Receiving its world premiere as the closing film of the Osaka Asian Film Festival 2020, Kamata Prelude is an omnibus movie split between four different directors with four distinct styles. Each director is part of […]
Lai mazinātu riskus Covid-19 tālākai izplatībai Latvijas iedzīvotāju vidū, atbilstoši epidemioloģiskajai situācijai, valdība ir pieņēmusi stingrākus noteikumus cilvēku pulcēšanās ierobežošanai privātos un publiskos pasākumos un citus ierobežojumus. Fiziskās kontaktēšanās ierobežojumi attiecas uz publiskām norisēm iekštelpās un ārtelpās un nosaka divu cilvēku un divu metru distances ievērošanas noteikumus.
Ārkārtējās situācijas laikā tiek aizliegti jebkādi privāti pasākumi, izņemot bēru ceremoniju noturēšanu ārtelpās, ja tiek ievērota savstarpējā divu metru distance starp personām un citi epidemioloģiskās drošības noteikumi.
Tiek samazināts kultūras, izklaides, ārpustelpu sporta un citu atpūtas vietu darba laiks no pulksten 8.00 līdz 22.00.
Kā līdz šim, ir aizliegti jebkādi publiski pasākumi, kā arī sapulces, gājieni un piketi. Tāpat ir aizliegta sporta norišu darbība telpās, kā arī reliģiskās darbības, kas veicamas pulcējoties.
Savukārt publiskās vietās ir noteikti vairāki jauni ierobežojumi, kas nosaka personu atrašanos vienuviet. Visās publiskās vietās – iekštelpās, ārtelpās un koplietošanas telpās ir jāievēro savstarpēja divu metru distance, kā arī citi noteiktie fiziskās distancēšanās un epidemioloģiskās drošības pasākumi.
Neievērojot divu metru distanci, vienlaicīgi pulcēties publiskās iekštelpās un publiskās ārtelpās drīkst ne vairāk kā divas personas. Izņēmums ir personas, kas dzīvo vienā mājsaimniecībā vai arī vecāks un to nepilngadīgie bērni gadījumos, ja tie nedzīvo vienā mājsaimniecībā. Vairāk nekā divas personas drīkst pulcēties arī gadījumos, kad tiek veikti darba vai dienesta pienākumi.
Tirdzniecības vietās un sabiedriskās ēdināšanas vietās varēs atrasties tāds personu skaits, kas tiks noteikts ar ekonomikas ministra rīkojumu, nodrošinot divu metru savstarpēju distanci un citus epidemioloģiskās drošības pasākumus. Vienlaikus valdība uzdeva ekonomikas ministram noteikt personu skaitu, kas vienlaicīgi var atrasties tirdzniecības vietā un sabiedriskās ēdināšanas vietā.
Papildus ir noteikts, ka brīvdienās un svētku dienās visos tirdzniecības centros, nodrošinot fiziskās distancēšanās pasākumus, darbosies arī preses tirdzniecības vietas, vakcinācijas kabineti un ķīmiskās tīrītavas.
Turpmāk ar zāļu, medicīnisko ierīču, individuālo aizsardzības līdzekļu un dezinfekcijas līdzekļu piegādēm primāri būs jānodrošina valsts vajadzības.
Aizsardzības ministrs turpmāk lems par Nacionālo bruņoto spēku atbalsta sniegšanu Valsts robežsardzei un Valsts policijai, kā arī civilās aizsardzības sistēmai, izvērtējot iestādes izteiktā pieprasījuma ietekmi uz Nacionālo bruņoto spēku tiešo uzdevumu izpildi.
Lai veiktu epidemioloģisko izmeklēšanu un pārliecinātos par personas sniegto informāciju par pārvietošanas patiesumu, Valsts policija pēc Slimību profilakses un kontroles centra pieprasījuma varēs pieprasīt informāciju elektronisko sakaru komersantiem par konkrētām personām, kurām var būt noteikts inficēto vai kontaktpersonu statuss.
Personām būs pienākums pēc darba devēja pieprasījuma sniegt informāciju darba devējam par savu veselības stāvokli, ciktāl tam ir būtiska nozīme paredzētā darba veikšanā.
Darba devējs ārkārtējās situācijas laikā būs tiesīgs nodarbināt personu bez obligātās veselības pārbaudes veikšanas gadījumos, ja būs pārtraukta veselības aprūpes pakalpojumu sniegšana, kas nepieciešama obligātās veselības pārbaudes veikšanai. Tas neattieksies uz personām, kuras ir nodarbinātas bīstamos darbos, kur pastāv augsts nelaimes gadījumu risks pašam nodarbinātajam vai apkārtējiem.
Eastern big name Naomi Osaka says she’s dissatisfied to not compete on the Tokyo Olympics this yr however helps the verdict to put off the development to 2021. The 22-year-old former global primary stated on Twitter on Saturday that she thinks the development might be higher for shifting to subsequent yr within the wake of …
Redacción Deportes (EE.UU.), 28 mar (EFE).- La tenista japonesa Nami Osaka, exnúmero uno del mundo y campeona de dos Grand Slam, declaró sentirse decepcionada por el aplazamiento de los Juegos Olímpicos que estaban previstos para este verano en su país, pero a la vez dijo que apoya la decisión de realizarse en el 2021.
Osaka, a través de las redes sociales, dijo que superar la pandemia del coronavirus que afecta al mundo entero era el único objetivo que debía preocupar a todos, sin excepción, pero no había sido fácil asimilar muchas de las cosas que están sucediendo.
La excampeona del Abierto de Estados Unidos admitió que cuando se dio a conocer el aplazamiento oficial de los Juegos de Tokio 2020 fue algo que le impactó emocionalmente.
'He meditado mucho en cómo articular mis pensamientos sobre esto durante un par de días', señaló Osaka.
El martes tanto el gobierno japonés como el Comité Olímpico Internacional (COI) anunciaron de manera oficial el aplazamiento de los Juegos de Verano, que se debían disputar en Tokio del 24 de julio al 9 de agosto, por causa del coronavirus.
Osaka escribió: 'El deporte finalmente nos volverá a unir y siempre estará allí para nosotros, pero ese momento no es ahora'.
También se dirigió a 'la gente de Japón', donde nació, diciendo: 'Mantente fuerte, aguanta y muestra al mundo nuestro hermoso país cuando sea el momento adecuado'.
La tenista de 22 años figura como una de las estrellas más vistas en Tokio, dado que representa al país anfitrión y es una candidata a la medalla de oro dentro de su modalidad deportiva.
Osaka irrumpió en el escenario del tenis mundial cuando de manera sorpresiva, en el 2018, ganó el Abierto de Estados Unidos al imponerse en una polémica final a la estadounidense Serena Williams.
Luego repitió triunfo en el Abierto de Australia del 2019, año en el que alcanzó también el puesto número uno del tenis mundial femenino, siendo la primera jugadora de Asia en conseguirlo dentro de la categoría individual.
Sin embargo, a partir del pasado mes de agosto, Osaka comenzó a perder su mejor tenis y fue desbancada por la australiana Ashleigh Barty y ahora ocupa el décimo puesto en la clasificación de la WTA. EFE
A través de un evento virtual, Honda anunció su nuevo concepto CB-F, una motocicleta que lleva algo de historia de los 60 años de la serie CB, junto con nueva tecnología de avanzada. Este concepto estaba planeado presentarse en el 36º salón Osaka Motorcycle Show 2020 y también durante el 47º salón Tokio Motorcycle Show, los cuales fueron suspendidos por el brote de coronavirus. El diseño de esta Honda CB-F es un homenaje la CB900F, que en Japón es la CB750F. Este modelo japonés global es un icono de la marca dentro de los modelos CB. El motor del Concepto
At this rate, I'll only be posting once a week! (And I don't want to post that infrequently)
Chocolate Argyle V4.5
Toni evolved into Horoyotchi on Saturday (the 21st). She got a job as a hospital worker.
On Tuesday (the 24th), Toni and Jax married and had girls.
Yesterday morning, I named her daughter Ellen and she evolved into Tamatchi. I decided to run a test to see just how similar child-to-teen evolution is between the V4 and V4.5; I gave her four care mistakes, but good overall care. Doing that exact same thing with Harutchi on the V4 resulted in Young Mametchi.
I guess they're even more similar that I thought, because she evolved into Zouritchi this morning! I was fairly amused by this.
I decided to evolve her into Tsukkomitchi, one of my favourite characters (and one of the first I remember obtaining on this Tama).
Skills: 22 Funny, 49 Gorgeous, 40 Spiritual
Weight: 20 Pounds
Age: 1 Year
Pink Stripe V4
Lotti evolved into Ponytchi on Saturday (the 21st)! She got a job as a banker.
On Tuesday (the 24th), she married Tosakatchi via the matchmaker and had a girl.
I named her Erin, and she evolved into Puchitchi. I decided to run an experiment: I gave her three care mistakes to see if she'd evolve into Ringotchi or Young Memetchi.
She evolved into Young Memetchi! I hardly ever obtain her, so I was quite pleased. I'm going to evolve her into Memetchi. I might try for Makiko, but I'm making no promises here
Skills: 21 Intellectual, 55 Style, 27 Kindness
Weight: 15 Pounds
Age: 1 Year
Yellow Mood V4.5
Abby evolved into Ura Young Violetchi on the 21st (Saturday)! I was hoping for Yakantchi, but Ura Young Violetchi is so cute that I didn't really care
She evolved into Ura Violetchi on Monday (the 23rd). She got a job as a teacher.
Sometime yesterday, Abby married John the Nyorotchi. And they had boys! I was very pleased, since most Tamas I've obtained recently were girls, which was annoying.
Skills: 31 Funny, 31 Gorgeous, 251 Spiritual
Weight: 30 Pounds
Age: 7 Years
Black Spark V4
On Saturday (the 21st), Kandi evolved into Nikatchi as planned! I was really excited, as she was one of only two or three teens I've never obtained (Hawaikotchi and possibly Young Mimitchi are the other two).
On Monday (the 23rd), she evolved into Yattatchi! I thought to myself, "there's a face I haven't seen in a while!" before realising...her face is identical to that of Kuchipatchi and Nyorotchi
Anyway, she got a job as a bus driver.
Sometime yesterday, Kandi married Tarakotchi via the matchmaker and she had a girl. I hope she evolves into Harutchi, because if she does, I might be able to figure out a way for it to evolve into the Meme family. On the other hand, I don't want to risk getting Ringotch AGAIN, so I'm not sure.
If she evolves into MohiTamatchi, I'll try for Young Dorotchi.
Skills: 56 Intellectual, 65 Style, 157 Kindness
Weight: 20 Pounds
Age: 7 Years
On Sunday (the 22nd), Jax evolved into Samuraitchi! He got a job as a florist. He married Toni two days later and had girls.
Yesterday morning, I named his daughter Molly, and she evolved into Hitodetchi. I didn't want her to evolve into a Meme teen, so I cared for her as I normally would, no care mistakes and no care slips.
She evolved into Ura Young Marotchi this morning. I plan on having her evolve into Ura Zukyutchi; won't be a problem. Man-Hole is my favourite game on the V4.5.
Skills: 22 Funny, 33 Gorgeous, 44 Spiritual
Weight: 21 Pounds
Age: 1 Year
Purple True Friends V2
Wesley unfortunately died the afternoon of the 22nd (Sunday). I was too busy watching my sister play Animal Crossing: New Horizons and I didn't realise Wesley was dying until I heard a faint flatline sound. Oh well...that's my own fault. He will be missed...
I hatched a new egg, and it was a girl I named Wendy. She evolved into Hitodetchi, and then UFOtchi (it seems I forgot to take pictures 😐).
She evolved into Pyonchitchi yesterday afternoon! I find it rather amusing how Pyonchitchi was specifically created to be male-only, but all three times I've obtained him on the V2, it was female
Weight: 31 Pounds
Age: 5 Years
Pink True Friends V2
On Sunday (the 22nd), John evolved into Nyorotchi! I don't know what I was expecting, but I was really happy with this. I don't know why, but I think Nyorotchi is very cute
Also, aside from his close-up, his animations are identical to Kuchipatchi's (barring the obvious fact that the body is different).
He married Abby yesterday and had boys, as you can read above.
John, Abby, and Kandi all left behind their babies as I was writing this.
Weight: 30 Pounds
Age: 10 Years
I don't know how long it will be before my next post; it will definitely be Monday at the earliest, and seven days at the latest
Sorry it's been a while since my last post, I've been kind of lazy busy lately.
On Tuesday (the 24th), Lotti married another Meme adult as planned (Tosakatchi, to be specific). And, as expected, her daughter, Erin, evolved into Puchitchi yesterday morning.
I gave her three care mistakes to see if she would evolve into Ringotchi or Young Memetchi.
And she evolved into Young Memetchi!
Based on this and previous experience, I think that giving Puchitchi three care mistakes is the maximum required to prevent Ringotchi and Young Androtchi from appearing, but it seems Gourmetchi and Young Memetchi can evolve from it with any number of care mistakes if a "care slip" occurs (when the hungry or happy hearts drop too low but are filled before it can count as a care mistake), so I'm not entirely sure. Next time I get Puchitchi, I'll have to try three care mistakes again without any care slips to see if I get Young Memetchi/Gourmetchi again, or Ringotchi/Young Androtchi.
As for Kandi the Nikatchi, she evolved into Yattatchi a few days ago. She married a Tarakotchi via the matchmaker yesterday. I don't know whether her child will evolve into MohiTamatchi or Harutchi; I'm kind of hoping for the latter, though, so I can try to see if I can get it to evolve into the Meme family somehow
- Halal-Netzwerk auf dritten Standort in Japan erweitert -
Am Mittwoch, den 4. Me Standort von Nippon Express, der die Halal-Zertifizierung erhalten hat, die ersten zwei Standorte befinden sich in Tokio and Fukuoka.
The novel coronavirus is not only infecting people around the world, it’s infecting the global economy. As you read this, likely from the safety of your home, more restaurants and other small businesses are shuttering. States around the U.S. report that hundreds of thousands are filing for unemployment insurance. The president of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis predicts the unemployment rate could skyrocket to 30 percent by the end of the second quarter, which ends next week. That’s 5 percentage points higher than it was in 1933, during the depths of the Great Depression. Yes, it’s on a course that’s really that bad.
Congress is working on putting together a massive stimulus package to ward off the worst. An attempt to pass one with a $1.8 trillion price tag failed Sunday in the Senate because Democrats opposed what they called a “slush fund” of $500 billion worth of loans that would be meted out at the Treasury Department’s discretion. Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts tweeted that Trump would direct the money “to boost favored companies and corporate executives.” (Democrats blocked another attempt to move a stimulus forward on Monday, but according to The Washington Post, senators on both sides seemed upbeat that evening that they would soon reach a deal.)
Which got us at Grist thinking. The money the government is about to inject into the economy is obviously needed to soften the blow from the COVID-19 outbreak. But it also gives us an opportunity to get ahead of another slower-moving emergency: climate change.
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“Economic and financial experts are gravely concerned that the next economic crisis looming behind this one will be caused by climate change,” said Senator Sheldon Whitehouse from Rhode Island, in a statement to Grist. “While shoring up the economy from the coronavirus fallout, it’s responsible to address that future crisis, and help create millions of good-paying jobs in the clean energy sector while we’re at it.”
This isn’t just wishful thinking on the part of a known climate hawk. In 2009, during the Great Recession, President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, a roughly $800 billion stimulus package. A portion of that — $90 billion — went toward clean energy projects. The impact, according to a 2016 report on those investments, was huge: “Solar electricity generation has increased over 30‐fold since 2008. Wind generation has increased over three‐fold since 2008.”
Whitehouse himself is pushing for binding emission-reductions targets, as well as for investing in innovation to help green commercial and cargo air travel, including forcing airlines to buy offsets for their massive carbon footprints. Those are a sample of what climate and clean-energy advocates dream of stuffing into one of the multiple recovery packages likely required to recover from the devastating fallout from the coronavirus pandemic.
Grist reached out to experts from the fields of finance, policy, and grassroots activism to ask what they would include if they were at the table with members of Congress, negotiating a stimulus package. Among their demands: renewable energy tax credits, community cleanups, and an end to bailouts for oil and gas companies. Their answers have been edited and condensed for clarity.
Forget about fossil fuels
Clark Williams-Derry, energy finance analyst, The Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis
In my mind, the top climate priority in any stimulus package is like the Hippocratic Oath: Do no harm! Bailouts to the shale industry in particular are like throwing good money after bad. Our research has shown that U.S. fracking-focused oil companies have been money-losers for at least a decade. The underlying financial reality — even before COVID-19, even before the Saudi-Russia price war — is that fracking has been an unrelenting financial failure.
The job of any short-term stimulus must be to help real people with real problems: safeguarding health and surviving the economic crunch. Bailouts to favored industries are a feeble and ineffective way to achieve these goals.
The biggest question we’ll be facing after the short-term crisis passes will be: How do we rebuild? One way of rebuilding the economy is to prioritize investments that put people to work, stabilize the economy, and keep consumer costs low and stable over the long-term. A massive build-out of renewables and storage, focused on distributed generation, looks like both a winner for the climate and for real people.
[Editor’s note: Williams-Derry worked for Grist in its early years, back at the turn of the century.]
Green infrastructure and neighborhoods
Lynn Richards, president and CEO, Congress for the New Urbanism
We have historically spent lots and lots of money, trillions of dollars, on these big infrastructure projects. Think the Hoover Dam and the Tennessee Valley Authority. What happens if we begin to turn our attention to the neighborhood, to millions of small-scale projects?
What about creating a program for green infrastructure around schools? Stormwater management — which is actually very labor-intensive to build — has so many auxiliary benefits, such as increasing the walkability of a particular street, creating a more distinctive community, slowing down traffic, creating more green space, and oh, by the way, managing your stormwater.
Spend some of that money to have parents who got laid off build rain gardens around the schools. Every single school in America could have a rain garden. It would put people back to work, and it would help create a greater sense of community. To buy materials, you’d have to support local landscaping businesses. It’s all very much local and small-scale. That’s something that could easily be done by this summer. We’re not talking about building a 12-mile highway. We need to immediately jumpstart the economy in a way that will provide multiple community benefits.
Back in the Great Depression, we had the Civilian Conservation Corps. What happens if we were to create a similar program that built affordable housing or Missing Middle housing in cities across America? If each city were only able to build 100 or 200 units, that would be enormous. If we start building more complete neighborhoods that are more compact, so we’re not required to drive everywhere, we’re going to start chipping away at the 30 percent of emissions that come from transportation.
When you’re talking about transportation, the ramp-up to do that is much harder. I can think of a trillion dollars of expenditures on transportation from investing in bus rapid transit, in streetcars, fixed rail, bike lanes, more walkable streets, fixed sidewalks, pedestrian dignity. That’s something I would want to see in the longer term.
Make sustainable investments
Bracken Hendricks, president & CEO, Urban Ingenuity
Stimulus and recovery funding is exactly what needs to be done. It’s exceedingly timely, and it’s actually where the movement for climate solutions needs to go anyway. I think it’s sort of a silver lining of a terrible situation.
In the short-term, I think the first thing we want to do is actually tie standards to the money we’re giving away. If you’re subsidizing energy-intensive and highly polluting industries, you really should stipulate that they create more public value in return for a bailout. Whether it’s cruise ships or casinos or the hospitality industry, there’s a ton that they can do to clean up their environmental performance, use more renewable energy, and use more energy efficiency.
Clearly, you want to think twice about bailing out the oil and gas industry, but if you’re going to do that, you want to really think about what you’re asking for in return. When the government bailed out the auto industry [in 2008], they stepped up and made commitments to improve fuel economy. It’s a very good precedent. And we should be doing that throughout any business-focused bailout dealing with emergency situations. It’s not unreasonable. These are core pieces of the public value.
I worked very deeply on the Recovery Act, which included billions for clean energy investments. You had advanced manufacturing of vehicles and building plants for the electrification of vehicles. There were things like the Energy Efficiency and Conservation BLOCK Grant program that pushed money through HUD to towns and cities to do energy efficiency, renewable energy, bike lanes, and a whole range of things that decarbonized at the community level.
I really do think this is a leadership opportunity, assuming that former Vice President Biden is very close to sowing up the nomination mathematically. The Vice President’s office in the Obama administration oversaw huge portions of the Recovery Act. And Joe Biden actually has a really, really strong record of leadership. The $90 billion in the Recovery Act, a lot of it was under his guidance. So I think leaning into having him expand his climate ambition through the vehicle of a green recovery program is not at all far fetched.
A large stimulus package could be moving at the trillion-dollar scale. No. 1, we better make sure that those investments are flowing to things that are actually sustainable.
May Boeve, executive director, 350.org
The Sierra Club put together a package that they sent to the Hill that we think is really, really good. The key bullet points that they included in their note were: invest in workers, protect clean energy, clean transportation, and clean economy jobs, no fossil fuel bailouts, make a down payment on a regenerative economy, and protect democracy.
[The novel coronavirus] is revealing just how interconnected everyone is — the terrifying part is not the interconnectedness, obviously — but it’s the spread of this, and how it had a global reach so quickly, that reminds everyone that one country’s response is insufficient. We have to be thinking globally.
We need increased public spending and an end to austerity on a global level. This pandemic has demonstrated that a huge and growing portion of the planet’s labor force is working under increasingly precarious conditions. In many places and not only in poorer countries, people are forced to choose between feeding their families and social distancing, and this crisis has revealed so many systemic problems in the way the economy is set up and how that affects the most vulnerable.
Some of the things connected to that that we’re calling for are increased public health budgets, livable minimum wages, income security, massive retraining programs to make sure those left unemployed and those in unsustainable industries can find jobs. As we know, massive government investment in public infrastructure is also what’s going to help us combat future shocks caused by climate change, and it’s also going to be what helps us build the low-carbon infrastructure we need. That takes us further away from catastrophic climate impacts, and builds the green economy that we need for the future.
Leave no community behind
Michele Roberts, national co-coordinator of the Environmental Justice Health Alliance for Chemical Policy Reform
We need to see how it is that the vulnerabilities that were permitted through things such as racial segregation, forced migration, all of these things that stem back to racial and ethnic discrimination — how are we addressing remedies to make people whole in these stimulus packages as we look at climate change and the climate crisis and now this pandemic coronavirus crisis?
Because of our unified and combined work together on the Equitable and Just Climate Platform, and the newly introduced Environmental Justice For All bill, fortunately, our communities have been reached out to by policymakers. And so we have been able to share the things that we need. Short-term fixes, such as making sure, No. 1, that these funds that are coming into states literally drop down on the ground to the most impacted, not just go back into the state budget. But making sure that it helps families with folks who are incarcerated. We’re talking about children being at home and learning now through the internet — we still have a digital divide when we think about our brothers and sisters in Appalachia and in northern New Mexico and Colorado and other spaces. So making sure digital infrastructures are reinforced, and that we prioritize those who still have yet to gain necessary digital infrastructure. Making sure that our community roads and systems — sewer lines and the like — are addressed. That there is access for our senior population and our children to healthy nutritional, affordable foods, not these foods laden with high sodium and artificial ingredients. Our folks need access to healthy, nutritional, affordable food and affordable medication. All of these things are necessary.
For our long-term stimulus package, that’s when we really get down into the nitty-gritty of making sure that there is a comprehensive cleanup for our communities. That cleanup does not mean that our community members are thrown out — they are able to live in the communities that have been brought up to the standards that other communities have.
Clean energy tax credits
Joseph Majkut, director of climate policy, Niskanen Center
There’s a bunch of clean energy tax credits that could plausibly be included in this stimulus. Examples might include reform or expansion of the electric vehicle tax credit, tax credits for energy storage, or for various kinds of new low-carbon technology.
Industry is asking for those tax credits. It’s not clear to me how much those measures will stimulate the economy — given that the economy is entering a very ambiguous period, there’s going to be a lot of demand for money. I don’t know how I would handicap clean energy credits’ chances versus other demands for funding. Still, when the government is handing out money, there’s no sense in not raising your hand.
I think a lot of the things that we need for the long term have a longer timescale than I think they’re contemplating right now, like deploying new technology — high voltage power lines crossing the country, green infrastructure, public transport. That’s not the stuff that can get slotted into fast-moving legislation. But it might be reasonable to look at later in the year, depending on how long this recovery takes.
If we are talking about looking all the way forward to rebuilding under a new president, I think we need to wait and see what the effect of this recession is regionally. We’ve got to know more to understand how we’re going to stimulate the economy before we can really simulate what we’re going to plan for climate efforts.
Advanced manufacturing in underserved communities
Mustafa Santiago Ali, vice president of environmental justice, climate, and community revitalization, The National Wildlife Federation
I’ve been pushing folks to actually have an environmental justice aspect put into it to make sure that any reactions that happen are not going to have disproportionate impacts on communities of color and indigenous populations. So [my plan would] be focused on the opportunities that exist around renewable energy in a couple of different ways: one, making sure that any movements that we go forward on are lowering emissions and public health impacts. It would be focusing on wind, solar thermal, tidal, and making sure that we are creating advanced manufacturing opportunities — and those advanced manufacturing opportunities are in the communities that have often been under-resourced and underserved. [Editor’s note: “Advanced manufacturing” refers to industrial processes that are optimized for efficiency using scientific and technological innovation.] For me, that’s hugely important as somewhere between a trillion and maybe possibly up to $3.5 trillion begins to move back to our economy.
Site Flaubert: publications récentes, 2020. EAN13 : 21043345. ÉDITIONS NUMERIQUES Édition numérique de la correspondance de Flaubert Depuis novembre 2017, la correspondance de Flaubert est en ligne. Du moins les lettres qu’il a écrites, au nombre de 4.491. Mais il manquait les lettres reçues, la correspondance dite «passive», l’autre moitié sans laquelle rien ne correspond . Pour que la correspondance soit vraiment complète, nous ajoutons désormais les lettres reçues par Flaubert: 2.280 (une cinquantaine est à venir). https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/correspondance/edition/index.php Les principes de navigation restent les mêmes: on peut afficher par ordre chronologique, par correspondant, par lieu d’écriture et par lieu de conservation les lettres de Flaubert, les lettres à Flaubert ou toutes les lettres: il est alors possible de suivre les échanges croisés, restituant ainsi à la correspondance sa véritable dimension de dialogue. Grand merci à toute l’équipe qui permet au public d’accéder à cet outil de lecture et de travail: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/correspondance/edition/equipe_scientifique.php Thématisation des lettres de Flaubert Grâce au travail de l’équipe dirigée par Danielle Girard , la thématisation de la correspondance est à présent terminée. Elle concerne 6.771lettres. L’index est consultable en cliquant sur «Thèmes des lettres» https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/correspondance/edition/index.php Sur le site Flaubert, Atsuko Ogane publie la transcription diplomatique des oeuvres de jeunesse dans le cadre de son projet subventionné par la JSPS [Société japonaise de la Promotion de la Science] du Japon. Sont déjà en ligne: Les Mémoires d’un fou , édition diplomatique par Atsuko Ogane Transcription: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/jet/public/outils/aff_manus.php?g=31 Présentation: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr//article.php?id=80 Les soirées d'étude . Art et progrès , n° 2 (1835) https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/jet/public/outils/aff_manus.php?g=25 La Femme du monde (1836) https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/jet/public/outils/aff_manus.php?g=27 « Guerres puniques », notes inédites par Axelle Thévot https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/jet/public/outils/aff_manus.php?g=30 Ces notes ont été prises sur l’ouvrage de Victor Duruy, Histoire des romains et des peuples soumis à leur domination (Hachette, 1843-1844, 2 vol.), probablement vers 1845. ARTICLES Caroline Andriot-Saillant , «Flaubert fait du bruit», poème, 2018 https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/derives/caroline_andriot.pdf Sophie Demoy , «La bibliothèque médicale des docteurs Flaubert, père et fils», 2019. En ligne sur le site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/article.php?id=73 Karl Feltgen , «Delphine Couturier, modèle supposé de Madame Bovary, a-t-elle été en pension à Cailly?», d’après une communication orale faite à Cailly le 30 septembre 2016. Site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr//article.php?id=76 Bkhairia Hassen , «Louis Bertrand, une lecture colonialiste de Salammbô », 2019. En ligne sur le site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/article.php?id=75 Haruyuki Kanasaki , «Le Brahmane et le Bouddha dans La Tentation de saint Antoine » (2019), site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/article.php?id=77 Cette étude est la traduction remaniée d’un article publié en japonais: Haruyuki Kanasaki, «Le Brahmane et le Bouddha dans La Tentation de saint Antoine », Gallia , n°57, La Société de Langue et Littérature Françaises de l’Université d’Osaka, 2018. François Lapèlerie , «Le chocolat froid de Gustave Flaubert ou Madame Bovary outre-manche et quelques autres sujets», site Flaubert, 2019. https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/etudes/chocolat_lapelerie.pdf À partir des traductions de Madame Bovary publiées chez Penguin Books, l’auteur étudie l’histoire des maquettes, de la typographie et des illustrations de couvertures, en particulier celles qui sont empruntées à des tableaux. François Lapèlerie, «Les dessous de Madame Bovary» , 2019. En ligne sur le site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/etudes/mb_lapelerie_2019.pdf « Madame Bovary n’est pas seulement une source d’inspiration pour professeur en quête d’un sujet de dissertation ou pour psychiatre cherchant un éponyme à un syndrome féminin: le roman de Flaubert – surtout son héroïne – inspire aussi les créatrices (et parfois les créateurs) dans les domaines de la mode et de l’audiovisuel», et particulièrement au Brésil. Philippe Rouyer , « Bouvard et Pécuchet : illustration et défense de l’Université», 2018. En ligne sur le site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/article.php?id=74 Norioki Sugaya , «Bouvard et Pécuchet face à la bibliothèque du praticien philosophe», 2019. En ligne sur le site Flaubert: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/article.php?id=72 Annexes La bibliothèque d’Achille-Cléophas Flaubert, tableau comparatif : https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/etudes/ACFlaubert_bibliotheque.pdf Complément de cette bibliothèque https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/etudes/ACFlaubert_bibliotheque_compl.pdf DOCUMENTS Pierre Gaston a redaté en 1867 la photo de Flaubert prise par Borelli, que l’on croyait de 1851. L’explication se trouve ici: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/iconographie/gf_a_primoli.php Flaubert, lieux normands . Lieux en rapport avec la biographie et les oeuvres: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/biographie/lieux_normands.php Document établi pour Flaubert 2021 ( Voyage en Orient «Itinéraire du voyage entrepris par M. Gustave Flaubert», Revue de Rouen et de Normandie , 1850, p.52-54. https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/ressources/orient_revuerouen.pdf ( Sur Salammbô «Les quatre costumes de Salammbô», L’Illustrateur des Dames et des Demoiselles , 22 février et 8 mars 1863: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/derives/sal_valentin.php Costume porté par Mme Rimsky-Korsakoff, Le Monde illustré , 23 février 1863 https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/images/sal_costume_04.jpg Le Charivari , 1er mars 1862, dessin de Cham: — Vous arrivez joliment tard, mon bonhomme! — C'est pas ma faute, je me suis endormi en lisant Salammbô . https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/images/sal_charivari.jpg Guy Pessiot , «Trois caricatures d’Ernest Pinard: Paul Hadol, Hippolyte Mailly et Faustin», 2019, site Flaubert https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://flaubert.univ-rouen.fr/iconographie/pinard.php
James arrives in Osaka, Japan’s vibrant good-time city, where Pachinko gambling halls, incredible street food, and stand-up comedy are all on the menu. Yujiro, his trusty guide, returns to introduce James to Sumo wrestling, after which James escapes on a bullet train to explore the mysteries of local hero Peach Boy. Then it’s on to Hiroshima and the beautiful Itsukushima Shrine.
Berlín, 29 mar (EFE).- El renombrado compositor y director de orquesta polaco Krzysztof Penderecki, conocido por su 'Treno a las víctimas de Hiroshima', el 'Stabat Mater' y la banda sonora de 'The Shining', ha muerto este domingo a los 86 años en Cracovia tras una larga enfermedad.
Considerado el compositor polaco moderno más importante, fue icono del sonorismo de la vanguardia musical polaca en sus primeros años y posteriormente un prolijo y galardonado autor de una amplísima variedad de obras, de sinfonías a piezas de cámara, enmarcadas muchas de ellas en el neoromanticismo.
En su página web se daba cuenta de su muerte, 'tras una larga y grave enfermedad. 'Un gran polaco, sobresaliente artista, humanista y uno de los más conocidos y respetados compositores polacos', agrega el comunicado.
Por su parte, la revista cultural polaca 'Culture' aseguraba que 'en la historia de la música del siglo XX su carrera destaca por su rápido ascenso hasta lo más alto, inigualable, con la posible excepción de Stravinsky'.
El Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores polaco lo encuadró como uno de los 'más famosos compositores polacos' y autor del 'más impresionante legado', mientras que el Ministerio de Cultura lo llamó 'autoridad mundial en el campo de la música clásica.
Su sucesor al frente de la Academia de Música de Cracovia, Stanislaw Krawczynski, lamentó la 'perdida irreparable' que su muerte supone para la cultura polaca.
Entre sus obra clásicas destacan el 'Treno a las víctimas de Hiroshima' (1960), una composición para 52 instrumentos de cuerda frotada que catapultó a la fama al entonces joven Penderecki y por la que recibió un premio de la UNESCO, así como la ecléctica 'Pasión según San Lucas' (1963-1966).
'Lo único que me interesa es liberar al sonido de toda tradición', aseguró por aquel entonces el compositor.
Otras piezas sobresalientes son su 'Concierto para violín nº 1', su 'Sinfonía nº 2' y su 'Réquiem polaco' (1980-1984), una obra enmarcada dentro del romanticismo, cuyo embrión fue una pieza encargada por el sindicato Solidaridad para acompañar la inauguración de una estatua que conmemoraba la represión violenta de unas protestas contra el gobierno de la Polonia comunista.
Además, Penderecki participó en varias bandas sonoras para películas de Hollywood, entre ellas las clásicas del género de miedo 'Shining', del director Stanley Kubrick, y 'The exorcist', de William Friedkin, y más recientemente, 'Shutter Island', de Martin Scorsese.
También compuso la banda sonora de la película 'Rekopis znaleziony w Saragossie' (El manuscrito encontrado en Zaragoza), del regidor polaco Wojciech Jerzy Has, considerada como una de las partituras para cine más innovadoras del siglo XX.
Entre sus obras destaca su primera ópera, 'Los demonios de Loudun', que se estrenó en la Ópera de Hamburgo en 1969, y la obra 'Las siete puertas de Jerusalén'.
Además dirigió a grandes orquestas por todo el mundo, de Katowice en su Polonia natal, a la Sinfónica de Londres y las filarmónicas de Múnich, Nueva York, Osaka y Hamburgo, entre otras.
En 2013 se publicaron, a modo de regalo de su sello discográfico por el 80 cumpleaños de Penderecki, una caja con todas sus sinfonías, dirigidas por él mismo.
'El artista es un testigo de la era en la que vive y reacciona con su obra a lo que sucede a su alrededor', señaló el compositor polaco en una ocasión.
Penderecki nació el 23 de noviembre de 1933 en Debica, en el sureste polaco, en el seno de una familia con raíces armenias, alemanas y polacas.
Se graduó en la Escuela Superior de Música del Estado (actual Academia de Música) de Cracovia en el 58, centro del que años después llegaría a ser profesor y director.
Su debut internacional se produjo un año mas tarde, con tan sólo 26 años, cuando las tres composiciones que presentó de forma anónima en el Festival de Otoño de Varsovia resultaron premiadas.
Además de cinco grammys, el galardón UNESCO y dos Prix Italia, el compositor polaco obtuvo el premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Artes en 2001 y ha logrado la Orden del Mérito de Mónaco, la distinción francesa de Comandante de la Orden de las Artes y las Letras, el Praemium Imperiale japonés y la Orden del Águila Blanca polaca.
Doctor Honoris Causa por 22 universidades (entre ellas una madrileña y una bonaerense), Penderecki era miembro de la Real Academia de la Música de Londres, la Academia Nacional de Santa Cecilia de Roma, la Academia de las Artes de Berlín, la Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes de Buenos Aires, la Academia Americana de las Artes y las Letras, y la Academia Argentina de Música, entre otras.
Penderecki celebró su 85 cumpleaños activo, lleno de ideas para seguir componiendo, según reveló a medios polacos, y con en su propio festival de música, acompañado de colegas y amigos de todo el mundo. EFE
Tā kā Eiropas Savienības līmenī vienots redzējums par jauniem nosacījumiem attiecībā uz laika maiņu divas reizes gadā nav vēl panākts, šobrīd ir spēkā iepriekš apstiprinātā kārtība. Pāreju uz vasaras laiku un atpakaļ Latvijā nosaka 2010. gada 26. oktobra Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr. 1010 “Par pāreju uz vasaras laiku”. Noteikumos minēts, ka Latvijā pāreja uz vasaras laiku notiek šādā kārtībā: marta pēdējā svētdienā plkst. 03.00 atbilstoši otrās joslas laikam pulksteņa rādītājus pagriež par vienu stundu uz priekšu un attiecīgi oktobra pēdējā svētdienā plkst. 04.00 – vienu stundu atpakaļ.
Savukārt, Eiropas Savienības ietvaros pāreju uz vasaras laiku nosaka Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes 2001. gada 19. janvāra direktīva 2000/84/EK par noteikumiem attiecībā uz vasaras laiku. Direktīva nosaka vasaras laika sākumu un beigas vienoti visām Eiropas Savienības ...
Ar Prokuratūras likuma un likuma “Par tiesu varu” grozījumiem, kas pieņemti februārī, mainīta ģenerālprokurora atlases kārtība. Tieslietu padomei līdz 1. aprīlim jāapstiprina ģenerālprokurora amata kandidātu atlases konkursa nolikums, kā arī jānosaka kandidātu vērtēšanas kārtība un kritēriji. Priekšlikumu par ģenerālprokurora iecelšanu amatā Tieslietu padomei jāiesniedz Saeimai ne vēlāk kā vienu mēnesi pirms ģenerālprokurora pilnvaru termiņa beigām.
Tieslietu padome arī uzklausīs Augstākās tiesas priekšsēdētāja amata kandidātu, lai sniegtu atzinumu par to Augstākās tiesas plēnumam.
Tieslietu padomes sēdes darba kārtībā arī jautājums par Tiesneša amata kandidāta atlases, stažēšanās un kvalifikācijas eksāmena kārtošanas kārtības termiņa pagarinājumu.
Sakarā ar Covid-19 izraisīto ārkārtējo situāciju Tieslietu padomes sēde notiks attālināti.
Līdz ar ...
“Weather forecasts were comedy material. Now they’re just the way things are. I can’t figure out when the change happened.”
I briefly look into the timelines of several technologies, with the hope of becoming marginally less confused about potential A(G)I developments.
Having examples thus makes some scenarios more crisp:
(AGI will be like perpetual motion machines: proven to be impossible)
AGI will be like flying cars: possible in principle but never in practice.
AI will overall be like contact lenses, weather forecasts or OCR; developed in public, and constantly getting better, until one day they have already become extremely good.
AI will overall be like speech recognition or machine translation: Constant improvement for a long time (like contact lenses, weather forecasts or OCR), except that the difference between 55% and 75% is just different varieties of comedy material, and the difference between 75% and 95% is between “not being usable” and “being everywhere”, and the change feels extremely sudden.
AGI will be like the iPhone: Developed in secret, and so much better than previous capabilities that it will blow people away. Or like nuclear bombs: Developed in secret, and so much better than previous capabilities that it will blow cities away.
(AGI development will be like some of the above, but faster)
(AGI development will take an altogether different trajectory)
I did not use any particular method to come up with the technologies to look at, but I did classify them afterwards as:
After the event horizon: Already in mas production or distribution.
In the event horizon: Technologies which are seeing some progress right now, but which aren’t mainstream; they may only exist as toys for the very rich.
Before the event horizon: Mentioned in stories by Jules Verne, Heinlein, Asimov, etc., but not yet existing. Small demonstrations might exist in laboratory settings or by the DYI community
I then give a summary table, and some highlights on weather forecasting and nuclear proliferation which I found particularly interesting.
After the event horizon
A brief summary: Antiquity’s weather forecasting methods lacked predictive power in the short term, though they could understand e.g., seasonal rains. Advances were made in understandic meteorological phenomen, like rainbows, in estimating the size of the stratosphere, but not much in the way of prediction. With the advent of the telegraph, information about storms could be relayed faster than the storm itself travelled, and this was the beginning of actual prediction, which was, at first, very spotty. Weather records had existed before, but now they seem to be taken more seriously, and weather satellites are a great boon to weather forecasting. With time, mathematical advances and Moore’s law meant that weather forecasting services just became better and better.
Overall, I get the impression of a primitive scholarship existing before the advent of the telegraph, followed by continuous improvement in weather forecasting afterwards, such that it’s really difficult to know when weather forecasting “became good”.
A brief timeline:
Invention of the electric telegraph: Information could travel faster than the wind.
1854 – The French astronomer Leverrier showed that a storm in the Black Sea could be followed across Europe and would have been predictable if the telegraph had been used. A service of storm forecasts was established a year later by the Paris Observatory.
The first daily weather forecasts were published in The Times in 1861; weather forecasting was spurred by the British Navy after losing ships and men to the Great storm of 1859
1900s. Advances in numerical methods. Better models of cyclones (1919) and huricanes (1921), global warming from carbon emissions is first postulated as a hypothesis (1938); huricanes are caught on radar (1944), first correct tornado prediction (1948). Weather observing stations now abound.
D-Day (Allied invasion of Normandy during WW2) postponed because of a weather forecast.
1950s and onwards. The US starts a weather satellite program. Chaos theory is discovered (1961). Numerical methods are implemented in computers, but these are not yet fast enough. From there on, further theoretical advances and Moore’s law make automated weather forecasting, slowly, more possible, as well as advanced warning of huricanes and other great storms.
What happens when governments ban or restrict certain kinds of technological development? What happens when a certain kind of technological development is banned or restricted in one country but not in other countries where technological development sees heavy investment? Source
A brief summary: Of the 34 countries which have attempted to obtain a nuclear bomb, 9 have succeeded, whereas 25 have failed, for a base rate of ~25%. Of the latter 25, there is uncertainty as to the history of 6 (Iran, Algeria, Burma/Myanmar, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Spain). Excluding those 6, those who suceeded did so, on average, in 14 years, with a standard deviation of 13 years. Those who failed took 20 years to do so, with a standard deviation of 11 years. Three summary tables are available here.
Caveats apply. South Africa willingly gave up nuclear weapons, and many other countries have judged a nuclear program to not be in their interests, after all. Further, many other countries have access to nuclear bombs or might be able to take posession of them in the event of war, per NATO’s Nuclear sharing agreement. Additionally, other countries, such as Japan, Germany or South Korea, would have the industrial and technological capabilities to produce nuclear weapons if they were willing to
Overall, although of course the discoveries of, e.g., the Curies were foundational, I get the impression that the discovery of the possibility of nuclear fission, followed by “let’s reveal this huge infohazard to our politicians” and the beginning of a nuclear programme in the US was relatively rapid.
I also get the impression of a very large standard deviation in wanting nuclear weapons badly enough. For example, Israel or North Korea actually got nuclear weapons, whereas Switzerland or Yugoslavia were vaguely gesturing in the direction of attempting it; the Wikipedia page on Switzerland and weapons of mass destruction is almost comical in the amount of bureaucratic steps and committees and reports, recommendations and statements, which never get anywhere.
A brief timeline:
1898: Pierre and Marie Curie commence the study of radioactivity
1934: Leó Szilárd patents the idea of a nuclear chain reaction via neutrons.
1938: First fission reaction.
1939: The idea of a using fission as a weapon is floating around
A brief summary: Wikipedia’s history of cryptocurrencies doesn’t mention any cyberpunk influences, and mentions an 1983 ecash antecedent. I have the recollection of PayPal trying to solve the double spending problem but failing, but couldn’t find a source. In any case, by 2009 the double spending problem, which had previously been considered pretty unsolvable, was solved by Bitcoin. Ethereum (2013) and Ethereum 2.0 (2021?) were improvements, but haven’t seen widespread adoption yet. Other alt-coins seem basically irrelevant to me.
A brief timeline:
1983: The idea exists within the cryptopunk community, but the double spending problem can’t be solved, and the world wide web doesn’t exist yet.
2009: Bitcoin is released; the double-spending problem is solved.
2015: Ethereum is released
2020-2021: Ethereum 2.0 is scheduled to be released.
A brief summary: “Mobile telephony” was telephones installed on trains, and then on cars. Because the idea of mobile phones was interesting, people kept working on it, and we went from a 1kg beast to the first iPhone in less than twenty years. Before that, there was a brief period where Nokia phones all looked the same.
A brief timeline:
1918: Telephones in trains
1946: Telephones in cars.
1950s-1960s: Interesting advances are made in the Soviet empire, but these don’t get anywhere. Bell Labs works is working on the topic.
1973: First handheld phone. Weight: 1kg
1980s: The lithium-ion battery, invented by John Goodenough .
1983: “the DynaTAC 8000X mobile phone launched on the first US 1G network by Ameritech. It cost $100M to develop, and took over a decade to reach the market. The phone had a talk time of just thirty minutes and took ten hours to charge. Consumer demand was strong despite the battery life, weight, and low talk time, and waiting lists were in the thousands”
1989: Motorola Microtac. A phone that doesn’t weight a ton.
1992/1996/1998: Nokia 1011; first brick recognizable as a Nokia phone. Mass produced. / Nokia 8110; the mobile phone used in the Matrix. / Nokia 7110; a mobile with a browser. In the next years, mobile phones become lighter, and features are added one by one: GPS, MP3 music, storage increases, calendars, radio, bluetooth, colour screens, cameras, really unaesthetic touchscreens, better batteries, minigames,
2007: The iPhone is released. Nokia will die, but doesn’t know it yet. Motorola/Sony had some sleek designs, but the iPhone seems to have been better than any other competitor among many dimensions.
Onwards: Moore’s law continues and phones look more sleek after the iPhone. Cameras and internet get better, and so on.
A brief summary: I had thought that OCR had only gotten good enough in the 2010s, but apparently they were already pretty good by the 1975s, and initially used for blind people, rather than for convenience. Recognizing different fonts was a problem, until it wasn’t anymore.
A brief timeline:
1870: First steps. The first OCR inventions were generally conceived as aid for the blind.
1931: “Israeli physicist and inventor Emanuel Goldberg is granted a patent for his “Statistical machine” (US Patent 1838389), which was later acquired by IBM. It was described as capable of reading characters and converting them into standard telegraph code”. Like many inventions of the time, it is unclear to me how good they were.
1962: “Using the Optacon, Candy graduated from Stanford and received a PhD”. “It opens up a whole new world to blind people. They aren’t restricted anymore to reading material set in braille.”
1974: American inventor Ray Kurzweil creates Kurzweil Computer Products Inc., which develops the first omni-font OCR software, able to recognize text printed in virtually any font. Kurzweil goes on the Today Show, sells a machine to Stevie Wonder.
1980s: Passport scanner, price tag scanner.
2008: Adobe Acrobat starts including OCR for any PDF document
2011: Google Ngram. Charts historic word frequency.
A brief summary: Initial progress was slow; “a system could understand 16 spoken words (1962), then a thousand words (1976). Hidden markov models (1980s) proved to be an important theoretical advance, and commercial systems soon existed (1990s), but they were different degrees of clunky. Cortana, Siri, Echo and Google Voice search seem to be the first systems in which voice recognition was actually good.
A brief timeline:
1877: Thomas Edison’s phonograph.
1952: A team at Bell Labs designs the Audrey, a machine capable of understanding spoken digits
1962: Progress is slow. IBM demonstrates the Shoebox, a machine that can understand up to 16 spoken words in English, at the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair.
1976: DARPA funds five years of speech recognition research with the goal of ending up with a machine capable of understanding a minimum of 1,000 words. The program led to the creation of the Harpy by Carnegie Mellon, a machine capable of understanding 1,011 words
1980s: Hidden markow models!
1990: Dragon Dictate. Used discrete speech where the user must pause between speaking each word.
1996: IBM launches the MedSpeak, the first commercial product capable of recognizing continuous speech.
2006: The National Security Agency begins using speech recognition to isolate keywords when analyzing recorded conversations.
2008: Google Announces Voice Search.
2011: Apple announces Siri.
2014: Microsoft announces Cortana / Amazon announces the Echo.
“The Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved fully automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English. The authors claimed that within three or five years, machine translation would be a solved problem”.
A brief summary: Since the 50s, various statistical, almost hand-programmed methods were tried, and they don’t get qualitatively better, though they can eventually translate e.g., weather forecasts. Though in my youth google translator was sometimes a laughing stock, with the move towards neural network methods, it has become exceedingly good in the last years.
Socially, although translators are in denial and still mantain that their four years of education are necessary, and mantain a monopoly through bureaucratic certification, in my experience it’s easy to automate the localization of a commercial product and then just edit the output.
A brief timeline:
1924: Concept is proposed.
1954: “The Georgetown-IBM experiment, held at the IBM head office in New York City in the United States, offers the first public demonstration of machine translation. The system itself, however, is no more than what today would be called a “toy” system, having just 250 words and translating just 49 carefully selected Russian sentences into English — mainly in the field of chemistry. Nevertheless, it encouraged the view that machine translation was imminent — and in particular stimulates the financing of the research, not just in the US but worldwide”. Hype ends in 1966.
1977: The METEO System, developed at the Université de Montréal, is installed in Canada to translate weather forecasts from English to French, and is translating close to 80,000 words per day or 30 million words per year.
Google translate is launched; it uses statistical methods.
Onwards. Google translate and other tools get better. They are helped by the gigantic corpus which the European Union and the United Nations produce, which release all of their documents in their official languages. This is a boon for modern machine learning methods, which require large datasets for training; in 2016, Google translate moves to use an engine based on neural networks.
Leonardo da Vinci speculated on it in 1508, and some heroic glassmakers experimented on their own eyes. In I’ll take 1888 to be the starting date.
He experimented with fitting the lenses initially on rabbits, then on himself, and lastly on a small group of volunteers, publishing his work, “Contactbrille”, in the March 1888 edition of Archiv für Augenheilkunde. Large and unwieldy, Fick’s lens could be worn only for a couple of hours at a time. August Müller of Kiel, Germany, corrected his own severe myopia with a more convenient blown-glass scleral contact lens of his own manufacture in 1888
Many distinct improvements followed during the next century, each making contact lenses less terrible. Today, they’re pretty good. Again, there wasn’t any point at which contact lenses had “become good”.
A brief timeline:
1508: Codex of the Eye. Leonardo da Vinci introduces a related idea.
1801: Thomas Young heroically experiments with wax lenses.
1888: First glass lenses. German ophthalmologist experiments on rabbits, then on himself, then on volunteers.
1939: First plastic contact lens. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and other plastics will be use from now onwards.
1949: Corneal lenses; much smaller than the original scleral lenses, as they sat only on the cornea rather than across all of the visible ocular surface, and could be worn up to 16 hours a day
1964: Lyndon Johnson became the first President in the history of the United States to appear in public wearing contact lenses
1970s-1980s: Oxygen-permeable lense materials are developed, chiefly by chemist Norman Gaylord. Soft lenses are also developed
More developments are made, so that lenses become more comfortable, and more disposable. From this point onwards, it’s difficult for me to differentiate between lense companies wanting to hype up their marginal improvements and new significant discoveries being made.
Technologies which are seeing some progress right now, but which aren’t mainstream:
Virtual Reality. First (nondigital) prototype in 1962, first digital prototype in 1968. Moderate though limited success as of yet, though VR images made a deep impression on me and may have contributed to me becoming vegetarian.
Text generation. ELIZA in 1968. 2019′s GPT-2 is impressive but not perfect.
Solar sails. First mention in 1864-1899. Current experiments, like the IKAROS 2010, provide proof of concept. Anders Sandberg has a bunch of cool ideas about space colonization, some of which include solar sails.
Autonomous vehicles. “In 1925, Houdina Radio Control demonstrated the radio-controlled “American Wonder” on New York City streets, traveling up Broadway and down Fifth Avenue through the thick of a traffic jam. The American Wonder was a 1926 Chandler that was equipped with a transmitting antenna on the tonneau and was operated by a person in another car that followed it and sent out radio impulses which were caught by the transmitting antenna.” It is my impression that self-driving cars are very decent right now, if perhaps not mainstream.
Space tourism. Precursors were the Russian’s INTERKOSMOS, starting as early as 1978. Dennis Tito was the first space tourist in 2001 for 20 million; SpaceX hopes to make it cheaper in the coming decades.
Prediction systems. Systems exist such as PredictionBook, Betfair, Metaculus, PredictIt, Augur, Foretold, The Good Judgement Project, etc. but they haven’t found widespread adoption yet.
Before the event horizon
For the sake of completeness, I came up with some technologies which are “beyond the event horizon”. These are technologies mentioned in stories by Jules Verne, Heinlein, Asimov, etc., but which haven’t been implemented yet. Small demonstrations might exist in laboratory settings or by the DYI community.
Flying cars. Though prototypes could be found since at least the 1926, fuel efficiency, bureaucratic regulations, noise concerns, etc., have prevented flying cars from being successful. Companies exist which will sell you a flying car if you have $100,000 and a pilots license, though.
Teleportation. “Perhaps the earliest science fiction story to depict human beings achieving the ability of teleportation in science fiction is Edward Page Mitchell’s 1877 story The Man Without a Body, which details the efforts of a scientist who discovers a method to disassemble a cat’s atoms, transmit them over a telegraph wire, and then reassemble them. When he tries this on himself...”. “An actual teleportation of matter has never been realized by modern science (which is based entirely on mechanistic methods). It is questionable if it can ever be achieved, because any transfer of matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them violates Newton’s laws, a cornerstone of physics.” No success as of yet.
Space colonisation. “The first known work on space colonization was The Brick Moon, a work of fiction published in 1869 by Edward Everett Hale, about an inhabited artificial satellite”. No rendezvous at L5; no success as of yet;
Automated data analysis. Unclear origins As of 2020, IBM’s Watson is clunky.
Other technological processes I only briefly looked into
Algorithms which play checkers/chess/go.
Sound quality / Image quality / Video quality / Film quality.
There are no sweeping conclusions to be had. What follows is a summary table; below it are some quotes on the history of weather forecasting and nuclear proliferation which I found particularly interesting.
Highlights from the history of weather forecasting.
There is some evidence that Democritus predicted changes in the weather, and that he used this ability to convince people that he could predict other future events
Several years after Aristotle’s book (350 BC), his pupil Theophrastus puts together a book on weather forecasting called The Book of Signs. Various indicators such as solar and lunar halos formed by high clouds are presented as ways to forecast the weather. The combined works of Aristotle and Theophrastus have such authority they become the main influence in the study of clouds, weather and weather forecasting for nearly 2000 years
During his second voyage Christopher Columbus experiences a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Ocean, which leads to the first written European account of a hurricane
It was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 160 kilometres per day (100 mi/d), but was more typically 60–120 kilometres per day (40–75 mi/day) (whether by land or by sea). By the late 1840s, the telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received almost instantaneously, allowing forecasts to be made from knowledge of weather conditions further upwind.
But calculated by hand on threadbare data, the forecasts were often awry. In April 1862 the newspapers reported: “Admiral FitzRoy’s weather prophecies in the Times have been creating considerable amusement during these recent April days, as a set off to the drenchings we’ve had to endure. April has been playing with him roughly, to show that she at least can flout the calculations of science, whatever the other months might do.”
It was not until the 20th century that advances in the understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of modern numerical weather prediction. In 1922, English scientist Lewis Fry Richardson published “Weather Prediction By Numerical Process”, after finding notes and derivations he worked on as an ambulance driver in World War I. He described therein how small terms in the prognostic fluid dynamics equations governing atmospheric flow could be neglected, and a finite differencing scheme in time and space could be devised, to allow numerical prediction solutions to be found.
Richardson envisioned a large auditorium of thousands of people performing the calculations and passing them to others. However, the sheer number of calculations required was too large to be completed without the use of computers, and the size of the grid and time steps led to unrealistic results in deepening systems. It was later found, through numerical analysis, that this was due to numerical instability. The first computerised weather forecast was performed by a team composed of American meteorologists Jule Charney, Philip Thompson, Larry Gates, and Norwegian meteorologist Ragnar Fjørtoft, applied mathematician John von Neumann, and ENIAC programmer Klara Dan von Neumann. Practical use of numerical weather prediction began in 1955, spurred by the development of programmable electronic computers.
Sadly, Richardson’s forecast factory never came to pass. But twenty-eight years later, in 1950, the first modern electrical computer, eniac, made use of his methods and generated a weather forecast. The Richardsonian method proved to be remarkably accurate. The only downside: the twenty-four-hour forecast took about twenty-four hours to produce. The math, even when aided by an electronic brain, could only just keep pace with the weather.
Highlights from the history of nuclear proliferation.
The webpage of the Institute for Science and Internation Security has this this compendium on the history of nuclear capabilities. Although the organization as such remains influential, the ressource above is annoying to navigate, and may contain factual inaccuracies (e.g., Spain’s nuclear ambitions both during the dictatorship and during the democratic period). Improving that online ressource might be a small project for an aspiring EA.
On the origins:
In 1934, Tohoku University professor Hikosaka Tadayoshi’s “atomic physics theory” was released. Hikosaka pointed out the huge energy contained by nuclei and the possibility that both nuclear power generation and weapons could be created. In December 1938, the German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting that they had detected the element barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons; simultaneously, they communicated these results to Lise Meitner. Meitner, and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch, correctly interpreted these results as being nuclear fission and Frisch confirmed this experimentally on 13 January 1939. Physicists around the world immediately realized that chain reactions could be produced and notified their governments of the possibility of developing nuclear weapons.
Modern country capabilities:
Like other countries of its size and wealth, Germany has the skills and resources to create its own nuclear weapons quite quickly if desired
South Korea has the raw materials and equipment to produce a nuclear weapon but has not opted to make one
Today, Japan’s nuclear energy infrastructure makes it capable of constructing nuclear weapons at will. The de-militarization of Japan and the protection of the United States’ nuclear umbrella have led to a strong policy of non-weaponization of nuclear technology, but in the face of nuclear weapons testing by North Korea, some politicians and former military officials in Japan are calling for a reversal of this policy
In general, the projects of Switzerland and Yugoslavia were characterized by bureacratic fuckaroundism, and the Wikipedia page on their nuclear efforts is actually amusing because of the abundance of committees which never got anywhere:
The secret Study Commission for the Possible Acquisition of Own Nuclear Arms was instituted by Chief of General Staff Louis de Montmollin with a meeting on 29 March 1957. The aim of the commission was to give the Swiss Federal Council an orientation towards “the possibility of the acquisition of nuclear arms in Switzerland.” The recommendations of the commission were ultimately favorable.
The authors complained that the weapons effort had been hindered by Yugoslav bureaucracy and the concealment from the scientific leadership of key information regarding the organization of research efforts. It offers a number of specific illustrations about how this policy of concealment, “immeasurably sharper than that of any country, except in the Soviet bloc,” might hamper the timely purchase of 10 tons of heavy water from Norway.
On the other hand, the heterogeneity is worrying. Some countries (Israel) displayed ruthlessness and competency, whereas others got dragged down by bureaucracy. I suspect that this heterogeneity would also be the case for new technologies.
Cooperation between small countries:
Some scholars believe the Romanian military nuclear program to have started in 1984, however, others have found evidence that the Romanian leadership may have been pursuing nuclear hedger status earlier than this, in 1967 (see, for example, the statements made toward Israel, paired with the minutes of the conversation between the Romanian and North Korean dictators, where Ceauşescu said, “if we wish to build an atomic bomb, we should collaborate in this area as well”)
The same report revealed that Brazil’s military regime secretly exported eight tons of uranium to Iraq in 1981
In accord with three presidential decrees of 1960, 1962 and 1963, Argentina supplied about 90 tons of unsafeguarded yellowcake (uranium oxide) to Israel to fuel the Dimona reactor, reportedly creating the fissile material for Israel’s first nuclear weapons.
Syria was accused of pursuing a military nuclear program with a reported nuclear facility in a desert Syrian region of Deir ez-Zor. The reactor’s components were believed to have been designed and manufactured in North Korea, with the reactor’s striking similarity in shape and size to the North Korean Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center. The nuclear reactor was still under construction.
These five states are known to have detonated a nuclear explosive before 1 January 1967 and are thus nuclear weapons states under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. They also happen to be the UN Security Council’s permanent members with veto power on UNSC resolutions.
China became the first nation to propose and pledge NFU policy when it first gained nuclear capabilities in 1964, stating “not to be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time or under any circumstances.” During the Cold War, China decided to keep the size of its nuclear arsenal small, rather than compete in an international arms race with the United States and the Soviet Union. China has repeatedly reaffirmed its no-first-use policy in recent years, doing so in 2005, 2008, 2009 and again in 2011. China has also consistently called on the United States to adopt a no-first-use policy, to reach an NFU agreement bilaterally with China, and to conclude an NFU agreement among the five nuclear weapon states. The United States has repeatedly refused these calls.
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