,000 years, relations of subordination, oppression, and exploitation of humans and between humans and the rest of nature.  Thus, the class relations and class struggle that Marx and Engels correctly placed at the center of their theoretical and practical concerns must be supplemented with non-class struggles against the subordination of various strata of people and with a cultural revolution that aims to end anthropocentrism in all its manifestations.  Some of these, like the struggle for gender, racial, sexual orientation, and national origin equality must be seen as essential for fostering the unity of the working people. Others like the fight to stop and reverse climate crisis, the ongoing Sixth Extinction, and the sharpening threat of nuclear war involve existential struggles. But struggle against all manifestations of anthropocentrism must be seen as the core struggle because it is anthropocentrism that helped to create the material basis of social alienation and has served as the ideological basis for the Anthropocene.  The fight for ecocentrism, like the fight for human emancipation, is a fight for universal values.  Without ecocentrism, that is not just an intellectual point of view but a genuine love for nature and for life on Earth, there will be no humanity and no human emancipation. They are one and the same fight, the fight to overcome human alienation.
Acknowledgment: I am deeply grateful to Fred Murphy who read a draft of this essay and made valuable suggestions for the improvement of the text as well as corrected my grammar. He also directed me to the Hegel’s text as the source for his well-known philosophical proposition that “The truth is in the whole.” 
 

Endnotes: 

1. In this essay, I use “Coronavirus ” and Coronavirus pandemic where others may use 2019-nCoV or Convid-19.
2. As I am publishing this essay, I received in the mail today,  Foster and Clark’s “The Rubbery of Nature” (Monthly Review, 2020).  I do not know if there is anything in this new contribution that adds to the issues discussed here about “metabolic rift.” Of course, if there is I would hope to address them in a future essay as needed.
 

References:

Barton, Dominic, Yougang Chen, and Amy Jin. “Mapping China’s Middle Class.” McKinsey Quarterly. June 2013. 

Bloom, David. E. and Daniel Cadarette. “Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty First Century: Strengthening Response.” Frontiers of Immunology. 10: 549. March 29, 2019.   

CBC News. “Coronavirus Has Cost Global Stock Markets $16 Trillion in Less Than a Month.” March 13, 2020. 

Crist, Eileen, Camilo Mora, and Robert Engelman. “The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.” Science, Vol. 356, Issue 6335, pp. 260-264. April 21, 2017. 

Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. 1871/1981.  

Friedman, Michael. “Metabolic Rift and the Human Microbiome.” Monthly Review, July 1, 2018. 

Goodman S., Peter. “Markets Plunge. Economies Stall. Panic Spreads. It All Feels Very 2008.” The New York Times, March 13, 2020.

Han-Na Kim, Yeojun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Min-Jung Kwon, Julnee Cho, Hocheol Shin, and Hyung-Lae Kim. “ Correlation Between Gut Microbiota and Personality in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 69, Pages 374-385, March 2018. 

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Phenomenology of Mind: Preface. 1817.

Marx, Karl. “Theses on Feuerbach.” 1845.

Marx, Karl and Frederick Engels. The German Ideology. 1845. 

—————————————————. Manifesto of the Communist Party. 1848. 

Nayeri, Kamran. “Economics, Socialism, and Ecology: A Critical Outline, Part 1.” Philosophers for Change. Republished in Our Place in the World: A Journal of Ecosocialism. July 16, 2013.

-------------------.“Economics, Socialism, and Ecology: A Critical Outline, Part 2.” Philosophers for Change. Republished in Our Place in the World: A Journal of Ecosocialism. October 29, 2013. 

—————————. “How to Stop the Sixth Extinction: A Critical Assessment of E. O. Wilson’s Half-Earth.” Our Place in the World: A Journal of Ecosocialism. May 24, 2017.

—————————. “The Crisis of Civilization and How to Resolve It: An Introduction to Ecocentric Socialism.” Our Place in the World: A Journal of Ecosocialism. October 15, 2018.

Novack, George. “The Long View of History.’ In Understanding History: Marxist Essays. 1974.

Rachels, James.  Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. 

Scott, James. Against the Grain: A Deep History of Early States. 2017. 

Shaik Anwar. “An Introduction to the History of Crisis Theories in 'U.S. Capitalism in Crisis', Union for Radical Political Economics. 1978. 

———————. “Profitability, Long Waves and the Recurrence of General Crises.” September 2014. 

----------------. Capitalism: Competition, Conflict, Crises. 2016. 

Smialek, Jeanna, and Matt Phillips. “Troubles Percolate in the Plumbing of Wall Street.” The New York Times, March 12, 2020.

Yi-Zheng Lian “Why Did the Coronavirus Outbreak Start in China?” The New York Times, February 20, 2020. 

Tong, Wu, Charles Perrings, Ann Zinzig, James P. Collins, Ben A. Minteer, and Peter Daszak. “Economic Growth, Urbanization, Globalization, and the Risks of Emerging Infectious Diseases in China: A Review.” Ambio 46, 18–29 (2017). https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0809-2.

Wallace, Rob. Big Farm Makes Big Flu. 2016

——————. “Notes on a novel coronavirus.” MRonline, January 29, 2020.

 

Comments:

Kamran Nayeri said...

A reader, the mathematician Chandler Davis, shared the following comment with me by email:

"The Permian Mass Extinction wiped out the trilobites and more; but there
remained a number of other arthropods and vertebrates to repopulate the
planet. The Cretaceous Mass Extinction wiped out the pterosaurs and many other
reptiles; but there were still some other reptiles and birds and mammals who
carried on. The new Mass Extinction that the Koch brothers and their
confederates have planned for us threatens to be more thorough. A real runaway
greenhouse effect could leave the Earth unfit as habitat for much beyond a few
cyanobacteria. Well, maybe some tardigrades too: they’re so tough.

"Too bad we can’t check-in after a few hundred million years to see what they
made of the place. Maybe left to themselves the tardigrades can do a better job
of evolving an intelligent species than the vertebrates did."

davidbyrnemcdonaldiii said...

Hi Kamran, I've been meaning to get back to you following your vacation. You may remember that we talked a bit about Marxist currents and their various relations to the climate change movement, and you kindly referred me to your article on Jason W Moore, which I found very agreeable since it mirrored my irritation with all the dialectical trimmings which I found added nothing.

I did read your manifesto and I have some questions.

1. If alienation from nature began with agriculture and we are to overcome this alienation, what will replace agriculture to produce (make, gather) food? If we become hunter-gatherers what level of human population could the earth sustain, in your view? It also seems that you would advocate abandoning the hunter part of hunter gatherers so we would be gatherers only.

2. Would all knowledge be passed down verbally, or would there be production of books or other artifacts containing accumulated human wisdom? If knowledge is written down, what is it written down upon if not animal skins or paper made from farming (i.e. agriculture) for papyrus or other plants, or do you imagine we can simply gather enough papyrus (or whatever) to sustain our needs? How would knowledge remain the common heritage of all humans if no one specialized in knowledge?

3. Georgescu-Roegen situates bureaucracy and state institutions as arising from what he calls the irreducible human desire to reduce the drudgery of labor, so therefore since people seek not to drudge about the division of labor inevitably reduces labor for some while increasing it for others. As a lazy mofo I am moved by this argument.

I have many more questions but this will give you a sense of what I'm after. Cheers!

Kamran Nayeri said...

Dear David,

Thanks for your comments and questions. My response follows:

1. In a couple of essays, I suggest my own thinking about what must follow the anthropocentric industrial capitalist civilization. Please take a look at the concluding section of "The Crisis of Civilization and How to Resolve It: An Introduction to Ecocentric Socialism" (2018) https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://knayeri.blogspot.com/2018/10/the-civilization-crisis-and-how-to.... where I discuss this. As you will see, what is needed is a radical restructuring and repurposing of the existing productive structure in lockstep with democratically and drastically reducing the human population through the empowerment of women. Here is what I wrote about the food system: "In the new economy, plant-based food production would be the goal of the food system which will become localized using organic farming, permaculture and agroecology methods. Every able-bodied person will contribute at least through home or community food gardens. Thus, the new economy will employ many more people in these socially useful and ecologically sound economic activities."

Of course, this is just the beginning of the conversation which will be enriched with ideas from those who know much more about me about permaculture and non-animal using agroecology.

Please note that nowhere I have suggested going back to becoming hunter-gatherers although we must support and reinforce such cultures that still exist in small regions of the globe. Anyone who wants to become hunter-gatherers who be also supported by the rest of humanity. In fact, we must admire the resilience of such communities and help them transition back to their full-ecocentric culture which has been undermined by civilization. Hunting by hunter-gatherers is not a problem as long as it is limited to small numbers of humanity and poses no danger to other species. Hunting for recreation or for commercial purposes would be banned. In general, humanity must reclaim the ecocentric values system which gave moral standing to all beings.

2. Again, I am not advocating giving up unintended but beneficial gains of civilization such as writing, literature, etc. Those will be preserved and culture becomes everyone's preoccupation. Again, please read the relevant section of the essay cite above.

3. What Georgescu-Rogen calls "irreducible human desire to reduce the drudgery of labor" must be qualified. In the essay above, I cite James C. Scott's notion of what "drudgery" is and how it arose in history. In his account, drudgery arose with early farming where a repetition of the same tasks became necessary. In Scott's view, the rugged lives of hunter-gatherers did not include drudgery as gathering and hunting were limited to about 6 hours a day in most cases and there were no hard lines between work and play. In the modern capitalist society, even though office work is not drudgery in a normal sense of the word it is alienated labor and tedious. It is not the physical effort that is a problem it is alienated work.

Please write to me or call me with your other questions. I would be happy to discuss them.

Again, whatever I suggest is really just that: one person's suggestion and I freely admit not to be knowledgeable in many areas where others know so much more than I do. A world-historic transition to post-civilization Ecocentric Socialism is no one person's figment of imagination but the result of the collective effort of billions of working people.

I hope this helps.

Thank you again.

Kamran
March 20, 2020 at 9:40 AM

 

Kamran Nayeri said...

The following comment was sent to me by email by Thomas Piazza, a UB Berkeley statistician who specializes in sampling, who has been closely involved in research effort of earlier epidemics beginning with the AIDS epidemic.

"Hi Kamran,

I read your paper, and I agree with your analysis. The way I look at the issues, I see 3 phases in our recent history of the last few thousand years or so:

1. Religious phase: Causality attributed to some kind of spirit world.

2. Anthropocentric phase: Rationality replaces dogma, and “Man is the measure of all things.”

3. Ecocentric phase: Realization that we are part of, and dependent on, the whole web of life on this planet and in the whole universe.

Different groups of people pass from one phase to another at different rates. Getting to this 3rd phase is just beginning, and that is our challenge these days.

So you can see why your analysis makes sense to me. Also I think you are right to question Marxists who try to retrofit Marx with ecological awareness. He lived in a different time, and it is only in the light of recent science that we are aware of the “universe story.”

RSmith said...

Kamron,
I came to this post through the SoCoCan link. Here are my basic and crude thoughts:
1. There are many interesting aspects to your writing here, but it is far too much for the average reader to parse.
2. I suggest breaking such a post down into several separate entries, or editing down to your core message.
3. It comes across as purely an academic discussion. Interesting to a minority, but detached from most readers, even in high-brow Sonoma County circles.
4. I suspect I am full agreement with your thoughts and assessments. However, I fear we have already moved beyond the question of political theory, and are now on the course of crisis management. We are likely looking at a span of mere decades before a global collapse in complex civilization, and it seems we should be focusing on triage.
5. As an animal farmer, I will include the necessity of (quickly) re-learning the utility of livestock-integrated farming as a robust method of maintaining food production during increasing climate instability. Veganism has no future even with full return of human manure to the fields; livestock are key to maintaining soil fertility purely for continued crop harvest.
Thank you for your work. We need more such deep thinking.
- Roy Smith. Green Goose Farm

collectivist said...

"Ecocentric ecological socialist politics is the wisdom and the art of undoing power relations that have been thrown up during the past 10,000 years, relations of subordination, oppression, and exploitation of humans and between humans and the rest of nature. Thus, the class relations and class struggle that Marx and Engels correctly placed at the center of their theoretical and practical concerns must be supplemented with non-class struggles against the subordination of various strata of people and with a cultural revolution that aims to end anthropocentrism in all its manifestations. Some of these, like the struggle for gender, racial, sexual orientation, and national origin equality must be seen as essential for fostering the unity of the working people. Others like the fight to stop and reverse climate crisis, the ongoing Sixth Extinction, and the sharpening threat of nuclear war involve existential struggles. But struggle against all manifestations of anthropocentrism must be seen as the core struggle because it is anthropocentrism that helped to create the material basis of social alienation and has served as the ideological basis for the Anthropocene. The fight for ecocentrism, like the fight for human emancipation, is a fight for universal values. Without ecocentrism, that is not just an intellectual point of view but a genuine love for nature and for life on Earth, there will be no humanity and no human emancipation. They are one and the same fight, the fight to overcome human alienation."

ALL ecosocialism should seriously discuss this.

"Ecocentric Socialism argues that the root cause of social alienation, hence all forms of exploitation since the dawn of civilization, is alienation from nature. Human emancipation, even human survival, demands a process of de-alienation from nature."

I first came across this perspective from Erich Fromm's writings. It made sense to me at the time until I read a collection of essays entitled, Ma

          

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[원서] (Prentice-Hall International Series in Computer Science) Jim Woodcock, Jim Davies - Using Z.Specification,refinement,and proof-Prentice ~ (1996)

Using Z Specication, Renement, and Proof
Jim Woodcock University of Oxford
Jim Davies University of Oxford

Copyright: this hypertext version of Using Z is easily copied, distributed, and printed; ifyouchoosetodothis, wewouldaskyoutorememberthatitisunder copyright: if you reproduce any of the materi…(To be continued )

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[원서] George M. Constantinides, Milton Harris, Rene M. Stulz - Handbook of the Economics of Finance SET Volumes 2A & 2B, Corporate Finance ~ (2013)

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George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_01.gif George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_02.gif George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_03.gif George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_04.gif George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_05.gif George%20M%20Constantinides%20Milton%20Harris%20Rene%20M%20Stulz%20%20Handbook%20of%20the%20Economics%20of%20Finance%20SET%20Volumes%202A%20&%202B%20Corporate%20Finance%20~%20(2013)_pdf_06.gif

Download : George M Constantinides Milton Harris Rene M Stulz Handbook of the Economics of Finance SET Volumes 2A & 2B Corporate Finance ~ (2013).pdf( 24 )


설명
[원서] George M. Constantinides, Milton Harris, Rene M. Stulz - Handbook of the Economics of Finance SET Volumes 2A & 2B, Corporate Finance ~ (2013) , [원서] George M. Constantinides, Milton Harris, Rene M. Stulz - Handbook of the Economics of Finance SET Volumes 2A & 2B, Corporate Finance ~ (2013)재무경제솔루션 , 솔루션
[원서] George M. Constantinides, Milton Harris, Rene M. Stulz - Handbook of the Economics of Finance SET Volumes 2A & 2B, Corporate Finance ~ (2013)


Economics of Finance
Handbook of the
SET

VOLUME
2A

Corporate Finance
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Economics of Finance
Handbook of the
SET

VOLUME
2A

Corporate Finance
G. M. CONSTANTINIDES M. HARRIS
R. M. STULZ
Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford …(투비컨티뉴드 )




솔루션/재무경제


순서



다.
          

COVID-19 Symposium: Article 2 ECHR’s Positive Obligations–How Can Human Rights Law Inform the Protection of Health Care Personnel and Vulnerable Patients in the COVID-19 Pandemic?   

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[Elizabeth Stubbins Bates is a Junior Research Fellow in Law at Merton College, University of Oxford.] In the shock and fear of the COVID-19 pandemic, colleagues have begun to reflect on international human rights law’s continued importance: with analyses of due diligence, the right to life and right to health; derogations under the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) (also...
          

Immer wieder Widerspruch   

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Weil die Marion nur selten in einer Watte sitzt, wird die Anke aus Utopia sonntags extern. Obwohl der Frank sporadisch aus einer Fee stammt, ist die platte Lieselotte stereo strategisch. Weil die Meike nicht immer in einem Pelikan existiert, ist der weibliche Fabian schwarz. Obwohl die Barbara nur selten aus einer Prozedur kommt, ist der Joachim abends extern. Weil der Andy nicht immer in einer Decke steht, wird der Einsturz aus Oxford druckfrisch. Weil das Juwel nicht in einem Profil sitzt, ist der ordentliche Bernd arg.
          

Yamaha XTZ 660 Ténéré za 42000 Kč - novinka   

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Objem: 660 ccm. Vyrobeno: 1993. Výkon: 35.0 kW. Najeto: 85000 km. Yamaha XTZ660 Tenere, rv. 93, 35 kW, najeto lehce přes 85000 km, STK do 04/22
 Kosmetické vady úměrné stáří motorky, nové pneu TKC80 + Mitas E09. Předchozí majitel měnil píst a dělal výbrus při 70 tisících. Progresivní pružiny vepředu, řetězová sada jetá 2 sezony, vyhřívané gripy Oxford, regulátor dobíjeni Ignitech, 12V zásuvka + 2x USB. K moto dále 2 hliníkové kufry a náhradní koncovka výfuku. Karburátor byl čistěn ultrazvukem a naladěn, spotřeba do 4,5- 5l/100 km. Dále byly měněny pružiny ve spojce společně s lankem spojky a lankem sytiče. Vady: lehce se ztrácí olej, teče jedna vidlice a začala zlobit volnoběžka.
 Na motorce jsem najel cca 5000 km, důvod prodeje: udělal jsem si radost a pořídil Tenere 700 Při rychlém a rozumném jednání možná dohoda na ceně, pouze však u motorky. Bučina, Pardubický kraj
          

The Painted Room Oxford in Oxford, England   

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The Painted Room Oxford

Oxford is a city with no shortage of curious corners and hidden histories. The city is forever entwined with the magical creations of Lewis Carroll, C.S. Lewis, and Philip Pullman, it has inspired countless writers to look beyond the ordinary world and imagine what's hidden underneath. Yet, this building remains something of a hidden gem.

A tavern has stood on this site since the 13th century, with its famous interior decorations added a few centuries later.

A narrow staircase inside leads to a series of timber-framed rooms. Here, the walls are adorned with red and gold coloring, almost as vivid now as the day they first painted over 400 years ago. However, a century later, these extraordinary relics were covered over with heavy wood paneling, before a chance rediscovery in 1927.

The wall displays some hasty alterations, a nod to England’s turbulent religious changeover in the years following the Reformation. Just visible above the medieval fireplace is the Catholic insignia IHS (Iesus Hominum Salvator), thought to be associated with the brief reign of Mary I. 

Above it, a frieze runs across the top of the walls, swearing dedication to the Protestant faith and the king. When Mary's younger sister Elizabeth took the throne, reverting the country once again to Protestantism, the tavern's owners would have had to hastily cover-up the prominent insignia.

The room, the grandest in the tavern, is also believed to have been where William Shakespeare stayed during his trips to Oxford. He was friends with the tavern’s owners, John and Jane Davenport and godson to their son, William. It's believed Jane and Shakespeare were romantically linked, although an affair was never proven.


          

ExTopoDB: a database of experimentally derived topological models of transmembrane proteins   

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ExTopoDB: a database of experimentally derived topological models of transmembrane proteins

Tsaousis, G. N., Tsirigos, Konstantinos, Andrianou, X. D., Liakopoulos, T. D., Bagos, P. G. & Hamodrakas, S. J., 1 Oct 2010, In : Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). 26, 19, p. 2490-2 3 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

UNLABELLED: ExTopoDB is a publicly accessible database of experimentally derived topological models of transmembrane proteins. It contains information collected from studies in the literature that report the use of biochemical methods for the determination of the topology of α-helical transmembrane proteins. Transmembrane protein topology is highly important in order to understand their function and ExTopoDB provides an up to date, complete and comprehensive dataset of experimentally determined topologies of α-helical transmembrane proteins. Topological information is combined with transmembrane topology prediction resulting in more reliable topological models.

AVAILABILITY: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/ExTopoDB.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBioinformatics (Oxford, England)
Volume26
Issue number19
Pages (from-to)2490-2
Number of pages3
ISSN1367-4811
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2010

          

Semi-supervised learning of Hidden Markov Models for biological sequence analysis   

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Semi-supervised learning of Hidden Markov Models for biological sequence analysis

Tamposis, I. A., Tsirigos, Konstantinos, Theodoropoulou, M. C., Kontou, P. I. & Bagos, P. G., 1 Jul 2019, In : Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). 35, 13, p. 2208-2215 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

MOTIVATION: Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are probabilistic models widely used in applications in computational sequence analysis. HMMs are basically unsupervised models. However, in the most important applications, they are trained in a supervised manner. Training examples accompanied by labels corresponding to different classes are given as input and the set of parameters that maximize the joint probability of sequences and labels is estimated. A main problem with this approach is that, in the majority of the cases, labels are hard to find and thus the amount of training data is limited. On the other hand, there are plenty of unclassified (unlabeled) sequences deposited in the public databases that could potentially contribute to the training procedure. This approach is called semi-supervised learning and could be very helpful in many applications.

RESULTS: We propose here, a method for semi-supervised learning of HMMs that can incorporate labeled, unlabeled and partially labeled data in a straightforward manner. The algorithm is based on a variant of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, where the missing labels of the unlabeled or partially labeled data are considered as the missing data. We apply the algorithm to several biological problems, namely, for the prediction of transmembrane protein topology for alpha-helical and beta-barrel membrane proteins and for the prediction of archaeal signal peptides. The results are very promising, since the algorithms presented here can significantly improve the prediction performance of even the top-scoring classifiers.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBioinformatics (Oxford, England)
Volume35
Issue number13
Pages (from-to)2208-2215
Number of pages8
ISSN1367-4811
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


          

A medical research professor at Oxford University describes what can be done immediately   

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A medical research professor at Oxford University describes what can be done immediately: I would prefer hydroxychloroquine to the use of mefloquine unless mefloquine is dramatically better. MQ can cause neuropsychiatric problems. In vitro experiments have shown that chloroquine and better hydroxychloroquine inhibit viral replication in cells but also can be preventative. No-one is allowed…

The post A medical research professor at Oxford University describes what can be done immediately appeared first on PaulCraigRoberts.org.


          

Myron Rolle, former Titans DB, details fight against COVID-19 as a neurosurgery resident    

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After leaving FSU a year early to pursue a master's degree at Oxford University, Rolle's medical education is becoming increasingly vital
          

bio-informatique/bio-analyse NGS   

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bio-informatique/bio-analyse NGS
Type de poste
jacques.lagnel ven 22/02/2019 - 18:29
Niveau d'étude minimal
Durée du poste
Contrat renouvelable
Contrat non renouvelable

Offre de CDD ingénieur d’étude en bio-informatique/bio-analyse
Laboratoire :
INRA, UR1052, Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes (GAFL)
Domaine St Maurice - 67 Allée des Chênes
CS 60094
F-84143 MONTFAVET Cedex
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www6.paca.inra.fr/gafl/

Équipes d’accueil :
Résistance Diversite et Durabilité (ReDD) et
Informatique, Bio-analyses et Bio-statistiques (I2B)
Dans le cadre de projets de détection de QTL par la stratégie de QTL-Seq (Takagi et al. 2013) chez la tomate et le melon, l'INRA GAFL recrute un ingénieur d'étude en bio-informatique/bio-analyse pour une durée de 13 à 15 mois. L’ingénieur.e sera chargé.e d’analyser des données issues de séquençage NGS. Elle/Il pourra bénéficier de l'aide et des conseils des informaticiens et bio-informaticiens de l'unité. Il/Elle aura accès au serveur Linux de calcul de l’unité GAFL et aux plateformes HPC INRA.
Compétences demandées :
- Analyse de données NGS de type ADN (preprocessing, démultiplexage, mapping, SNPs calling)
- Utilisation et interprétation de logiciels d'analyse bio-informatique
- Maîtrise de l'environnement Linux et du Bash
- Maîtrise d'au moins un langage de programmation/scripting (Python, Perl)
- Connaissances R
- Notions d’outils de packaging/déploiement (Singularity) et de management de workflow (Snakemake, Nextflow)

Formation souhaitée : Master en bio-informatique

Une connaissance dans l'analyse des long reads type Oxford Nanopore Technologies, 10X Genomix et carte optique sera un plus. Des connaissances et/ou une pratique du calcul sur cluster seraient appréciées.
Des connaissances de bases en génétique seraient également appréciées.

Pour candidater, envoyez avant le 31/03/2019, une lettre de motivation expliquant votre cursus et vos domaines de compétences, un CV, le nom et les coordonnées de 1 ou 2 personnes de référence. Envoyez ces documents à :
nathalie.boissot@inra.fr, bernard.caromel@inra.fr, et jacques.lagnel@inra.fr.
Les candidats retenus seront convoqués pour un entretien dans les 15 jours. Pour des raisons administratives, le candidat recruté ne devra pas avoir plus de 24 mois d’ancienneté à l’INRA.
Salaire : entre 2136 et 2422 € brut (niveau IE) selon l’expérience.
Prise de fonction entre le 15 mars et le 1 avril.

Nom de la structure d'accueil
Date de prise de fonction
Adresse

Domaine St Maurice - 67 Allée des Chênes
CS 60094
84143 MONTFAVET
France

Date de fin de validité de l'annonce
Contacts
Nathalie Boissot
Bernard Caromel
Jacques Lagnel
Email du/des contacts
nathalie.boissot@inra.fr
bernard.caromel@inra.fr
jacques.lagnel@inra.fr

          

Capezio Tele Tone Tap Shoes 2 1/2 M Oxford Black Excellent Condition   

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$39.49
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UK trials new breathing aid developed by Mercedes Formula One   

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A new version of a breathing aid that can help coronavirus patients has been developed in less a week by a team involving Mercedes Formula One, and is being trialled at London hospitals.  Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) devices have been used in China and Italy to deliver air and oxygen under pressure to patients’ lungs to help them breathe without the need for them to go on a ventilator, a more invasive process. The new CPAP has already been approved by the relevant regulator and now 100 of the machines will be delivered to University College London Hospital for trials, before being rolled out to other hospitals. Reports from Italy indicate that approximately 50% of patients given CPAP have avoided the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, which involves patients being sedated, freeing up ventilators for those more in need. “These devices will help to save lives by ensuring that ventilators, a limited resource, are used only for the most severely ill,” UCLH critical care consultant Professor Mervyn Singer said in a statement on Monday. “We hope they will make a real difference to hospitals across the UK by reducing demand on intensive care staff and beds, as well as helping patients recover without the need for more invasive ventilation.” The new breathing aid was developed by engineers and clinicians at UCLH teaming up with Mercedes-AMG High Performance Powertrains who worked at UCL’s MechSpace hub to reverse engineer a device that can be produced quickly. Asked about the risk to healthcare workers of using CPAPs as contaminated droplets can escape from the device, Professor Rebecca Shipley, Director of UCL Institute of Healthcare Engineering, told the BBC, that the risks were very low if those workers wore appropriate personal protective equipment. She also said that the new device could be scaled up very quickly. “Mercedes can make 1,000 a day within a week, and if the tests go well they can be in the NHS by the end of this week,” Shipley told BBC radio. Development of the new device took fewer than 100 hours from initial meeting to production of the first one. The team working on it also includes Oxford Optronix, a small company that will manufacture the oxygen monitors for the CPAP devices. Britain announced separately on Monday that it has placed an order for 10,000 ventilators to be made by a consortium of companies including Ford, Airbus and Rolls-Royce as part of efforts to fight the coronavirus, an industry source told news agency Reuters. Via our content partners at Reuters. Reporting by Sarah Young; editing by Guy Faulconbridge.

This article was published by Platform Executive, the home of the platform economy.


          

Opposite Linden Cottages, Goring Heath Rd. Whitchurch Hill., 30th March   

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I wish to report a problem with a oak tree where the branches are resting over a telephone cable. At the moment, the tree is not in bud, but when the leaves come out, there will be a problem
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): Goring Heath Road, Whitchurch Hill
Report on FixMyStreet
          

[원서] Naomi Klein, Walden Bello, Susan George, David Ransom - People-First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs, Justice and Climate-World ~ (2009)   

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Download : Naomi Klein Walden Bello Susan George David Ransom People First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs Justice and Climate World ~ (2009).pdf




설명





people first
economics
people first
economics
EditEd by
David ransom and Vanessa Baird

WORLD
changing

people first economics

First published in the UK in 2009 by New InternationalistTM Publications Ltd Oxford OX4 1BW
www.newint.org
New Internationalist is a registered t…(省略)






[원서] Naomi Klein, Walden Bello, Susan George, David Ransom - People-First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs, Justice and Climate-World ~ (2009) , [원서] Naomi Klein, Walden Bello, Susan George, David Ransom - People-First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs, Justice and Climate-World ~ (2009)기타솔루션 , 솔루션
[원서] Naomi Klein, Walden Bello, Susan George, David Ransom - People-First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs, Justice and Climate-World ~ (2009)
순서




Download : Naomi Klein Walden Bello Susan George David Ransom People First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs Justice and Climate World ~ (2009).pdf( 21 )


[원서] Naomi Klein, Walden Bello, Susan George, David Ransom - People-First Economics Making a Clean Start for Jobs, Justice and Climate-World ~ (2009)
Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_01.gif Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_02.gif Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_03.gif Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_04.gif Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_05.gif Naomi%20Klein%20Walden%20Bello%20Susan%20George%20David%20Ransom%20%20People%20First%20Economics%20Making%20a%20Clean%20Start%20for%20Jobs%20Justice%20and%20Climate%20World%20~%20(2009)_pdf_06.gif



솔루션,기타,솔루션
솔루션/기타

다.
          

Kaum Jobs, Massen junger Leute   

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Weshalb Vollbeschäftigung in Afrika von kluger Politik abhängt

Der informelle Sektor ist riesig: Buchhändler in Nairobi.

Die Zahlen sprechen für sich. Tilman Altenburg vom Deutschen Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) schätzt, dass 350 Millionen Afrikaner unter harten Bedingungen, ohne soziale Sicherung und mit geringen Einkommen im informellen Sektor rackern (siehe hierzu auch Hans Dembowski im Monitor von E+Z/D+C e-Paper 2019/11). Erschwerend kommt hinzu, dass jährlich 13 Millionen junge Menschen auf die Arbeitsmärkte drängen. Laut Altenburg braucht Afrika jährlich 25 Millionen neue, menschenwürdige Arbeitsplätze.

Gut wäre eine demografische Dividende, wie sie Schwellenländer in Ost- und Südostasien in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten erlebten. Wie Altenburg ausführt, ermöglichte dort das große Angebot an jungen Arbeitskräften, die sich nicht um abhängige Familienmitglieder – ob Kinder oder Senioren – kümmern mussten, Industrialisierung (siehe Box Samir Abi im Schwerpunkt des E+Z/D+C e-Paper 2020/04). Die Beschäftigungsbedingungen waren hart. Trotz niedriger Löhne waren die Einkommen aber höher als in der Vergangenheit. Die Exporte expandierten schnell und Volkswirtschaften begannen zu prosperieren.

Die große Frage ist, ob solch eine Dynamik auch in Afrika ausgelöst werden kann. Bei einer DIE-Konferenz im Februar wies Altenburg daraufhin, dass globale Megatrends eine Rolle spielen – wie etwa der demografische Wandel, Verstädterung und neue Muster im Welthandel. Derlei könne nützlich, aber auch hinderlich sein.

Fachleute erkennen derzeit jedenfalls keinen Entwicklungsmotor, der sich in Afrika als so wirkungsvoll erweisen könnte wie das Wachstum der Leichtindustrie in Asien. Die Problemlage ist außerordentlich komplex (zur Einschätzung der Lage durch die UN Economic Commission for Africa siehe Kasten).

Manche Wissenschaftler hoffen, dass chinesische Industrieunternehmen ihre Produktion in Niedriglohnländer verlagern, weil die Löhne in der Volksrepublik deutlich steigen. Die Erwartung, dass so Millionen neuer Jobs in Afrika entstehen, ist aber vermutlich überzogen. Dafür sprechen jedenfalls Studien des DIE sowie des Londoner Overseas Development Institute (ODI). Deren Forschungsstand besagt,

  • dass chinesische Firmen am liebsten in Asien investieren,
  • dass sie wegen Automatisierung und Digitalisierung weniger Arbeitskräfte brauchen, und
  • dass chinesische Unternehmen umso größeres Interesse an Auslandsinvestitionen haben, je größer die Anteile nicht chinesischer Investoren an ihrem eigenen Kapital sind, was hieße, dass westliche Investoren auch in diesem Kontext für Direktinvestitionen in Afrika entscheidend blieben.

Lindsay Whitfield von der Universität Roskilde hat sich auf internationale Lieferketten spezialisiert. Sie sagt, es reiche nicht mehr, Sonderwirtschaftszonen einzurichten, um beispielsweise die Textilindustrie ins Land zu holen. Trotz großer diesbezüglicher Anstrengungen habe sich beispielsweise Äthiopien mit der Integration in Lieferketten sehr schwer getan. Niedrige Löhne hätten nicht gereicht. Wie Whitfield ausführt, kommt es darauf an, internationale Markenunternehmen ins Boot zu holen. Lieferketten seien heute sehr anspruchsvoll und würden präzise gemanagt. Äthiopien sehe nun erste Erfolge, aber diese Strategie könne nicht in vielen Ländern funktionieren.

Wachsende Städte

Eine weitere Hoffnung ist, dass Urbanisierung und die Nachfrage wachsender Mittelschichten Chancen für breitenwirksame Entwicklung bieten. Ousmane Badiane vom multilateralen International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington erkennt ein großes Beschäftigungspotenzial in der Modernisierung der wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen Stadt und Land. Ernten sollten regional verarbeitet werden und die Produkte dann effizient an städtische Verbraucher geliefert werden (siehe seinen mit Shenggen Fan verfassten Aufsatz in der Tribüne von E+Z/D+C e-Paper 2019/12). Dabei kann sich moderne digitale Technik als nützlich erweisen (siehe Interview mit Peter Njonjo im Schwerpunkt von E+Z/D+C e-Paper 2019/11).

Abebe Shimeles von der multilateralen afrikanischen Entwicklungsbank (AfDB) erkennt solche Chancen auch, warnt aber, sie dürften nicht überschätzt werden. Afrikas neue Mittelschichten hätten sich noch nicht stabilisiert. Viele Familien fielen wieder in Armut zurück, während andere neu den Aufstieg in die Mittelschicht schafften. Soziale Ungleichheit bleibe stark ausgeprägt.

Bildung sei wichtig, sagt Shimeles, bringe aber bislang eher individuelle als gesellschaftliche Erträge. Höhere Produktivität könnte Volkswirtschaften beflügeln, aber weder Berufsbildung noch Hochschulen hätten solche Trends in Afrika ausgelöst.

Weil die Privatwirtschaft allein voraussichtlich nicht die nötigen Arbeitsplätze anbieten wird, spricht sich Joachim von Braun von der Universität Bonn für Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahmen aus. Staaten müssten sich um Beschäftigung kümmern, und zugleich bestehe ein großer Bedarf an zusätzlicher Infrastruktur. Arbeitsbeschaffungsprogramme dienten beiden Zielen.

Es gibt kein Rezept, um demografische Dividenden in Afrika einzustreichen. Nötig ist jedenfalls kluge Wirtschaftspolitik. Regierungen müssen erkennen, welche Branchen in ihrem Land Wettbewerbsvorteile haben und entsprechende Förderkonzepte umsetzen.

Leider besteht Zweifel daran, dass afrikanische Politiker ihren Aufgaben gewachsen sind. Stefan Dercon von der Universität Oxford warnt, Neopatrimonialismus sei weit verbreitet: Regierungen verwendeten staatliche Ressourcen, um Allianzen mit mächtigen Interessengruppen zu schließen, und die Beteiligten sicherten dann gemeinsam ihre Privilegien.

Dercon befindet, allzu wenige Länder in Afrika hätten die nötigen Grundlagen für einen „nationalen Wachstumspakt“. Einigen traut er Erfolg zu – beispielsweise Kenia und Äthiopien in Ostafrika oder Ghana und Senegal in Westafrika. Um die Art von politischem Konsens zu erreichen, der in asiatischen Schwellenländern wertvoll war, müssten folgende Grundvoraussetzungen erfüllt sein:

  • Frieden und politische Stabilität,
  • effektive Staatsapparate sowie
  • Spitzenpolitiker und Eliten, die Wirtschaftswachstum zur Priorität machten.

Ein erfahrener Vertreter einer bilateralen Entwicklungsagentur, der nicht namentlich genannt werden will, erkennt einen markanten Widerspruch: Regierungsführung zu verbessern sei eine langfristige Aufgabe, die nicht viel Geld koste, aber intensive Zusammenarbeit bei der Ausbildung von Fachleuten, der Stärkung von Institutionen und der Definition von Normen erfordere. Entwicklungshilfe (Official Development Assistance – ODA) sei dagegen auf möglichst großen Mittelabfluss ausgerichtet und stütze sich dabei regelmäßig auf Behörden mit neopatrimonialen Eigenschaften. Quantitativ hohe ODA-Zielmarken seien deshalb tendenziell dysfunktional.

Auch Carlos Lopes von der Afrikanischen Union (AU) räumt ein, die Komplexität der Herausforderungen überfordere die Kapazitäten vieler Regierungen. Die internationale Debatte sei aber hilfreich und führe zu höheren Ansprüchen.

Aus seiner Sicht könnte auch das Bevölkerungswachstum in Afrika schneller zurückgehen, als bislang erwartet. Rückläufige Mütter- und Kindersterblichkeit seien vielversprechend. Da Gesellschaften auf anderen Kontinenten schnell alterten, könnte Afrikas Jugendlichkeit, die heute vielfach als Zeitbombe wahrgenommen wird, sich sogar als globales öffentliches Gut erweisen, urteilt Lopes.

Hans Dembowski ist Chefredakteur von E+Z/D+C.
euz.editor@dandc.eu


          

Un estudio sitúa la tasa de mortalidad del COVID-19 en el 0,66 %   

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Londres, 30 mar (EFE).- Un estudio, elaborado por universidades británicas a partir de datos de la expansión de la COVID-19 en China, estima que la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad es del 0,66 %, si se tiene en cuenta que una parte de las infecciones no llega a confirmarse.

Si se analizan únicamente los casos confirmados, la tasa de mortalidad del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 sería del 1,38 %, según el trabajo publicado hoy lunes en la revista 'The Lancet Infectious Diseases', desarrollado en base 70 117 casos clínicos diagnosticados en China.

La gravedad de la enfermedad se incrementa con la edad de los pacientes: la tasa de mortalidad en personas en entre 20 y 30 años es del 0,031 %, pero aumenta hasta el 7,8 % en mayores de 80 años.

Ese mismo patrón se observa en el porcentaje de personas que requieren hospitalización: el 3,4 % de los enfermos de entre 30 y 40 años son ingresados, mientras la proporción entre las personas entre 50 y 59 años contagiadas asciende al 8,2 %.

Los investigadores del Imperial College London, la Universidad Queen Mary y la Universidad de Oxford que han elaborado el estudio advierten de que el virus puede saturar los sistemas sanitarios más avanzados si no se toman medidas para frenar su propagación.

Estiman que entre el 50 % y el 80 % de la población mundial puede infectarse con el nuevo virus SARS-CoV-2, al tiempo que recalcan que 'la mayoría de la gente se recupera, incluso tras sufrir síntomas graves'.

El tiempo medio entre los primeros síntomas y la muerte de un paciente es de 17,8 días, mientras que los pacientes que se recuperan tardan una media de 22,6 días en recibir el alta.

'Puede haber casos aislados que reciban mucha atención mediática, pero nuestro análisis muestra muy claramente que en personas de más de cincuenta años la hospitalización es mucho más probable que en aquellas por debajo de esa edad', señala en un comunicado la investigadora Azra Ghani.

'Nuestras estimaciones pueden ser utilizadas en cualquier país para tomar decisiones informadas sobre las mejores políticas para contener la COVID-19', agrega.

En un comentario publicado junto al estudio, el científico de la Universidad de Miami Shigui Ruan, sostiene por su parte que 'las estimaciones de ratios de mortalidad pueden variar ligeramente entre países'.

Eso es debido a 'las diferencias en las medidas de prevención, control y mitigación que se implementen', indica el científico, que destaca que los datos se ven afectados también 'por el nivel de preparación y accesibilidad a los servicios sanitarios. EFE


          

Care Assistant Mayo   

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MyHomecare are seeking experienced Healthcare Assistants to provide care in County Mayo, Ballina, Claremorris, Foxford, Charlestown and particularly Ballyhaunis.The ideal applicant will be passionate about delivering high quality care; will be pleasa
          

New British band NOISY release 'Oi (ATM)', a tongue in cheek track about feeling ripped off   

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Just before we self-isolated, NOISY took over the launderette at the Barbican, filming their latest video ‘Oi (ATM)’, a track which scraps with money matters talk, and cements NOISY’s high-octane energy and explosive sonic, in a spinning, nostalgic visual.  

Earlier this month, the trio from Worthing headlined a sold-out Camden Assembly to fan frenzy, which followed the release of their debut EP ‘Press Space To Play’, featuring single ‘Bring The Drums Back,’ an ode to homegrown dance styles in the UK. The band are holed up in their studio in Worthing doing what they do best and creating for the foreseeable, but look forward to re-arranged live dates at Truck Festival, 110 Above, Neighbourhood and Liverpool Sound City. Dates below.

Comprised of singer/rapper Cody, guitarist Connor and producer Spencer, the band is the culmination of several years of hanging out at skateparks. They’ve been Noisy for the past year and a half, an 18-month period that’s seen them build a makeshift studio in Spencer’s house and put it to good use: coming up with a name, and then a suitably clamorous sound to follow. To Noisy’s quote, the band are for all the Friday guys, for all 20-somethings smashing it on a weekend, spending five days aching, and then getting out and doing it again.

LIVE DATES:
  • Jul 10th NASS Festival, Shepton Mallet
  • Aug 1st Belladrum Festival, Scotland
  • Aug 2nd Truck Festival, Oxfordshire
  • Aug 15th 110 Above Festival, Leicestershire
  • Sep 5th Neighbourhood Weekender, Warrington
  • Sep 25th - 27th Sound City, Liverpool
New British band NOISY release 'Oi (ATM)',
CLICK HERE TO WATCH ‘Oi (ATM)
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Who said what
“Do you ever get frustrated having to pay for mundane things… toll roads, public toilets, water? 'Oi (ATM)' is a tongue in cheek track about those things. About feeling like you’re being ripped off everywhere you go.” - Cody
👀👀👀
For updates visit THEWORLDNOISY.COM

          

Efemérides Deportivas del Día.   

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1915: Nace Arsenio Erico, futbolista paraguayo (f. 1977). 1921: Las universidades de Oxford y Cambridge disputan, por centésima vez, su clásica regata de ocho con timonel en el río Támesis. 1940: Nace Jerry Lucas (Middletown, Ohio) Centro y delantero el poder que jugó en la NBA de 1963 a 1974 y fue campeón con los Knicks …

Continuar leyendo

          

La próxima generación del BMW Serie 7 ofrecerá una versión 100% eléctrica   

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La próxima generación del BMW Serie 7 estará disponible con cuatro tipos diferentes de sistemas de propulsión: diésel, gasolina, un híbrido enchufable y, por primera vez, se ofrecerá con un sistema de propulsión 100% eléctrico de quinta generación.

Para finales de 2021, la compañía pretende tener en las carreteras más de un millón de vehículos con sistemas de tracción totalmente eléctricos o híbridos enchufables. En ese momento, el Grupo BMW ofrecerá cinco vehículos totalmente eléctricos de producción en serie. Junto al BMW i3, cuya demanda aumentó por sexto año consecutivo, y el MINI Cooper SE, totalmente eléctrico, cuya producción comenzó en la planta de Oxford (Reino Unido) a finales de 2019. El BMW iX3 entrará en producción este año en la planta de Shenyang (China), seguido en 2021 por el BMW iNEXT en Dingolfing (Alemania) y el BMW i4 en la planta de Munich; y todos ellos estarán equipados con tecnología de propulsión eléctrica de quinta generación.

Para 2023, el Grupo BMW tendrá 25 modelos electrificados en las calles; más de la mitad de ellos 100% eléctricos. La clave para lograr este objetivo es contar con vehículos inteligentes que, con la ayuda de un sistema de producción muy flexible, permitan que un modelo sea alimentado completamente con electricidad, como un híbrido enchufable o con un motor de combustión. Con estas premisas, la empresa se encuentra en una posición idónea para satisfacer la demanda en cada uno de los segmentos de mercado y ofrecer a sus clientes una verdadera capacidad de elección entre los distintos tipos de propulsión.

Un mercado en pleno crecimiento

Se prevé que, para 2021, la demanda de vehículos electrificados se duplique en comparación con 2019. El Grupo BMW espera entonces ver una curva de crecimiento pronunciado hasta 2025, con un promedio de crecimiento de las ventas de vehículos electrificados de un 30% anual.

Noticias anteriores Marca: BMW


          

Wykham crossroads road closure, 31st March   

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Road closed signs and diversion signs still standing six days after works was completed signs belong to HTM
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 20 Danvers Road, Broughton
Report on FixMyStreet
          

Number 4 street lamp, 30th March   

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Top of street lamp broken
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 96 Woodgreen Avenue, Banbury
Report on FixMyStreet
          

Street lamp No 67 Audlett Drive not working, 30th March   

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Street lamp No.67 in Audlett Drive not working for a while
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 12 Norman Avenue, Abingdon
Report on FixMyStreet
          

Oxford Handbook Of Work Engagement Motivation And Selfdetermination   

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Oxford Handbook Of Work Engagement Motivation And Selfdetermination
          

Self-Proclaimed Human Rights Heroes: The Counter-Narrative of Israeli Military Judges - Smadar Ben Natan, CMES Visiting Scholar, Apr 1   

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The world is increasingly witnessing the cooptation and deployment of human rights by conservative and illiberal political powers. This talk analyzes one such instance where human rights have become a primary discursive strategy of Israeli military judges in the occupied West Bank. Ever since the first Intifada in 1987, Palestinian and Israeli human rights NGOs and lawyers used the human rights arguments to challenge the Israeli occupation. Israeli military courts in particular were discredited for holding summary trials and violating fair trial rights. Dissecting the professional group of military judges from the legitimation efforts of the state as a whole, military judges responded to these challenges by proclaiming themselves to be promoting, rather than violating, the rights of Palestinian defendants. Analyzing military courts decisions, academic articles by military judges and interviews with legal professionals, this talk shows how military judges' discourse of "human rights heroism" avoids any criticism of the state practices, and targets the Israeli legal community as a strategy of professional mobilization. The focus on one professional group demonstrates the double function of the human rights discourse in this context, as synonymous to legal professionalism and as a tool of political legitimation.

Smadar Ben-Natan is a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. She is an Israeli human rights lawyer and a Ph.D. candidate at Tel-Aviv University Law Faculty. Her research interests are the social study of law and legal institutions, specifically the intersection of criminal justice, national security, and human rights. Her Ph.D. project titled “Citizen-Enemies” explores military courts inside Israel and in the Occupied Palestinian territories between 1967-2000 as an articulation of “enemy penology”, combining postcolonial and social theory.

Smadar holds a Master in International Human Rights Law, with distinction, from the University of Oxford, 2011, and an LLB from Tel-Aviv University, 1995. She is also a visiting scholar at the Center for the Study of Law and Society, UC Berkeley.
          

This starry night pillow bag fabric Manufacturers   

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This starry night pillow bag fabric Manufacturers themed nursery is bright and cheerful, full of fun geometric patterns, colors and textures for your ever-exploring infant. When decorating a nursery, the most important thing to remember is safety. Sleep straight through the Starry Night with this unique and beautiful pillow. The Starry Night Pillow with Removable Sham adds an artistic and luxurious detail to your bed, daybed, or sofa.

This cover is made of a durable tapestry blend of 42% cotton and 58% polyester. It can be easily spot cleaned with a mild detergent. The Starry Night Daybed Cover tops the mattress and drops 20 inches from the top of a twin size mattress to the floor like a bedspread with split tailored corners. This ocean tone embroidered pillow will add a unique touch to your decor.

The Starry night pillow has beautiful colors in the fabric of this daybed cover add an artisan's touch to the feel of your room. Solid accent pillows or matching Starry Night accent pillows look wonderful with this cover. Pamper yourself with luxury! Designer pillow's unique features include removable feather and down insert. Katiewongnyc.com is an excellent source for all your nursery and baby needs, from bedding to accessories. Get these Great Pillows for a Great price!

Besides its patent leather and GG fabric, Gucci has developed a new material. That is the Multi-color straw woven material with hand stitched GG pattern. This unique material reflects a shimmering light when seeing at a far distance, while have a close observation you will find that the material is extremely exquisite. I love this novel material so much that I can not wait to present this Gucci ?Tassels? Medium Tote to you.


          

135: Take a Relationship Fast and The Science of Intelligent Achievement   

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Your New Co-Host Teaching the art of the Relationship Fast:Dr. Isaiah Hankel is an expert in mental focus, Behavioral Psychology, and career development. Consultant to multiple Fortune 100 companies and Ted Talk alumni with his talk on Mental Focus, Isaiah has given hundreds of seminars all around the world. He has shared the stage with Gary Vaynerchuk, Shaq, and some of the biggest names in sports, entertainment, and media. He has started 3 multi-million dollar, multinational businesses and his first book, Black Hole Focus was an international business bestseller. His new book The Science of Intelligent Achievement teaches the scientific process of finding success through your most valuable assets. Today we discuss the art of the Relationship Fast and what is Isaiah Hankel all about. Plus you'll learn about his new book The Science of Intelligent Achievement: How Smart People Focus, Create and Grow Their Way To Success! Isaiah grew up working on a sheep farm in the Pacific Northwest of the US before going on to get his doctorate. Isaiah went on to become the founder and CEO of Cheeky Scientist®, a career training company that specializes in helping PhDs transition into corporate careers; he is also the director of Hankel Leadership®. Through these ventures, Isaiah has consulted on career development, employee management, entrepreneurship, focus, and motivation at several Fortune 500 companies. He has been invited to speak at top institutions including Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, Vanderbilt University, University of Chicago, University of Oxford England, the Marie Curie Institute France, and the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. On This Episode You Will Hear: [spp-timestamp time="00:30"] Introduction [spp-timestamp time="11:20"] Protecting our mindset from family and friends. [spp-timestamp time="29:37"] Evaluating your mental energy levels. [spp-timestamp time="43:40"] Focus on your strengths and outsource your weaknesses. [spp-timestamp time="44:45"] Self-awareness. [spp-timestamp time="59:20"] Final Words   How Smart People Focus, Create, And Grow Their Way To Success. - Isaiah Hankel [spp-tweet tweet="Take a Relationship Fast and Learn The Science of Intelligent Achievement! @IsaiahHankel "] [youtube https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXLc9qFLDdM] Links and Resources: IsaiahHankel.com (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://isaiahhankel.com/) Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. on Facebook (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.facebook.com/isaiahhankelphd/) Isaiah Hankel on Twitter (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://twitter.com/isaiahhankel) Isaiah Hankel on Instagram (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.instagram.com/isaiah_hankel/) Isaiah Hankel on LinkedIn (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.linkedin.com/in/isaiahhankel) Free Audiobook: Black Hole Focus (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.isaiahhankel.com/black-hole-focus-audiobook) Book: Black Hole Focus on Amazon: (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://amzn.to/2z2zKOf) NEW Book: The Science of Intelligent Achievement (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.isaiahhankel.com/the-science-of-intelligent-achievement) Pre-Order on Amazon: The Science of Intelligent Achievement: How Smart People Focus, Create and Grow Their Way to Success (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://amzn.to/2BEvLK8) People Mentioned: Tom Rath author of StrengthsFinder 2.0 (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://amzn.to/2BtTtWA) Final Words: Your biggest obstacle is yourself. Action Steps: Please Subscribe and Submit an iTunes Show Rating & Review (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/livethefuel/id1150969758?mt=2) . The more reviews, the more people can find us. We love 5 Stars too! Join our private Facebook Group community called THE FUEL TANK (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://livethefueltank.com/) . Visit our  Resources (https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://livethefuel.com/resources)  page and a reminder to “Keep Living The Fired Up Epic Life!”    
          

The world before this coronavirus and after cannot be the same   

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Gettyimages Ian Goldin, University of Oxford and Robert Muggah, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio) With COVID-19 infections now evident in 176 countries, the pandemic is the most significant threat to humanity since the second world war. Then, as now, confidence in international cooperation and institutions plumbed new lows. While the onset of […]

The post The world before this coronavirus and after cannot be the same appeared first on The Moderate Voice.


          

Fallout of Tate Reeves’ Executive Order: Department Store Roulette, Scared Associates   

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Empty parking lots surrounded most department stores in Flowood, Miss., on Saturday, March 28, even as others like Dillard's and Hobby Lobby were open in the Jackson metro. Gov. Tate Reeves does not force department stores to close, but exempts them from social-distancing requirements in his executive order. Photo by Donna Ladd

The concrete shopping jungle known as Dogwood Festival Market looked as much like a ghost town as it could as the sun started to set on a warm spring Saturday afternoon. Barely an automobile interrupted the oddly tranquil parking lots of the popular Flowood, Miss., big-box village, five miles east of the capital city in Rankin County, late on March 28. Only the occasional security officer drove slowly through to keep a watch on mostly chain department stores and specialty businesses, a line-up that looks like most suburban “outdoor” malls across the United States.

This particular Saturday, amid the coronavirus epidemic with 35 cases reported in Rankin County and one death as of this weekend, a hodgepodge of signs on standard white paper dotted the Dogwood stores’ glass doors and windows. The messages on the signs, when read slowly one-by-one on a deathly quiet stroll from store to store, were inconsistent just four days after Gov. Tate Reeves signed an order to supposedly make statewide COVID-19 safety rules match up around the state. He happens to live in a nearby subdivision, which the Clarion-Ledger reported that he tried unsuccessfully to connect straight to Dogwood with a special frontage road.

A couple of the specialty stores looked like they closed in a hurry, perhaps amid confusion. The Children’s Place had two signs crookedly taped side-by-side, one listing limited hours ending at 6 p.m., promising it was following COVID-19 guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and “local government recommendations.” Next to it, another sheet amended that, saying the store was “temporarily closed through Tuesday, March 31,” which would be only a week after Reeves signed his executive order. Nearby, Lane Bryant displayed two similar, conflicting signs, but without a reopening date.

Home Goods, with a lonely display of Easter bunny rabbits waiting unsold on the other side of the glass, was straightforward, making no promises or showing any need to explain: “This Store is Currently Closed. We Apologize for Any Inconvenience.” Bath & Body Works took a similarly straightforward approach. A baseball throw away in the nearby Market Street Center, JCPenney was also closed up.

The department store Belk, based in Charlotte, N.C., had a cheery red-and-white sign standing on the sidewalk: “Buy Online, Pick Up in Store.” Except you couldn’t, because the printed-out signs taped on its glass indicated the store was, in fact, closed. Across Highway 25, Target, Kroger and Lowe’s were open to in-store business, due to selling what are considered “essential” groceries, pharmaceuticals and building/repair supplies.

Nearby craft-supply store Hobby Lobby was also open with a sign telling customers to stay distant from each other, although its competitor, Michael’s, was closed nearby. The day before, Hobby Lobby's Oklahoma corporate office had closed stores in that state because Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt had ordered all non-essential businesses to close there to help flatten the COVID-19 curve, which Reeves has declined to do in Mississippi.

Most of the Flowood restaurants seemed to be following Reeves’ executive order that limits dining establishments to 10 people at once for sit-down services, telling them to close completely if that is impossible. His order allows dining establishments to offer take-out and curbside service, and the Jackson suburbs were seeing a decent number of people doing just that leading up to the Saturday dinner hour. Some servers—acting more like carhops of old—were wearing gloves, and others weren’t. Still others hung out in close proximity to each other outside on breaks or while walking back inside, with no apparent effort to social distance.

At least in the Mississippi county where the governor lives, Tate Reeves’ statewide effort at COVID-19 safety precautions were a hodgepodge of mixed messages and responses four days after he signed it.

What the Executive Order Did and Didn’t Do

The Mississippi governor emailed his four-page order late afternoon on Tuesday, March 24, in the wake of criticism on social media about crowds of Mississippians seen throughout the previous weekend hugging for selfies on Gulf Coast beaches; packed into a home-cooking buffet restaurant in Ridgeland at communal tables; bartering for used items in a large Rankin County flea market; and bidding at a car auction up in Tupelo—all with no apparent social distancing to avoid transmission of COVID-19 as the virus was building exponentially in Mississippi.

Reeves began the first section of his order with his basic rule for stopping the spread of COVID-19—until April 17, 2020, it read: “Mississippi residents shall avoid social and other non-essential gatherings in groups of more than 10 people where the gatherings in a single space at the same time (sic) where individuals are in close proximity to each other.” The next sentence lists exemptions to that rule: “This does not apply to normal operations of locations like airports, medical and healthcare facilities, retail shopping including grocery and department stores, offices, factories and other manufacturing facilities or any Essential Business or Operation as determined by and identified below.”

That section then lays out Reeves’ rule tailored to dining establishments and bars: They must suspend dine-in service unless “able to reduce capacity to allow no more than 10 people to be gathered in a single space at the same time where individuals are in (sic) seated or otherwise in close proximity to each other.” But he then “highly encouraged” dining facilities to do drive-thru, carryout or delivery services, rather than close as a number have done nearby in the capital city, with some restaurateurs like Jeff Good of the Mangia Bene group saying they did not believe they could protect their workers and their customers under the circumstances. Reeves also ordered no visits to health-care facilities unless to provide critical assistance or for end-of-life visits, or when the facility's supervising physician or "supervising healthcare professional" allowed it.

The rest of Reeves’ order did two things: It codified a long list of “essential businesses and operations”—including gun shops, vehicle rental agencies, and vague catch-alls like manufacturers of “products used by any other Essential Business or Operations” and “services related to financial markets.” In a later press conference, he said he drew those essential businesses and operations from a Department of Homeland Security list, but his list contains items not on the federal document.

As written, those “essential” businesses are exempt from what is really the only “order” in the governor’s document that isn’t about health-care visitation—a limit of 10 people in “social or other non-essential gatherings.”

“[A]ny Essential Business or Operation providing essential services or functions may operate at such level as necessary to provide such essential services or functions and shall not be subject to any 10 person gathering limitation or any other limitation or restriction inconsistent with this Executive Order,” Reeves states. He added that those on the essential list “shall take all reasonable measures” to comply with CDC and the Mississippi Department of Health standards, not further defining “reasonable.”

But, also as written, “locations like airports, medical and healthcare facilities, retail shopping including grocery and department stores, offices, factories and other manufacturing facilities” are also exempt from the 10-person rule, and Reeves’ order imposes no other social-distancing requirements on them.

The part of the order that got many local officials up in arms immediately, causing some to re-do their local rules, was the provision that local officials could not adopt any rule “that imposes any additional freedom of movement or social distancing limitations on Essential Business or Operation, restricts scope of services or hours of operation of any Essential Business or Operation, or which will or might in any way conflict with or impede the purpose of this Executive Order.” Such conflicted orders would be “suspended and unenforceable during this COVID-19 State of Emergency.”

But, most of the orders Mississippi mayors had put into place were focused on the types of local businesses, especially restaurants, that Reeves’ order did not deem “essential” enough to exempt from the 10-or-fewer rule with their employees required to return if they could not do their work at home.

Reeves quickly assured mayors like Chokwe Lumumba of Jackson and Robyn Tannehill of Oxford that their rules to date were fine under his order, calling his document a “floor” that they could add to if needed. But, again, that floor only applies to the limited number of non-essential businesses that are defined in the order—restaurants, presumably small retail stores, non-medical fitness businesses and places such as parks. Local authorities might also impose curfews, for instance, but not on a person traveling to participate in an essential business or operation.

On Thursday, Reeves issued an addendum to his order essentially restating the original language: Essential businesses and operations, as he defines them, are exempt from the 10-person rule, and the governor codified no other social-distancing requirements. When it comes to essential businesses and operations, local officials can’t impose any additional restrictions. Only MSDH and the Centers for Disease Control can preempt his order protecting those operations.

The language of the executive order taken as a whole, as a result, leaves department stores like those in Reeves’ home county in a complicated and inconsistent gray area as was apparent in Flowood on Saturday. And that lack of conformity worries both people who work in those stores, as well as public-health experts.

Department Store Associate: Language Is Too Broad

The day after Reeves issued his executive order on March 24, Mary Thomas* heard from her Central Mississippi employer that she and her co-workers would soon be headed back to work. Thomas, who asked not to be identified by her real name due to potential retaliation, is an associate at a major department-store chain with many locations in Mississippi. Within 24 hours of the original order going public, word from corporate came down that the stores would open back up in a week or so because the governor’s order had cleared the way.

The reason? That language up top vaguely including “department stores,” “offices” and “factories” in a list of clearly more critical services such as medical facilities and grocers to which the 10-or-fewer rule did not apply, Thomas told the Jackson Free Press after reaching out to express her concerns about what the order could mean to her and co-workers.

“The way that section is written,” Thomas said of Reeves’ clause mentioning department stores, “that umbrella could mean that stores like Belk, JCPenney and others fall under his criteria (for remaining open).”

Thomas said her long experience working in retail tells her that corporations could well argue that the governor’s specific language gave them a loophole in which to stay open, or open back up. She referred specifically to this clause as a way even department stores could open back up, even if they only really sell unessential items.

“I’m sure companies have people looking at it state-by-state to see what that means for areas that don’t have a direction that is clear,” she said in an interview. “The problem with our area is that it is listed too vaguely to be clear on what would be considered ‘essential.’ It wraps us (department stores) into a larger group that are based out of necessity.”

Thomas said that she’s concerned the language could offer too much leeway for legal interpretation. “It’s too broad,” she said.

She emphasized that her primary concern is safety for herself and her co-workers, especially with Mississippi’s high per-capita rates of COVID-19 infection and increasing deaths. “I worry about my associates,” Thomas said. “I know personally that a lot of people in my company care for elderly or are elderly themselves, or work with people in the health industry,” she said. “Bringing that group back puts everybody in that building at risk without even opening the door to the public.”

Her company has not discussed with workers a way to either limit the number of customers allowed into a store at a time or a plan for distancing within the workplace, not that either of those are required in Reeves’ order, which explicitly says that his 10-person rule does not apply to department stores.

On Saturday, the Flowood Hobby Lobby’s front-door sign (which happened to be taped on the door that automatically moved when you walked up, making it hard to read) only said, “Protect yourself and others. Please follow the CDC recommendation of keeping a minimum of 6 feet between you and others.” Through the glass, people were visible standing within a foot of each other.

Public-health experts like Dr. Irwin Redlener of Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, a specialist in public-health disasters, agreed with Thomas. “We are all suffering, the entire country, is suffering from the lack of consistent messages, started at the top, for weeks and weeks," Redlener said last week on an NBC segment following up on the Jackson Free Press’ story last week revealing the contents of Reeves’ order. ... "There is exactly one thing that we can do right now ... The only action we have to do to save lives and to stop the spread of this disease."

In that segment, Tupelo Mayor Jason Shelton repeated his call for a consistent and strong statewide policy from the governor. "The concerns are twofold: If we’re going to flatten the curve, we have to listen to our doctors, to our scientists," Shelton said. "The second is, there’s very little in the governor’s order. Mississippians are being left to the cities and counties to take action, and every one of them [is] doing something different. If Tupelo closes non-essential businesses, it’s sending people by car to neighboring cities, which is exacerbating the problem. … We need consistent and uniform policy from the national and state level. What we’ve seen is the goalposts keep moving."

In an interview billed as "exclusive" with the Mississippi Today website Friday, Reeves framed the criticism of his executive order as political. "They didn’t like the way we defined business. And again, in some of the more liberal jurisdictions, they wanted to shut down every business, and there’s just some things we believe are essential," Reeves said.

In that interview, Reeves also confirmed again the clause in his order saying local officials cannot touch the businesses he listed as "essential" in the document. "They just can’t directly do something or outlaw something that is under 'essential services,'" he said.

But that doesn't help employees who feel in limbo in businesses such as department stores, which Reeves did not include in his long "essential" list, but said ordered exempt from his 10-people social-distancing rule. Big companies like her employer, Thomas says, watch closely to see just how much leeway state and local governments will allow and act accordingly. And when they see that a competitor figures out a way to open their doors, they may well follow suit, not just for immediate profit but to preserve their market share.

“That’s when they really start to analyze, what does each area look like?” Thomas said. “What is the executive order in your state, town?”

If the government’s rules are weak, vague or confusing, she said, the corporation can just re-open the doors, with still others following suit.

Revisit the Verbiage, Close it Up and Make it More Specific

About 10 miles northeast of Flowood in Ridgeland, the Northpark Mall was closing with an almost-empty parking lot at 7 p.m. Saturday, its special pandemic closing time, signs on entrances explained. Like in Reeves’ neighborhood further south, its Belk store was closed, as was JCPenney, pledging to re-open April 2.

But Dillard’s—selling the usual clothing, upscale cosmetics, lingerie and small appliances—was open for business, closing at the same time as the mall after a day of Saturday in-store shopping. Like its locations in other places such as Biloxi in Harrison County on the Gulf Coast, which has seen 43 known cases and one death to date, the Little Rock, Ark.-based department store chain is still open in some Mississippi towns. Ridgeland is just north of Jackson in Madison County, where 37 cases have been reported to date.

CNBC reported on March 27 that Dillards has chosen to remain open in states and localities that have not issued specific orders that would close them; most of its stores are in the southeast, southwest and midwest. CNBC reported that many employees, much like Thomas in Mississippi, are very concerned for their safety and are practically “begging” the company to close the stores.

“We are open with limited hours where not ordered to close by state or local government mandate,” a Dillard’s spokeswoman told CNBC via email. “We are promptly cooperating with any such actions.”

On their signs, the various retail stores from Flowood to Ridgeland promised different dates that they planned to re-open, most of them between now and Easter, which is April 12 this year. That is also the date President Donald Trump had said he really wanted America to move past the fear of COVID-19, and get back to work. He changed his mind Sunday, saying at a press conference that Americans should stay at home, if they can, for another 30 days due to public-health advisers’ warnings.

Many experts, in fact, say that the only way to really contain the epidemic is by taking strong measures to limit contact between humans and with items that can transfer the virus, such as surfaces in high-traffic areas—the metal on doors, plastic displays—that many different people touch and where the virus can live for hours or even days.

It is time, say people who have studied the problem, such as billionaire Bill Gates whose Gates Foundation funds anti-pandemic research, to go well past limiting groups to 10 people in order to have a serious impact on the epidemic.

But so far, the logic of Tate Reeves seems to reflect the president’s thinking that the economy cannot afford the kind of shutdown that could dramatically reduce the ultimate number of deaths. In his executive order, he spent much more time making it clear what businesses COVID-19 safety provisions did not apply to, than those it did apply to. And the vague language that appears to exempt “retail shopping including grocery and department stores, offices, factories and other manufacturing facilities” from his 10-person rule seems to have created exactly the lack of uniformity of response that experts say is required, and that Republicans like the Oklahoma governor are putting into place.

Reeves’ staff did not respond to a request for an interview. However, on Sunday on Facebook Live, the governor interviewed State Health Officer Dr. Thomas Dobbs with both repeatedly emphasizing that a “shelter in place” order, for which a Change.org petition now has nearly 7,500 signatures, would not be enough to completely stop the spread of coronavirus, an argument that proponents are not making.

"There are those who say, well, let’s just shelter in place for a period of time and the virus will go away, and nobody will get it," Reeves said to Dobbs at one point Sunday afternoon.

The argument, instead, is that such an order would enforce stricter social distancing and keep the health-care system from being overloaded by a rapid increase in cases.

Dobbs, for his part, emphasized that the strategy, now, rather than a statewide shelter-in-place, is to find and isolate "clusters" in different parts of the state. "If we depend on a shelter-in-place to be a solution, we’re going to be sorely disappointed," he said. "It’s a great intervention to slow things down. But if you’re not coupling with something else, it seems like you’re really setting yourself up for failure and frustration. When does it end? Does it end when the cases are gone? Does it end when the curve bends? That could go on for a long time."

The state health officer emphasized that just because a store is open or considered essential, it doesn't mean you are safe from contracting the virus there. "Just because you need to go Walmart doesn’t mean Walmart is immune from COVID," he said, then clarifying that the State is "not talking about closing Walmart under any circumstance."

Dr. Redlener of Columbia University was direct about his concerns that Reeves needs to shut down more businesses and operations immediately to stop the spread, calling the Mississippi governor's approach "a confrontation with science."

"I can almost guarantee that the people of Mississippi will die because of whatever’s prompting or promoting this idea that the governor has been spreading that somehow he should override appropriate public-health practices. It’s staggering," Redlener said on NBC. "I don’t think we’ve ever seen anything like this before. … Lives are at stake, I can’t say that strongly enough, and I think we need to find a way to get the governor to change his mind."

Mary Thomas, who had not heard an update on when her employer plans to re-open by press time, said the solution for Reeves is to “revisit the verbiage, close it up and make it more specific,” so that corporate legal teams cannot twist it to do whatever they want with too little regard for public safety.

“I get it,” Thomas said. “Everyone's hemorrhaging finances, but the trade-off of lives is far greater than other options. Who wants to be diagnosed and, God forbid, end up in ICU to die alone? I don’t.”

This source's name was changed by request.

Email editor-in-chief Donna Ladd at donna@jacksonfreepress.com. Follow her on Twitter at @donnerkay.

Read the JFP’s coverage of COVID-19 at jacksonfreepress.com/covid19. Get more details on preventive measures here. Read about announced closings and delays in Mississippi here. Read MEMA’s advice for a COVID-19 preparedness kit here.

Email information about closings and other vital related logistical details to dustin@jacksonfreepress.com.

Email state reporter Nick Judin, who is covering COVID-19 in Mississippi, at nick@jacksonfreepress.com and follow him on Twitter at @nickjudin. Seyma Bayram is covering the outbreak inside the capital city and in the criminal-justice system. Email her at seyma@jacksonfreepress.com and follow her on Twitter at @seymabayram0.


          

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