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De nouvelles enquêtes documentaires selon Danièle Meaux   

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A partir de son expérience des formes paysagères différentes en photographie, Danièle Meaux développe une approche plus générale de nouvelles pratiques documentaires s'appuyant toutes sur la méthode de l'enquête, héritée à la fois des sciences humaines et sociales et du journalisme d'investigation. Elle reprend pour ce faire « la théorie de l'enquête » du philosophe américain John Dewey, qu'il considère comme « une activité empirique , où les concepts interviennent à titre opérationnel. » Ces enquêtes débouchent (...) - Édition
          

Le Pradelou - Prairie   

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Français

Le domaine se compose de deux gîtes indépendants, avec terrasse et parking privatifs.

Chaque logement dispose d’une pièce de vie spacieuse, d’une grande cuisine avec un large ensemble d’ustensiles électroménager en plus du lave-linge et du lave-vaisselle, de deux chambres avec vue sur les montagnes, d’une salle d’eau et d’un WC indépendant.

Un lit d’appoint ou un équipement bébé peut vous être prêté (lit parapluie, chaise haute et parc) et un local à ski est à votre disposition.

Un grand pré attenant vous offrira un espace de détente et de jeux pour vos enfants.

Le Pradelou c’est une ambiance bucolique et sereine, un endroit pour vous ressourcer et vous détendre en famille et entre amis ; à l’occasion d’un séjour, des vacances ou simplement d’un week-end.

5 130 320
Le Bourg
15300 Laveissenet 45° 4' 55.5312" N, 2° 53' 25.2816" E
Lundi, Janvier 1, 2018 - 01:00 - Lundi, Décembre 31, 2018 - 01:00
Nuitée : 85 € (hors vacances scolaires) Semaine : de 300 à 400 €. Charges comprises et caution demandée. Taxe de séjour non incluse.
06 87 57 37 04
giteslepradelou@gmail.com
10634889
EUR
85.00
85.00
Nuitée
hors vacances scolaires
EUR
300.00
400.00
Semaine
A l'année
15765879
Oui
Ponsonnaille
Etienne
Monsieur
Propriétaire des murs
Toute l'année.
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Meublés et Gîtes
2 étoiles
5 146 949
Mardi, Janvier 1, 2019 - 01:00 - Mardi, Décembre 31, 2019 - 01:00
Du 01/01 au 30/04/2020 Nuitée : 60 € Week-end : 120 € Semaine : 450 €. Du 01/05 au 31/08/2020 Nuitée : 70 € Week-end : 130 € Semaine : 450 €. Du 01/09 au 31/12/2020 Nuitée : 60 € Week-end : 120 € Semaine : 450 €. Taxe de séjour non incluse.
04 71 20 43 17
michele.veyrond@orange.fr
9878029
EUR
60.00
60.00
Nuitée
EUR
120.00
120.00
Week-end
EUR
450.00
450.00
Semaine
A l'année
10657579
EUR
70.00
70.00
Nuitée
EUR
130.00
130.00
Week-end
EUR
450.00
450.00
Semaine
A l'année
10657587
EUR
60.00
60.00
Nuitée
EUR
120.00
120.00
Week-end
EUR
450.00
450.00
Semaine
A l'année
15863296
Oui
Veyrond
Michèle
Madame
Propriétaire des murs
Toute l'année. Tous les jours. Fermé le dimanche.
2020-04-04
2020-04-06
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Le logement comprend : un séjour, coin-cuisine, une chambre un lit deux personnes, une chambre deux lits une personne. Salle de bain, WC indépendant. Chauffage électrique.

4 839 559
Le bourg
15300 Laveissenet 45° 4' 55.6572" N, 2° 53' 22.0092" E
Dimanche, Janvier 1, 2017 - 01:00 - Dimanche, Décembre 31, 2017 - 01:00
Du 01/01 au 30/11/2020 Week-end : 130 € Semaine : de 315 à 390 €. Du 01/12/2020 au 31/03/2021 Week-end : 140 € Semaine : de 325 à 399 €. Charges comprises. Caution : 75€. Taxe de séjour non incluse.
04 71 73 25 69
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Mairie de Laveissenet
Toute l'année.
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Meublés et Gîtes
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Fleur de Lolly column: Lettuce wraps healthy option for fajita lovers   

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If you’re enjoying low(er) carb meals, lettuce wraps are a healthy option. I love fajitas, and romaine leaves are a delicious alternative to tortillas.You can use chicken or pork for this dish, but we scored a great buy on top round steak, which was already packaged as “fajita steak,” which was a huge time saver. I mixed up a quick marinade for the steak and vegetables. After a few hours in the refrigerator, the steak was ready to cook. By using low-fat cheese and light [...]
          

Michael Novakhov - SharedNewsLinks℠: Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research   

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Michael_Novakhov shared this story .

Logo of hhspa
Am J Infect Control. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Dec 28.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC4692156
NIHMSID: NIHMS746087
PMID: 23040490

Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research

Abstract

Background

The potential risks associated with “toilet plume” aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission.

Methods

The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks.

Results

The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized.

Conclusion

Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities.

Keywords: Aerosol, Droplet nuclei, Airborne infection, Bioaerosol

An association between inhalable bioaerosols produced from disturbed sewage and the transmission of infectious disease has been proposed for over 100 years. However, little study has been devoted to characterizing the potential risks posed by the “toilet plume” aerosols created by toilet flushing. We summarize the related scientific literature and identify gaps in the knowledge base, addressing the following questions: (1) “Do flush toilets produce potentially infectious aerosols?” (2) “Do toilet plume aerosols pose a risk for the spread of infectious disease?” and (3) “What future research is needed to further characterize the risks of exposure to toilet plume aerosols within a health care setting?”

DO FLUSH TOILETS PRODUCE POTENTIALLY INFECTIOUS AEROSOLS?

The potential for airborne transmission of sewage-related infectious disease was demonstrated by Horrocks over 100 years ago1 when he cultured airborne microorganisms from sewage drain systems and also detected airborne transport from one hospital building to another via the sewer drains. Similar results were seen by others including Andrewes.2

Bioaerosol production during toilet flushing was first reported in the 1950s by Jessen,3 who “seeded” several types of toilets with Serratia marcescens (then termed Bacillus prodigiosus) and measured bioaerosols produced by flushing. Agar-filled “settle plates” caught bioaerosols that fell out of the air because of gravity, and a Bourdillon slit impactor4 collected air samples. Cistern-fed, gravity-flow toilets and a mains-fed pressure-valve toilet were examined. In addition to colonies found on the floor-based settle plates, microbes were still being captured from the air 8 minutes after the flush, indicating collection of “droplet nuclei” bioaerosols. Droplet nuclei are the tiny particles that remain after the water in a droplet evaporates. They have negligible settling velocity and will float with natural air currents.5 Jessen observed that the amount of bioaerosol increased with increasing flush energy.3

Darlow and Bale6 seeded a “wash-down” type toilet with S marcescens and sampled air above the toilet with liquid impingers and a Bourdillon impactor. A wash-down toilet releases the flush water from the toilet rim where it flows down the bowl walls and washes the waste into the S-shaped exit trapway.7 Bioaerosol was detected in samples collected above the toilet 5 to 7 minutes after the flush, indicating droplet nuclei bioaerosol. Despite over 99% reductions in bowl water microbial concentrations with each flush, air samples indicated only 50% to 60% bioaerosol reductions. They concluded that this was at least partially attributable to a reduction in the number of bacteria per droplet rather than a reduction in the number of droplets containing bacteria because both a multi-organism droplet and a single-organism droplet would appear as 1 colony when deposited on an impactor agar plate.

Siphonic toilets, which feature a submerged jet that propels the waste into the trapway to initiate a siphon action that clears the waste, have generally replaced wash-down models. Bound and Atkinson8 found that the higher energy siphonic toilet produced approximately 1/14th as much bioaerosol as the wash-down design for the same flush volume. Newsom also demonstrated higher bioaerosol production with higher flush energy when he compared high and low cistern toilets seeded with homogenized feces or suspensions of various bacteria.9

Gerba et al10 seeded a siphonic gravity-flow toilet with Escherichia coli and sequentially placed 3 arrays of settle plates on the floor around the toilet, with each set exposed for 2 hours. For the first sample set (0–2 hours), cultured bacteria were predominantly from plates near the toilet, whereas, in later sample sets (2–4 and 4–6 hours), the positive plates were more randomly distributed around the room. This was consistent with an initial deposition of large droplets close to the toilet immediately after the flush, followed by dispersion and mixing of the droplet nuclei into the air with delayed deposition throughout the room. The E coli bioaerosol remained airborne and viable for at least 4 to 6 hours postflush.

Barker and Bloomfield11 seeded a gravity-flow toilet with Salmonella enteritidis PT4 and collected surface wipe and air samples after flushing. They observed contamination of the toilet seat and the underside of the lid and also cultured Salmonella from the air sample. They detected Salmonella in the bowl water after 12 days and in biofilm below the bowl waterline for 50 days after seeding, which suggested a possible role of biofilm as a long-term reservoir and active source of pathogenic organisms in the bowl water.

Barker and Jones seeded a toilet with S marcescens or MS2 bacteriophage.12 Air samples were collected in front of and above the toilet seat with the toilet seat lid open. They also exposed settle plates at 5 locations around the toilet, including 2 above and behind the seat. Bioaerosols were present up to 60 minutes after flushing, and all settle plates were positive for all test conditions and sampling locations, demonstrating droplet nuclei bioaerosol. They also examined toilet bowl clearance and bioaerosol production during sequential flushes without reseeding, with results similar to those of Darlow and Bale,6 Newsom,9 and Gerba et al10 in that bioaerosol concentration did not decrease in proportion to bowl water concentration.

Recently, Best et al13 flushed a toilet seeded with fecal suspensions of Clostridium difficile. Settle plates were placed near the toilet and air was sampled at seat height, flush handle height, and midway in-between, with the toilet lid both up and down. Settle plates showed widespread dissemination of large droplets with the lid up but not with the lid down. C difficile was recovered from air sampled at heights up to 25 cm above the toilet seat and up to 90 minutes after flushing, at concentrations 12-fold greater with the lid up than with the lid down. They concluded that lidless conventional toilets increase the risk of C difficile environmental contamination and thus discouraged their use. In the United States, however, this would contradict current Uniform Plumbing Code specifications regarding toilet seat design and the installation of toilet seat lids on health care and other public facility “water closets”14 as well as similar requirements for gap-front seats without cover for water closets in the US Veterans Administration specifications often cited for health care facility design.15

It may be concluded from the above that flush toilets produce substantial quantities of toilet plume aerosol capable of entraining microorganisms at least as large as bacteria, that sufficiently small microbe-laden droplets will evaporate to form droplet nuclei bioaerosols small enough to be inhaled deep into the lung, and that these bioaerosols may remain viable in the air for extended periods and travel with air currents. Production of these bioaerosols during multiple flushes after contamination suggests a long-term potential for a contaminated toilet to be an infectious bioaerosol generator.

DOES TOILET PLUME POSE A RISK FOR THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE?

Contact transmission risk because of surface contamination by flush droplets

A number of studies have demonstrated the contamination of toilet seats and lids, the surrounding floors, and the nearby surfaces by toilet flush aerosols.3,6,9,10,12,13,16 Because both the vomit and feces of infected persons may contain extremely high pathogen concentrations, eg, 105 to 109 Shigella,17 104 to 108 Salmonella,COVID 19 et AMAP : Toutes les informations /

          

Commentaires sur Gnocchis et boulettes parfumées à la sauge et gingembre par Jackie    

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Quelle belle assiette ma Claudinette. Je dois dire que j'adore et la présence de la sauge me plaît beaucoup et les gnocchi sont un parfait accompagnement. Gros bisous et belle fin de semaine.
          

Food pantry remains open for students    

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Photo by Kim Bongard For students remaining on campus, the Ramapo food pantry has remained open throughout the COVID-19 closure to provide essentials. Though all classrooms have become remote, a small...
          

ma vie d'autrice : aude samama    

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« Ma vie d'auteur ».Toutes les semaines, la Cité vous propose des rencontres spéciales, en vidéo, avec des auteurs du territoire, parce qu'Angoulême, même pendant le confinement, est et demeure la Capitale Mondiale de la Bande Dessinée ! Cette semaine c'est Aude Samama qui nous parle de son actualité.

- la maison des auteurs
          

la venin    

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Laurent Astier (L'affaire des affaires – Clearstream, Face au mur) revient avec un western dont le personnage principal est une femme, plutôt rare dans ce genre. Qui est Emily, venue se marier à Silver Creek ? Son prétendant est mort avant son arrivée, sans le sou elle est embauchée au saloon du coin comme prostituée. Masi pourquoi abat-elle le candidat au Sénat trois semaines plus tard ? On se pose beaucoup de questions au sujet de cette aventurière ! (CD)
2 tomes parus : (...)

- sélections de la Cité
          

la kubert school lance un programme de cours en ligne   

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Pendant la crise sanitaire, les universités outre-Atlantique doivent elles aussi s'adapter. Cette semaine, la prestigieuse Kubert School (anciennement, Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art fondée en 1976 par le génie des crayons) proposera dès le 14 avril prochain un programme d'enseignement à distance, sur une période de six semaines. Des professionnels de l'industrie se chargeront de dispenser les cours à distance dans différentes catégories : apprentissage du dessin, narration séquentielle, (...)

- actualités de la bd
          

l'argent débloqué pour les auteurs “sera-t-il fléché directement vers eux” ?   

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Les annonces, toujours des annonces, mais très attendues. L'intervention de Franck Riester en fin de semaine a donné une partie du ton. Les aides pour les artistes auteurs avancent, avec encore de quoi trébucher allégrement. La Ligue fournit une explication de texte détaillée, alors que viennent de sortir l'ordonnance et le décret encadrant les mesures de Valois.
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- actualités de la bd
          

ressources éducatives, exercices, jeux pour la maison    

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La Cité propose aux parents et aux enfants de constituer un programme d'activités originales à partir des ressources élaborées par le service éducatif de la Cité. Chaque semaine découvrez de nouvelles offres pour chaque jour de la semaine.

- ressources éducatives
          

Comment on The Two Mrs Carrolls by Scott    

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In reply to <a href="https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://livius1.wordpress.com/2020/03/21/the-two-mrs-carrolls/#comment-20116">Jerry Entract</a>. I must comment on AMERICAN EMPIRE. Overall I thought it was a pretty good western. Why overall? Well, the first two reels was able to draw me in and maintain an interest. But, that third reel was an action packed whooper that literally explodes from the screen. Featuring the skills and stunts of horsemen to a magnitude rarely seen on film. The staging of that final battle was a sight to behold that has remained with me since the first time I saw this film some 60-years ago. A must see.....if only for that third reel just to say, 'I saw it'.
          

Domaine La Taupe Surin   

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Brest : deux hommes interpellés pour violences conjugales   

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Les policiers sont intervenus à deux reprises, cette semaine à Brest, pour des violences conjugales. Le 28 mars, à 11 h 30, les policiers sont intervenus au domicile d’une jeune femme de 26 ans, se...
          

COVID19 & Handicap : vos ressources pour rester informé.e !   

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Depuis plusieurs semaines, la France est en confinement pour faire face à l’épidémie de coronavirus. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger les personnes en situation de handicap et les plus fragiles. Elles évoluent régulièrement et il est important de rester à jour afin de connaître ses droits et les démarches nécessaires. Pour vous aider, […]

The post COVID19 & Handicap : vos ressources pour rester informé.e ! appeared first on Talenteo.


          

Insee Crise du coronavirus : L’institut maintient le cap face au covid-19   

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Après bientôt 3 semaines de confinement, l’organisation s’est affinée et les informations circulent. L'institut maintient le CAP et réalise plus que les missions prioritaires. Cependant, la CFDT alerte sur la charge de travail qui commence à se faire ressentir dans plusieurs équipes.
La CFDT reste à vos côtés pour vous apporter son soutien et relayer vos questions et vos problématiques à la Direction.


          

De la part de nos frères juifs de Carpentras - 04 avril 2020   

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« De la part de nos frères juifs de Carpentras, qui eux aussi entrent dans la semaine du Pessah, et qui savent ce que veut dire chanter devant l'Eternel. Et puis, comme disait mon ami le Grand Rabbin de France, Haïm Korsia, si vous voulez savoir ce qu'est un juif, revoyez Rabbi Jacob, et notamment la musique et la danse... Amen ! »
Cliquer ici pour voir la vidéo :

- Actualités de la paroisse
          

Pourquoi fête-t-on Les Rameaux - 04 avril 2020   

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Les Rameaux
La semaine sainte va s'ouvrir. Nous fêterons ce dimanche les Rameaux. De quoi parlons-nous ? De l'entrée de Jésus à Jérusalem. Celle qui va déboucher sur sa Passion et sur Sa mort sur la croix.
C'est bientôt la Pâque juive et Jésus se rend à Jérusalem. Il est accueilli par une foule en liesse qui l'acclame avec des rameaux, en lui faisant un tapis de manteaux et de feuilles de palmes sur le sol qu'Il foule. Ils chantent « Hosanna, hosanna » qui est un cri de joie et de triomphe qui (...)

- Actualités de la paroisse
          

Feuille paroissiale du 05 avril 2020 - 02 avril 2020   

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SAINT SIFFREIN ET NOTRE-DAME DE L'OBSERVANCE DIMANCHE 5 AVRIL - RAMEAUX 2020
Nous vous en supplions, au Nom du Christ, laissez-vous réconcilier avec Dieu (2 Co, 5,320)
Chers frères et soeurs, nous entrons dans la Sainte Semaine qui va nous permettre encore une fois de revivre la Pâque du Christ ! Ce passage mystérieux et divin, de la vallée de la mort à la Terre promise, de la mort à la vie éternelle. Une condition pour que notre marche, commencée il a Six Semaines, aboutisse à Pâques : nous (...)

- Le bulletin paroissial de la semaine en cours
          

SFUSD scrambles to hand out computers as internet access remains a hurdle   

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SFUSD scrambles to hand out computers as internet access remains a hurdle

The San Francisco Unified School District, its teachers, and nonprofit workers labored through spring break this week distributing Chromebook laptops to needy students. But by Wednesday, it was clear that multiple challenges remained and some educators doubted that the district’s online classes would be accessible to all of its 53,855 students when school resumes in […]

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Appels à la prière islamique: Le Pen (RN) dénonce "une nouvelle escalade"   

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news : Des mosquées "profitent" du confinement pour faire retentir par haut-parleurs l'appel à la prière, affirme samedi la présidente du Rassemblement national Marine Le Pen, dénonçant "une nouvelle escalade dans l'occupation illégale du domaine public par voie sonore".
          

Why Health Experts Aren't Warning About Coronavirus in Food   

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Chicken with salmonella can make you sick. So can romaine lettuce with E. coli and buffets with lurking norovirus. So why aren't health officials warning people about eating food contaminated with the new coronavirus?
          

PARIS FACE CACHÉE   

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L'Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, Fondation Albert Ier, Prince de Monaco participera à l'événement Paris Face Cachée le samedi 1er et le dimanche 2 février 2020.
Pour participer à une expérience unique, cliquez ici ! - 08. Actualités Page Accueil
          

Corporations Are Salivating Over the Coronavirus Pandemic   

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While many Americans worry about how much longer they can pay rent and avoid contracting Covid-19, corporations are within striking distance of controlling our basic political institutions. The recent congressional stimulus package has been criticized as a sweetheart deal that will only make the rich richer, giving the airline industry a cool $60 billion while individual Americans facing job loss, eviction, and illness get at most $1,200 apiece. But beyond resource allocations, there are many other ways corporations could benefit from the current coronavirus pandemic. Throughout history, companies have grown powerful not just through pure profit but also through social control. And already there are signs of that in the present moment, the coronavirus being used to curb environmentalism and other forms of behavior inconvenient for corporate interests.

The very land on which Congress now sits was first colonized by the Virginia Company of Londona joint-stock company chartered by King James I and his fellow shareholders. From London, these investors directed the colonists’ violent theft of the land from the Piscataway and Nacostine peoples. On their land, the colonists built plantations, fortified them, and brought in enslaved Africans and indentured Europeans to produce tobacco for the emerging world market and to defend the territory militarily.

The world of business continued to set the terms of politics well after the United States won independence from the British Empire. Slavery, claimed Southern planter elites, was the “greatest material interest of the world.” Securing this valuable system of production required securing the entire global racial order of social domination it was premised upon. It required control of personal conduct, so plantation owners devised management strategies, occupied key positions in Congress and the military, and pushed U.S. foreign policy in a pro-slavery direction that included imperial invasions and annexations that they hoped would expand and protect slavery in the Western hemisphere.

Back then, the connection between violent social control and profit was unmistakable. The current moment may feel very different, but as recent events have made clear, we’re not as far removed from the power dynamics of centuries past as many people like to assume. Modern corporations know that their survival depends not just on supply and demand but also on broad control over the institutions and practices that organize our lives.

The greatest business success stories of the past few decades have involved changing people’s behavior. Amazon’s profits, for instance, calculated in a standard way—revenues minus expenses in a given quarter—are healthy but unremarkable. What is remarkable about Amazon is its sheer size and scope. Amazon is now a marketplace for retailers, a shipping company, a lender, a grocery store, a cloud computing provider, and a film studio. Its success has depended in part on spreading into as many facets of economic life as it can, and immediately reinvesting the revenue it gains from underselling its competitors into innovations that will widen its reach but are too new to be heavily taxed. It’s working: Amazon alone accounted for 45 percent of all e-commerce sales last year, and more than half of American households are Prime subscribers. It is no wonder that this behemoth was able to make an entire nation of local governments kneel and beg when it was trying to decide where to put its headquarters. Meanwhile, the company exerts tremendous control over both its sellers and its workers, witholding payment to sellers that fail to abide by its rules, allegedly threatening and retaliating viciously against workers who organize against its policies, and mounting aggressive anti-union campaigns in its workplaces. Thursday, Vice reported on a leaked memo from the company laying out its plan to smear a union organizer in one of its warehouses by saying he had violated social distancing orders during the epidemic.

The coronavirus crisis may result in stronger corporate influence on basic political and social institutions. Already, corporations have played an outsize role in crafting the Trump administration’s pandemic response. The White House’s press briefings are full of executives from companies like Walmart and underwear manufacturer Jockey International, who often get even more speaking time than the medical professionals on the White House virus task force.

On March 18, the Plastic Industry Association requested that the federal Department of Health and Human Services issue a national pronouncement discouraging the use of reusable grocery bags in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic. They insinuated that reusable grocery bags are a health risk, despite the questionable grounds for the claim (the risk appears to vanish if the bags are washed) and further evidence that suggests that single-use plastics might be quite dangerous themselves: “SARS-CoV-2 was more stable on plastic and stainless steel than on copper and cardboard, and viable virus was detected up to 72 hours after application to these surfaces,” a group of epidemiologists wrote in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine a day prior to the plastic lobby’s request. Nevertheless, governors of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts have prohibited or discouraged people from using reusable grocery bags.

Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency has issued a sweeping declaration allowing power plants and factories to decide for themselves whether they are meeting environmental regulations—in effect, a direct transfer of the responsibility of environmental stewardship from the government’s regulatory office to the businesses themselves. This move has been sharply criticized by scientists, who argue that the rollback will encourage yet more pollution of communities of color whose environmental justice concerns are routinely ignored. The fossil fuel industry is likely to benefit financially from the emergency coronavirus legislation despite its role in causing and distorting the ongoing climate crisis, which available evidence suggests will make future pandemics more likely and costly and hurt communities of color worst. Meanwhile, state legislatures in Kentucky, South Dakota, and West Virginia have quietly criminalized protests against pipelines and other fossil fuel infrastructure. They joined five states that have already passed legislation strongly resembling a model drafted by the conservative American Legislative Executive Council, which in turn is partly funded by the Koch Industries. Fossil fuel companies like Exxon and BP have only exited ALEC in the past few years as ALEC’s notorious climate change denial became a liability.

The structure of the stimulus legislation suggests that there are further gains for corporations on the way. It grants Stephen Mnuchin, secretary of the U.S. Treasury, unprecedented discretionary power over $500 billion of taxpayer money. Mnuchin spent much of his career ruthlessly foreclosing the homes of working-class people of color in California and is empowered to decide which businesses get loans or cash grants and what companies have to give up in exchange (in one case, giving the government an equity stake in the assisted company). Corporate lobbyists have already spent weeks trying to influence the legislation and aren’t likely to stop now that it has passed. The legislation provides for several layers of government oversight of Mnuchin’s choices, but the president has a less than inspiring record of complying with lawful requests for information and has already signaled his intention to bypass at least one of the stimulus’s oversight provisions.

As with the stimulus package in 2008, many commentators in the past week have expressed shock and outrage that the government seems to be bailing out corporations and industries more than people. At a time of striking economic inequality, not to mention decades-long corporate accumulation of power over educationmedia, and even basic government services, we should likewise be attuned to the way rules and regulations—not just cash—are being shifted in large companies’ favor. The consistency of this preferential treatment should give the lie to one of the most common myths in times of massive corporate bailouts: A rising tide allegedly lifting all boats is little comfort to the many Americans who’ve been effectively thrown overboard.  


          

Grim Reapers   

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After two months of refusing to face the true proportions of the coronavirus pandemic head-on, President Donald Trump sought to reassure panicked citizens—and financial markets—in an address to the nation in early March. The president stressed, without any solid evidence, that America had been remarkably successful in containing the spread of the virus, and was making additional headway in streamlining effective and affordable treatment for infected Americans. The main new measure he touted, however, highlighted just how disastrous his administration’s response to the crisis had been since the virus first arrived in the United States back in January: Re-upping America’s prior policy of aggressive border closure, Trump announced that the United States would be suspending entry of travelers from Europe, where the coronavirus was then spreading with alarming speed.

Trump’s March 11 speech to the nation from the Oval Office showed in no uncertain terms that his administration and his senior advisers on the crisis had failed to adapt in any serious way to a mounting public health emergency. By recurring once more to the issue of border security—a key demagogic theme of his 2016 presidential campaign—Trump ignored what was by then an obvious truth of the coronavirus pandemic: National borders mean nothing to a virus seeking host organisms.

The markets Trump sought to soothe above all else responded unambiguously the following day, with one of the most dramatic single-day falls in the history of the New York Stock Exchange. Despite a frantic collateral infusion of $2 trillion from the Federal Reserve, New York markets went on to suffer the worst day in history on March 16, falling nearly 13 percent. Throughout March, the world’s financial markets dropped precipitously, recovering only after central banks engineered still greater additions of cash—and then they fell again. As major cities across America took their own measures to slow viral spread, placing millions of citizens under work-from-home orders and closing nonessential businesses, unemployment skyrocketed and small businesses collapsed. Stocks, again, descended until the end of March, when Congress passed a $2.2 trillion stimulus package.

As one leading economist put it, speaking on background, “We’re in uncharted territory. Anybody who says that they know what’s going on is wrong. Overall, we are looking at the largest shock and the largest drop in employment and output since [World War II]. Even if the virus situation resolves itself soon, dislocations in financial markets will linger.”

In the face of all these convulsions, Trump and his backers remained very much on message, and keen to place blame for the crisis elsewhere. The president’s strongest supporters labeled the Covid-19 threat a hoax, conjured by the liberal media to make Trump look bad—a claim the leader himself endorsed at a rally in South Carolina. Appearing on Fox & Friends on March 13, the Rev. Jerry Falwell Jr. said people were “overreacting” and denounced virus worries as the liberal establishment’s “next attempt to get Trump.” Falwell went on to suggest that the virus itself was manufactured in North Korea in collusion with China. Queried about specifics, Falwell simply shrugged and replied, “I don’t know, but it really is something strange going on.” Later that month, Falwell reopened Liberty University to more than 1,000 students, at a time when universities nationwide had sent their young people home, reverting to homeschooling via internet to minimize potential spread of the virus.

There’s no small irony in the now-widespread initiative on the right to blame China and other sinister Asian powers for the virus’s devastating spread across the globe: The Trump administration’s response to the virus was replicating, in all its major outlines, the way that the Communist Party leadership in China had badly bungled its own initial reaction to the coronavirus outbreak in and around the major city of Wuhan. Both Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping instinctively sought to repress news of the true danger of their countries’ outbreaks, and the reach of their infection zones, so as to minimize potential political damage to their regimes. Both leaders, displaying parallel if historically distinct brands of authoritarian rule in a crisis, sought to dismiss the counsel of suspect health professionals and other experts. In both China and the United States, this politicized deafness to elementary scientific precautions would diminish the critical early-phase adoptions of broad-based social cooperation and early quarantines to flatten the curve of newly diagnosed coronavirus cases, thereby containing the disease’s spread and potential lethality. And both leaders doubled down on their dire initial misreadings of their respective crises as evidence continued to mount that their citizens desperately needed the broader dissemination of information and public health resources in order to weather the outbreak. The larger political story of the 2020 coronavirus crisis, in other words, may well prove to be a powerful case study in the way that governments controlled by leaders prone to unilateral decision-making, and the top-down information regimes they rely on to perpetuate their rule, are all but guaranteed to create maximum conditions of public health breakdown.


This disarming parallel becomes clearer still when we revisit the history of the virus’s transmission, and its eventual westward trek toward the United States. Again defying the brute nationalist logic of border closure, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread as an unseen stealth agent among us, causing illness and death. By the time it first arrived on U.S. soil, carried by an unknown traveler from central China in the middle of January, the Chinese propaganda campaign denying any pending pandemic was in full swing. Chinese scientists had by then announced successful identification of the mysterious, novel virus, and government officials insisted that it had originated in the live Hua’nan animal market in central Wuhan. The government-approved data then sought to minimize the outbreak—much as Trump would later tout, in a surreal news conference, the politicized tactic of keeping passengers quarantined on a cruise line to make his own coronavirus numbers look good. Chinese officialdom then reported that just 41 people were diagnosed with the new pneumonia disease, with only one fatality. Accordingly, no particular control measures had been undertaken to contain what was then being made to appear a manageable scale of “flulike” infection.

Things had gone on like this for nearly three weeks. Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and government officials in Wuhan, population 11 million, and surrounding Hubei province, inhabited by another 48 million people, insisted everything was under control. On January 13, the Wuhan Commission on Health proudly announced that “there were no new cases of pneumonia caused by new coronavirus infection in our city, one case was cured and discharged, and no new deaths were reported.”

As late as January 14, Chinese government representatives officially reported to the World Health Organization that there was “no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus identified in Wuhan,” a point they would stress again on January 20. And on January 18, with the blessing of Wuhan authorities, 40,000 people gathered for a traditional Lunar New Year celebration in which households prepared special dishes and shared them widely, with participants dipping their chopsticks into one dish after another.

Three days earlier, a man in his thirties flew from Wuhan to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, and went to his home in Snohomish County, Washington. On January 19, he was diagnosed with a probable case of the Wuhan pneumonia. It was also true that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—where Trump had previously discharged much of the pandemic preparedness team largely on the grounds that the Obama administration had taken pains to build up its ranks—had no test to definitively prove that he was infected. But the man clearly fit the official American diagnosis of the moment: high fever, pneumonia, and recent travel from Wuhan, China. When asked about the ailing Seattle-area man in a press briefing at the World Economic Forum, President Trump insisted, “We have it totally under control. It’s one person coming in from China. We have it under control. It’s going to be just fine.”

Fortunately, the information brownout in China was at this point beginning to show signs of cracking. As the population in Wuhan fell seriously ill in greater numbers, a double-digit official count of Covid-19 victims was simply no longer credible. So Chinese President Xi Jinping threatened to fire Wuhan authorities for concealing news of the virus’s spread, and by January 22, new numbers were released, revealing a surge of 444 cases of the strange pneumonia, with 17 official deaths. Again, these numbers didn’t tally new infections, but freshly released old data. With China’s Lunar New Year holiday approaching, Beijing ordered a travel ban, beginning the lockdown of Wuhan—but not before some five million people fled the metropolis, taking the virus with them. The critical pre-holiday moment of mass incubation for the virus again underlines how crucial it is to maintain transparent flows of information in the face of a public health crisis. Even though China was gradually shifting its footing, in at least acknowledging a nationwide epidemic was in the making, the larger information lag was still pronounced, particularly as the spread of Covid-19 went global. As the world health community was starting to learn of a SARS-like new pneumonia virus spreading in China, government officials in that country were still downplaying its true severity.

By January 26, China had placed more than 50 million people under quarantines of one kind or another, as 30 provinces reported a total of 2,744 cases with 80 deaths (the eventual number of Chinese citizens placed under quarantine or restricted movement protocols would soon reach nearly 100 million). That same day, five coronavirus cases were known in the United States, spread out over four states.

With the threat of a pandemic now looming, Washington officials began formulating a response to the spread of the coronavirus in line with their overarching policy assumptions—namely, a strategy to protect Americans by screening travelers and flights to U.S. airports.

The keep-the-virus-out strategy started on Friday, January 17, as a screening procedure at three U.S. airports—San Francisco, Los Angeles, and JFK in New York. Passengers arriving from Wuhan were screened by Department of Homeland Security and some 100 CDC personnel for fevers, coughing, and breathing difficulties. If observations turned up potential symptoms of the new disease, passengers were isolated and further evaluated, based on their clinical features and their responses to a questionnaire regarding activities they had engaged in while in Wuhan. Again, following the example of Chinese leaders, U.S. federal officials instructed airports to screen aggressively for any travelers returning from China who had visited the live animal market in Wuhan, which, according to government reports there, was the source of all the known Chinese cases.

President Trump wasn’t then particularly focused on the specter of a new breed of pneumonia at our border: He had other crises on his mind. Within his administration, a feud was unfolding, chiefly between Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar and Seema Verma, the head of Medicare and Medicaid, over appropriate uses of health care funds and allegations of misappropriation by Verma. That dispute was adding fuel to more widespread tensions within the administration about how to scale back or eliminate the core provisions of the Affordable Care Act—an effort Trump had repeatedly tried to push through Congress with disappointing results. Far more distracting for the president, however, was his Senate impeachment trial, which started on January 16, following lengthy hearings and voting in the House.

With the White House caught up in the drama of the president’s Senate acquittal, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and his staff took the lead on responses to China’s outbreak. In keeping with Pompeo’s office’s priorities and wider administration preferences, the emphasis was once more on travel and border control. Pompeo warned Americans not to visit Wuhan, and to avoid travel to China over the Lunar New Year celebrations scheduled to start on January 25—a signature event for Chinese that typically features the largest internal mass migration in the world, with hundreds of millions of people returning to their ancestral villages for days.

On January 21, however, the CDC announced that restrictions had failed to prevent at least one case from slipping through the airport-based safety net—the Snohomish County traveler’s infection was publicly acknowledged. But far from highlighting the limitations of a borders-first approach to containing the virus’s spread, the first confirmed case of international transmission within the United States prompted the Trump administration to redouble its commitment to this misguided policy. For weeks, the crux of the Trump White House’s coronavirus response was akin to pulling up the drawbridge over the castle moat, hoping the virus couldn’t swim and scale the fortress walls. Public health experts—both outside and within the administration—warned that America had better prepare for a breach of the castle walls, but such pleas mostly fell on deaf ears in Washington. In lieu of a more effective program based on early testing and social separation, Trump officials grudgingly endorsed a modest-at-best set of measures to heighten domestic preparedness for a potentially lethal pandemic.

This was, of course, Donald Trump’s comfort zone. During the global Ebola outbreak of 2014–2015, Trump had tweet-shouted a series of demands for the same basic travel restrictions to keep Ebola-infected health care workers out of the United States. Now facing a public health crisis of far greater proportions, Trump continued to insist that closing borders was the key to American infection control, and he would continue to do so for weeks. At one point, he even suggested that Covid-19 justified closing the U.S. border with Mexico; even though the southern border didn’t represent a principal avenue of transmission for the virus, it was a tried-and-true source of nationalist panic that Trump could gin up among his base. Two months later, on March 9, Trump would look back on this moment of lifting America’s drawbridge to announce on Twitter, “The BEST decision made was the toughest of them all - which saved many lives. Our VERY early decision to stop travel to and from certain parts of the world!”

Stuart Malcolm, a physician at San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury Free Clinic, makes a round of interviews among homeless people in the neighborhood amid the coronavirus crisis. Josh Edelson / AFP/Getty

In an administration notoriously organized around displays of sycophantic loyalty to the president, Trump officials duly went forth to echo the message. As late as early March, with the virus spreading nationwide and financial markets tanking in response, senior economic adviser Larry Kudlow was still insisting that the Trump border strategy had all but contained the virus’s spread in the United States. “This came unexpectedly, it came out of China, we closed it down, we stopped it, it was a very early shut down,” he told CNBC. “I would still argue to you that this thing is contained.”

This was plainly a lie. The airport safety net hadn’t worked in 2014, when Thomas Eric Duncan traveled from Monrovia, Liberia, to Dallas, Texas, to visit relatives, and received his Ebola diagnosis a few days later. His case was initially misdiagnosed as the flu, and while he was treated, the Ebola virus spread to health care workers in the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas. Worse, by January 26, Chinese authorities announced that the virus was spreading via person-to-person contact—with the spreaders often by all appearances completely well, without any observable symptoms. This development should have been a red flag about the reliability of airport screening procedures worldwide.

More to the point, the Trump border-first approach failed because the SARS-CoV-2 virus was already in America before the State Department issued its travel guidance and airport screening commenced. And it failed because China stifled news about what was really transpiring in Wuhan and across the nation.

This is why the 2020 pandemic is, at its root, the story of two deeply flawed leaders, Xi Jinping and Donald Trump, who for too long minimized the coronavirus threat—and who, because of the enormous, largely unaccountable power they wield, must share responsibility for its global scale. At key moments when their mutual transparency and collaboration might have spared the world a catastrophic pandemic, the world’s two most powerful men fought a war of words over trade policies, and charged each other with responsibility for the spread of the disease. When scientists worldwide could have benefited from details of China’s new disease, perhaps thereby preventing thousands of hospitalizations and deaths, the Chinese Communist Party’s instincts were to arrest conveyors of information, shut down social media, and prohibit visiting teams of World Health Organization and foreign disease-control experts.

For its part, the United States was uniquely positioned, thanks to the chronology of the outbreak, to learn from China’s initial mistakes, and heed the example of the Xi regime’s belated epidemic control efforts. The order of the day, as all sorts of public health experts and officials from past administrations had stressed at the time, was to kick on-the-ground prevention and containment efforts into high gear. To begin with, Trump officials should have been preparing lab tests, hospital infection control plans, supply chains of vital equipment, and implementing a chain-of-command reordering of governance on an emergency footing. They should also have been securing budget proposals for emergency funds, and overseeing fuller coordination with state and local health departments across American states and territories.

Instead, the main message of the Trump White House was stunningly oblivious to the real emergency the country was facing. Addressing a press conference at the World Economic Forum on January 22, President Trump insisted that when it came to the coronavirus threat, “We have it totally under control,” despite the Washington state case. “It’s one person coming in from China. We have it under control. It’s going to be just fine,” he said. For good measure, he added that he had a “great relationship” with Xi, who assured him China’s epidemic was also controlled.

“Control” was the shared mantra for both leaders. “The Coronavirus virus is very much under control in the USA,” Trump tweeted on February 24, adding, “CDC & World Health have been working hard and very smart. Stock Market starting to look very good to me!” Similarly, on March 5 Trump insisted via Twitter, “With approximately 100,000 CoronaVirus cases worldwide, and 3,280 deaths, the United States, because of quick action on closing our borders, has, as of now, only 129 cases (40 Americans brought in) and 11 deaths. We are working very hard to keep these numbers as low as possible!”

It wasn’t hard to hear the same sentiments echoing through the centers of power in China. “I have at every moment monitored the spread of the epidemic and progress in efforts to curtail it, constantly issuing oral orders and also instructions,” Xi asserted.


It’s unlikely the world will ever know who patient zero was in the Wuhan outbreak, or from what animal that first human being acquired the deadly virus. But genetic analysis of strains of the coronaviruses found in bats, other animals, and people offers two general insights. First, the virus that was already circulating among the human population in Wuhan in early December is 96 percent identical to a virus found in fruit bats. It’s undoubtedly an ancient virus that has inhabited some types of bats, without apparent harm to the animals, for tens of thousands of years. Somehow—possibly inside Wuhan’s Hua’nan live animal market—a bat’s urine or saliva passed to some other caged beast, infecting that animal. Genetic evidence hints—but does not prove—that the intermediary animal was a pangolin, an unusual type of burrowing mammalian anteater that is covered in scales and curls itself into a tight ball when under attack. The most trafficked mammal in the world, pangolins are at risk of extinction because their scales are coveted by practitioners of Chinese traditional medicine, who believe that in powdered form they cure arthritis and other ailments.

Regardless of the original genesis of the virus’s spread among humans, it’s now clear that unseen cases of the mysterious pneumonia were present in Wuhan at least as early as December 8, 2019, and may well date back to November, even October. According to the South China Morning Post, leaked government documents show testing of old pneumonia patient samples in Wuhan revealed infections dating back to November 17, 2019. This fateful event—the transmission of a bat virus, to an intermediary species, to a person—occurred rapidly and recently. The full analysis of viral genes shows it was a natural occurrence, meaning that (in spite of xenophobic conspiracy theories propagated by right-wing media sources and disseminated by at least one Republican lawmaker) the human virus was not concocted in a laboratory. One Chinese study suggests that the bats carrying the virus came from Zhoushan, Zhejiang province, an island archipelago that is a popular Chinese tourist destination.

All epidemics start with a single case. And the key to stopping an outbreak is recognizing that something new, and dangerous, is unfolding before that one case becomes 20, or 50, or 100. In Wuhan, the crucial inflection point for the virus’s broader transmission occurred over a six-week period, from early December to January 15. During that time, the numbers of infected people and their concentration within a fairly compact area inside Wuhan might have rendered the outbreak quickly manageable. But a sorry trail of mistakes, cover-ups, and lies from Chinese authorities led health officials and Communist Party leaders to block appropriate investigations and conceal information that would certainly have provoked an earlier, more aggressive response.

Careful analysis of the first 41 patients admitted to Wuhan’s top infectious diseases hospital, Jinyintan, disclosed that just 27 of the cases had any direct or secondary link to the blocks-long Hua’nan animal market. The earliest reported case involved a subject who experienced symptoms on December 1, though he wasn’t diagnosed with pneumonia until more than a week later. Neither he nor the other 13 patients in this first group who had not recently visited the market seemed to be linked to other known cases. This suggests that there was already widespread community transmission inside Wuhan well before the Christmas season. Another study of these and 384 other patients who took ill in Wuhan during the month-plus official cover-up in China showed that the only individuals linked to the Hua’nan market were among those diagnosed before January 1. (Nothing is known about the earliest case later discovered in Wuhan—the individual who was hospitalized on November 17—but it’s now clear that 266 Chinese were suffering from the coronavirus before the Western New Year’s Eve.)

At this point in the chronology of the outbreak, spread was entirely human-to-human. Crucially, the first known case of individual exposure involved someone who had not set foot in the Hua’nan market. In other words, that decisive moment when someone first caught the coronavirus infection might not have even occurred in Wuhan. None of the early cases involved patients under the age of 15; the median age was 59. And the virus was spreading fast—each infected person was passing contagion to, statistically speaking, 2.2 other people, meaning the epidemic was “doubling in size approximately every 7.4 days in Wuhan at this stage,” according to the study.

It’s possible, perhaps probable, that the Hua’nan was only coincidentally connected to the world’s pandemic. Chinese state media reported that 31 swabs of surfaces inside the market (out of 585 taken) tested positive for the virus on January 1, but that data was never published in any duly tested or reviewed scientific literature. (At that time, scientists who had visited Wuhan told the South China Morning Post that there was evidence of human-to-human transmission.) Nevertheless, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, after initially suppressing all information regarding the outbreak, changed narratives on December 31, acknowledging there was a virus on the loose, 27 people were infected, and it emphatically was not the SARS virus. The report also insisted that the outbreak was connected to the Hua’nan market, which local government authorities had shut down. Everything was under control, Chinese citizens were assured by their authoritarian regime.

But doctors inside Wuhan were already sharing contrary news. Wuhan Central Hospital had a patient in December whose lungs were filled with fluids—a sign of immune system reaction to acute infection. Doctors there spread the word among colleagues that the patient did not respond to antibiotics—meaning in all likelihood that the infection was viral, not bacterial. One by one, other hospitals began sharing similar findings, and whispering that it looked like SARS. On December 30, according to a Wall Street Journal investigation, Wuhan Central physician Ai Fen passed on to colleagues the results of a lab test she ordered on one such patient, which came back reading “SARS coronavirus.” Ai would eventually be reprimanded by her bosses for publicizing her findings. A short while later, another Wuhan Central doctor, ophthalmologist Li Wenliang, went into a physician group chat room to inform his colleagues across Wuhan, “7 SARS cases confirmed at the Hua’nan Seafood Market,” noting that the patients were quarantined. He added, “Don’t leak it. Tell your family and relatives to take care.”

The following day, Li and seven other physicians were summoned before Wuhan police, and compelled to sign confessions of “spreading rumors” and disseminating false information. Their chief crime, the octet were told, was in claiming the disease looked like SARS. Ai, summoned to the Disciplinary Office of Wuhan Central Hospital, was chastised for “manufacturing rumors.” Ai would later post an online account of her work, detailing her experiences with authorities and the virus, and her army of admirers across China would use clever cyber-tactics to stay seconds ahead of government social media censors, sending the writings all over the Chinese-speaking world.

The World Health Organization accepted China’s official explanation of the disease’s limited, and theoretically containable, human genesis in the Hua’nan market in a statement released from Geneva on January 1: “The evidence is highly suggestive that the outbreak is associated with exposures in one seafood market in Wuhan. At this stage, there is no infection among health care workers, and no clear evidence of human to human transmission.”

Days later, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission announced there were 44 cases of the mysterious new disease in Wuhan. On January 5, the panel emphatically restated that the cause was not SARS, telling the World Health Organization that there were now 59 cases—all of which remained, somehow, linked to the Hua’nan market. Most of this spike in reported cases reflected reappraisal of old pneumonias that hadn’t previously been ascribed to the new coronavirus, dating back to December 12. Once again, Wuhan authorities insisted there was no expanding epidemic—just a retrospective accounting.

But there must have been some greater cause for alarm, because on January 7 President Xi Jinping personally took control of the epidemic response, and maintained control throughout, according to a speech he delivered to senior Communist Party officials. For days, presumably under Xi’s orders, Wuhan reported stagnant epidemic figures, even on one day lowering its count. The figures were lies.

Closing down Hua’nan had no impact on the spread of viral pneumonia in the city, and nearly everybody working on the front lines in Wuhan’s hospitals was convinced that the virus was passed human-to-human—a terrifying new development that the higher reaches of Chinese government were working hard to suppress. It is now known why: 86 percent of all viral transmission was undetected in Wuhan prior to January 23, and 79 percent of all transmission was coming from undocumented sources—people who either were asymptomatic, or simply had been noted by the widening safety net of disease surveillance.

In Beijing, the National Health Commission assembled a distinguished team to investigate Wuhan, including George Gao, the head of China’s CDC; retired infectious disease physician Zhong Nanshan, often described as the man who discovered SARS; and virologist Yuen Kwok-yung from Hong Kong University, one of the world’s most respected experts on the coronaviruses and influenzas. The team was appalled by what they saw in Wuhan, according to Yuen, who was already convinced a catastrophe was unfolding. On January 4, he urged Hong Kong to close its borders to the mainland: Though borders remained open for a few more days, Hong Kong did declare a state of emergency—much to Beijing’s chagrin, given months of demonstrations in the independence-minded territory.

It was obvious to the expert team that Wuhan health authorities were “putting on a show,” Yuen said—trying to prove that they had the virus contained just as it was starting to break out into new infected populations. But Wuhan had no testing kits to tell who was, or was not, infected—the first batch would arrive from Beijing on January 16. Well before then, Yuen and his colleagues at Hong Kong University invented their own test for the virus, and started administering it across southern China and Hong Kong. With it, they discovered on January 10 a Shenzhen family infected with the coronavirus—clear evidence of person-to-person transmission. But the National Health Commission in Beijing censored publication of that discovery—thereby blocking any chance to warn physicians that the virus could potentially be spread from a patient to a health worker or family member.

During their team visit, CDC Director Gao said the Hua’nan animal market was filthy and disgusting, and both he and Yuen were shocked to see that it was just a few yards away from the most important high-speed train hub in all of China, Han­kou Railway Station. This station connects not only all major cities of the nation, but the entire Belt and Road Initiative—Xi Jinping’s brainchild massive economic mission to re-create the Silk Road ancient ties between Beijing and most of Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Africa. At the heart of Xi’s Belt and Road dreams sat Wuhan, whose Wuhan Tianhe International Airport was used by 27 million people a year, flying all around the world. The station accounted for well over 100 million passenger trips a year.

The team returned to Beijing, telling Xi’s office that the epidemic was out of control. There was clear evidence of person-to-person transmission, the researchers announced, and also noted that the Hua’nan market had little, if anything, to do with the crisis. Zhong went further, telling Chinese reporters that 14 health care workers had contracted the virus, and it clearly posed an epidemic threat to all of China.

By the third week of January, with the Lunar New Year holiday looming, it was time for a new official narrative: Beijing had to step in, blame local incompetence, fire Wuhan politicians, and bring in the big guns. As the crisis mounted, critics began taking the risky step of calling out China’s dishonest handling of the crisis on Chinese social media, with posts popping up faster than censors could tear them down. A new call for transparency came down from a CCP Twitter account on January 21: “Anyone who puts the face of politicians before the interests of the people will be the sinner of a millennium to the party and the people,” it read, and added that “anyone who deliberately delays and hides the reporting of [virus] cases out of his or her own self-interest will be nailed on the pillar of shame for eternity.”

Suddenly the numbers of reported cases skyrocketed, and Beijing formulated plans to lock down the entire city of Wuhan, cut travel for the Lunar holiday all over the nation, and revert to clampdown mode. Chinese officials began employing security tools, such as monitoring social media postings, deploying artificial intelligence video scanning of groups gathered in discussions, and police interrogations to control public behavior and manage public fear. Because SARS in 2003 had only been contagious from ailing individuals who were running fevers, the entire containment strategy for that disease was based on thermometer guns. At all points of transit, along barricaded highways, at building entries, and in stores, citizens were compelled to undergo fever checks, often several times a day. If they were found to be running temperatures, they were hustled off to quarantine centers and hospitals, where they remained for a minimum of two weeks.

Over the next two weeks, Wuhan came under increasingly tight control, with nearly the entire population confined to their apartments. Massive hospitals were built in a matter of days to house critically ill patients. Police arrested individuals who refused to wear masks and rounded up suspected Covid-19 cases off public streets. The tools of the security state were put to full use, censoring social media, arresting Chinese journalists, and issuing a new round of trust-the-leadership-caste propaganda.

After twice declining to do so, the World Health Organization declared China’s outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on January 30. By then, the virus had spread to 18 countries. China escalated its lockdown, mobilized military medical cadres to assist exhausted—and, in some cases, dying—doctors in Wuhan. The death toll soared, bodies were left stacked on hospital floors and in the streets. By February 3, more than 17,000 cases were officially tallied.

On February 7, the whistleblower physician Li Wenliang, who had become a social media hero across China, died of the disease at the age of 34. His death sparked a massive outpouring of rage and grief across China that spurred even timid, ordinary people to shout from quarantine and post on social media their anger at the Communist Party and Xi Jinping. It was a Chernobyl-like moment for the Chinese leaders, as a regime of autocratic social control cultivated over the course of decades suddenly appeared to snap.

By March, China’s leaders were breathing somewhat easy again. As I write this in mid-March, reported new cases in China have dramatically tapered off. And inside Wuhan the numbers fell to such low levels that all the quarantine centers and newly built disease hospitals were closed. Nurses danced in their protective suits, flashing victory finger signs. Slowly the people of China began to feel safe, returning to work.

A makeshift memorial for Dr. Li Wenliang, an early whistleblower during China’s initial coronavirus outbreak who later died of the disease, in Westwood, California. Mark Ralston/AFP/Getty

The saga of the virus’s tour through China should have put the United States on notice against the sorts of face-saving official measures that work in the larger scheme of things to compound the conditions of viral transmission rather than to contain them. And at times there were faint causes to hope that this might in fact prove to be the case. In early February, President Donald Trump tweeted a vote of confidence in Xi Jinping, writing, “Just had a long and very good conversation by phone with President Xi of China. He is strong, sharp and powerfully focused on leading the counterattack on the Coronavirus. He feels they are doing very well, even building hospitals in a matter of only days. Nothing is easy, but he will be very successful, especially as the weather starts to warm & the virus hopefully becomes weaker, and then gone. Great discipline is taking place in China, as President Xi strongly leads what will be a successful operation. We are working closely with China to help!”

But that February 7 message bore almost no substantive relation to the Trump administration’s own coronavirus response. Trump and his senior advisers remained confident that border closures and airplane shutdowns would keep Covid-19 out of America—and so the White House took almost no interest in the potential of a pandemic sweeping America. In 2018, Trump had eliminated most of the Obama-era pandemic response capacities inside federal agencies, especially the National Security Council and Department of Homeland Security—which meant that Trump was dangerously insulated from critical sources of information about America’s acute vulnerability to emerging viral threats. The Trump administration had no coordination of information and analysis in the National Security Council, no command operation inside the Department of Homeland Security, a diminished set of global health and epidemic programs at the CDC, lapsed funding for training grassroots medical personnel in infection control, and a weakened capacity to rush diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines through FDA safety checks and approval.

Despite warnings from his own national intelligence community that Covid-19 displayed “pandemic potential,” the president insisted the Chinese outbreak posed no threat to America. Some critics have labeled this call “the worst intelligence failure in U.S. history,” comparing it to past American leaders’ neglect of crucial reports of hostile activity prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the 9/11 attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center.

This disconnect came into full view just days after Trump had hailed Xi’s belated initiative to contain the spread of the coronavirus in China. In one press conference after another, Trump struggled to give any coherent accounting of American plans. Meanwhile, the Dow Jones sank day by day, the numbers of ailing Americans rose, and the United States earned the distinction of being likely the only wealthy country in the world that was unable to mass produce diagnostic tests to determine just who was infected and how best to treat them and isolate them.

As viral testing finally rolled out on a minute scale in the first week of March, the American public learned of pockets of community transmission of the disease all over the country—especially near Seattle and New York City. Stock markets continued their steep slide. Some institutions, such as schools and nursing homes, shut down; the National Guard was dispatched to help enforce quarantine conditions in the viral hot spot of New Rochelle, N.Y.

It was clear that little was being done at the federal level to quell the spread of the virus—and citizens increasingly felt desperately thrown back on their own limited resources to contend with the specter of a long-term, lethal pandemic. By the time of Trump’s March 12 special address to the nation, much of the American public already knew the awful truth: that the entire Trump administration strategy for protecting them from Covid-19, which rested on airport controls to keep the virus out of the country, was a nonstarter. The virus was already all over America.

Desperate to keep “the numbers where they are,” as the president put it in a press briefing at the CDC, the White House seemed determined to draw from the Xi Jinping playbook—censoring data, and clamping down on concern and dissent within the administration.

And just as politics has largely dictated the woefully inadequate American response to the coronavirus threat, so will politics shape our reactions to this colossal governing failure. Our political system, together with the media ecosystem that relies on it, has grown notoriously polarized. The nation is facing a heated presidential election, and the coronavirus threat has supplied charged ideological fodder in political salvos from all sides. Until the first reports emerged of community-acquired Covid-19 cases within U.S. borders, America seemed satisfied to act as a collective epidemic voyeur, watching horror unfold in China and elsewhere overseas without anticipating its arrival domestically. As outbreaks exploded in South Korea, Iran, Japan, and Italy, anxiety rose in financial markets, fretting about quarantine conditions and supply-chain disruptions poised to extend well beyond the already collapsed production and distribution networks in China.

As longtime China-watcher Bill Bishop wrote for his website Sinocism, “We might be heading into [the] first global recession caused by [Chinese Communist Party] mismanagement. Previous manmade disasters in China since 1949 never really spread outside the PRC’s borders in meaningful ways. This time looks to be different, and being the proximate cause of a global recession may not be helpful to the PRC’s global image and aspirations.”

Chinese leaders clearly heeded this threat. China rolled out a propaganda campaign, accusing the United States of responsibility for the pandemic, and complaining that other world powers weren’t following its example.

Inside China, meanwhile, Xi waged a propaganda effort to shore up his damaged image as a great leader, visiting factories and hospitals. After one such visit, the state-run media issued this glowing report: “The inspection tour by Chinese President Xi Jinping to Wuhan, Central China’s Hubei province, has greatly inspired Chinese society. People interpret the visit in their own simple way, and optimism has blended with the atmosphere of spring.”

Eager to get his economy back on track, Xi ordered key factories and industrial centers reopened—only to have some efforts backfire. On March 11, as the South China Morning News described it, “At 8.30am the government of Qianjiang—which lies about 150 km (90 miles) east of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province—said that all restrictions on the movement of people and traffic would be lifted at 10am. They were.

“Then, at 10.30am, they were reinstated.

“‘The city will continue its restrictions on the movement of traffic and residents,’ the government said, without elaborating.”

Two days previously, well-known Chinese author Fang Fang wrote a tough essay, labeling the epidemic (not the virus) “man-made” and insisting, “Now is the best time for reflecting on what happened and investigating who is responsible.” Pointedly, she rejected CCP claims that the people should thank the party for stopping Covid-19. “A word that crops up frequently in conversation these days is ‘gratitude.’ High-level officials in Wuhan demand that the people show they’re grateful to the Communist Party and the country. I find this way of thinking very strange. Our government is supposed to be a people’s government; it exists solely to serve the people. Government officials work for us, not the other way around. I don’t understand why our leaders seem to draw exactly the opposite conclusion.”

Outside the country, China waged a two-pronged effort: one showing its willingness to help the rest of the world, the other leveling accusations and blame. At the forefront of this PR offensive is the country’s United Nations Ambassador Zhang Jun. In a March 10 letter to all 192 member-states of the United Nations, Zhang wrote, “The spread of the epidemic has been basically contained in Hubei and Wuhan. We are ready to strengthen solidarity with the rest of the international community to jointly fight the epidemic.”

CCP leadership noted that the “comprehensive, thorough and rigorous” measures China took to bring its epidemic to a halt could be shared with the rest of the world. And in the process, the CCP said, the governance of the United Nations and other international institutions would be improved.

That’s the polite side of China’s campaign. Beijing has instructed its ambassadors all over the world to raise doubts about the origin of the virus, calling it “the Italian virus,” or the “Japanese virus,” suggesting that it might even have been man-made. In a perverse mirror image of xenophobic anti-China conspiracy theories on the American right, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian suggested the virus came out of an American laboratory. The White House responded with accusations about Chinese cover-ups and incompetence.

He also has tweeted and given speeches claiming that U.S. Army representatives brought the novel coronavirus to Wuhan in October 2019.

“The US has finally acknowledged that among those who had died of the influenza previously were cases of the coronavirus. The true source of the virus was the US!” one commentator said in response to Zhao’s postings. “The US owes the world, especially China, an apology,” another commentator said, and some on social media referred to the “American coronavirus.”

State-run media accused the United States of denigrating China’s fight, while castigating the many genuine failures of U.S. planning and policy execution in the face of the crisis: “They have misused the time China bought for them by blaming China for so-called ‘delays’ during the initial stage of the outbreak. A full month after the beginning of the out-break in China, the US still has not yet equipped itself with sufficient and reliable testing kits, missing the opportunity to identify cases and curbing the spread of the virus. Large public events and rallies are still being held in the US, despite the risk of mass infection.... After accusing China of providing ‘imperfect’ data, the US is being far from transparent.”

White House National Security Adviser Robert O’Brien counterpunched, charging that China’s handling of the initial outbreak in Wuhan “probably cost the world community two months to respond and those two months, if we’d had those [and] been able to sequence the virus and had the cooperation necessary from the Chinese, had a WHO team been on the ground, had a CDC team, which we had offered, been on the ground, I think we could have dramatically curtailed what happened both in China and what’s now happening across the world.”

Similarly, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo consistently refers to “the Wuhan virus,” enraging China. Pompeo also eagerly took up O’Brien’s line of attack, charging that the early cove

          

COVID-19 and Appellate Practice: A Maine Update   

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I recently wrote about the orders affecting appellate practice during the COVID-19 pandemic, noting the importance of staying up to date with current developments.  While those developments continue at a relentless pace, there was one I thought it particularly helpful to highlight here.  The Maine Supreme Court recently issued a consolidated Pandemic Management Order.  That...
          

Québec aide les travailleurs des services essentiels   

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Le Programme incitatif pour la rétention des travailleurs essentiels (PIRTE), consiste à une prestation de 100 $ par semaine pour les salariés à faible revenu travaillant à temps plein ou à temps partiel dans les services essentiels. La prestation sera versée rétroactivement au 15 mars, pour un maximum de seize semaines. Avec cette compensation, le travailleur obtiendra, en plus de son salai...
          

Un contrôle routier discuté au « sommet »   

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Si la Santé publique ne voyait rien qui justifiait une telle mesure en début de semaine, d’autres facteurs comme l’âge de la population et le taux de maladies chroniques auraient amené les autorités à revoir cette option. Les discussions sont terminées. Il ne manquerait que l’annonce gouvernementale pour le confirmer, disent des sources proches du dossier. Des maires réclament un contrôle...
          

Le Triathlon de Charlevoix se donne encore du temps   

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Le Triathlon de Charlevoix amorce sa phase de planification active avec prudence. Il y a 3 semaines, le taux d’inscription était de 20%. Chacun des participants inscrits a été contacté pour l’informer de la situation. Il est encore possible de tenir l’évènement qui doit se dérouler dans 4 mois, « mais tout dépendra de l’évolution de la situation et des directives du gouvernement du Québec...
          

Covid-19 : Fréquence Plus mobilisée pour la Bourgogne-Franche-Comté   

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Fréquence Plus, la radio régionale de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté a mis en place un dispositif antenne pour être au plus près des habitants de sa région. La radio a retravaillé en profondeur ses programmes pour s’adapter aux attentes de ses auditeurs et leur proposer un accompagnement à la hauteur d’une crise sanitaire inédite. Information, solidarité et service sont les trois mots clés de l’antenne.
Covid-19 : Fréquence Plus mobilisée pour la Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

La grille des programmes de Fréquence Plus a été totalement revue afin de s’adapter aux enjeux de la situation. Cynthia et Totem, le duo habituellement aux manettes de la matinale de la station, sont désormais les deux points de repère des auditeurs. Cynthia anime la tranche 7h – 13h, Totem prend le relais de 13h à 20h. Tous les deux animent une émission qui constitue le fil rouge de la journée. Des témoignages d’acteurs locaux économiques, politiques ou associatifs et des appels à initiatives se succèdent tout au long de la journée.

Solidarité entre citoyens, services gratuits pour les soignants, idées pour occuper les enfants pendant le confinement, conseils pratiques… Les programmes sont totalement reconfigurés pour accompagner les auditeurs confinés et les professionnels mobilisés.
L’habillage de l’antenne a été adapté aux circonstances et la programmation musicale tient compte des titres qui peuvent être écrits et enregistrés par certains artistes. C’est le cas, par exemple, de "On fait comme si" de Calogero, "À des vies de toi" de Nilusi, déjà en programmation.

Covid-19 : Fréquence Plus mobilisée pour la Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

266 rendez-vous d’information
Fréquence Plus propose un rendez-vous d’information toutes les demi-heures, 7 jours sur 7, de 5h à 23h30, soit 38 rendez-vous par jour et 266 par semaine. Un lien internet spécifique a été mis en place afin de suivre l’évolution régionale de la situation en quasi-temps réel : frequenceplus.info Les auditeurs de Strasbourg et du Grand Est de la France sont également concernés par des informations spécifiques, diffusées via la fréquence DAB+ de Strasbourg.

La radio pense aussi aux enfants
Tous les jours, à 16h, après les informations, elle propose "Le Goûter Fréquence Plus". Des enfants prennent l’antenne et racontent leur journée entre devoirs, interrogations, activités récréatives, chamailleries entre frères et sœurs et… grasse matinée. Ils rappellent, à leur façon, les bons comportements et les gestes barrière.
"Cette situation exceptionnelle appelle une mobilisation exceptionnelle. L’équipe de Fréquence Plus est à la hauteur de ce défi collectif. En télétravail, ou dans nos studios avec un protocole d’hygiène strict, nous nous sommes adaptés aux attentes de nos auditeurs en confinement. En situation de crise aigüe, comme celle que nous vivons tous ensemble, la proximité prend tout son sens. Nous faisons la différence car nous connaissons nos auditeurs, leurs habitudes, nous sommes en mesure de répondre en temps réel à leurs besoins. C’est aussi cela la solidarité : continuer d’informer, de divertir et de proposer des services. Fréquence Plus est une PME de la radio, indépendante, familiale, nous vivons et partageons les difficultés de nos auditeurs et de nos annonceurs, en plus de leur lieu de vie. Cela fait une grande différence" a rappelé Anthony Eustache, président de Fréquence Plus.
 

Covid-19 : Fréquence Plus mobilisée pour la Bourgogne-Franche-Comté


          

Yann Vonarburg (AETA Audio) : "On va réorienter nos priorités en recherche et développement"    

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La patron d'AETA Audio Systems, l'un des premiers fabricants de codecs pour les radios, comme les modèles Scoopy, s'est adapté à la crise et aux mesures de confinement. La société, basée en région parisienne, a dû mettre les bouchées doubles pour répondre aux demandes des stations.

Ce sera l'un des produits techniques pour les radios qui aura été l'un des plus utilisés à l'heure du confinement. La société AETA Audio Systems, basée au Plessis Robinson (92) fabrique en France les fameux Scoopy qui permettent à de nombreuses stations de réaliser des émissions en direct à l'extérieur... et depuis quelques semaines à domicile. Son patron Yann Vonarburg, invité du livre streaming La Lettre Pro à la maison ce jeudi, a expliqué comment son entreprise s'est réorganisée pour respecter les mesures et répondre à la forte demande de ses clients. Il anticipe déjà l'après crise et notamment sur de futurs solutions.

Yann Vonarburg (AETA Audio) :


          

Covid-19 : la Skol Radio est également en télétravail   

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Depuis le lundi 16 mars, la formation se fait à distance, avec Discord, en accord avec la région Bretagne. "Nous avons adapté notre pédagogie et nous poussons nos 12 stagiaires à développer des compétences d’organisation à distance, à se dépasser pour trouver des sujets hors Covid-19 et de pouvoir avoir le sourire malgré l’ambiance anxiogène" explique la Skol Radio.
Covid-19 : la Skol Radio est également en télétravail

Cette semaine, Pierre Le Roy de NRJ les accompagne sur dans l'élaboration de leurs maquettes. Rappelons que la formation Skol Radio est financée par la Région Bretagne. Elle est gratuite pour les stagiaires qui peuvent même prétendre à une rémunération de la part de la Région ou Pôle Emploi. En 2020, le jury est composé d'Aurélie Trochet (animatrice sur Radio Cristal), Jessica Quirin (directrice de Plum FM et co-présidente de la CORLAB), Daniel Meloux, (animateur/programmateur sur France Bleu Armorique) et Sylvain Delfau (directeur de la formation Skol Radio).

Covid-19 : la Skol Radio est également en télétravail


          

Classement "Le Radio Buzz 40 / La Lettre Pro de la Radio"   

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Calculé à partir des diffusions sur plus de 200 radios, l'intérêt et l'originalité de ce nouveau classement c'est surtout qu'il ne prend pas en compte l’audience des radios. "Un programmateur = 1 voix", ce qui donne ici un avantage à l’humain sur la machine et les algorithmes. Un classement en partenariat avec La Lettre Pro de la Radio.
Classement


Découvrez la suite du classement Radio Buzz 40 - La Lettre Pro du 28 mars et les autres titres ICI. Également disponible, la "Meilleure entrée, la "Meilleure progression" et, forcément, la plus "grosse gamelle" de la semaine.

Classement


          

Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio   

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'est un numéro spécial que nous vous proposons. Il traite notamment des conséquences de la pandémie de Covid-19 pour l'industrie de la radio. Depuis le début du confinement, notre secteur est confronté à une réorganisation complète. Mais c'est seulement la partie visible de l'iceberg. La crise devrait, on le sait, fortement impacter négativement cette saison 2019-2020. Ce 121e numéro, réalisé par une équipe entièrement en télétravail, est disponible gratuitement en téléchargement.
Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio
La radio entre en résistance
Si la radio a prouvé ces derniers jours toute sa capacité à réagir malgré le confinement, grâce notamment à des dispositifs techniques de télétravail, le reste de l'industrie est à la peine et tente de s'adapter tant bien que mal à une crise inédite et qui laissera probablement des blessures profondes, notamment sur le plan financier. Panorama de quelques entreprises emblématiques de notre secteur…

Assurer un plan de continuité d'activité depuis chez soi
Coincé à la maison pour se prémunir du Covid-19, tout l'univers radio s'organise pour assurer les émissions, parfois même en live depuis le domicile des journalistes et animateurs. Grâce à l'efficacité des solutions sur IP, la prouesse d'hier est devenue un simple enjeu de débrouillardise technique aujourd'hui, financièrement accessible à toutes les radios de métropole.

Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio

Les radios à l’heure de La pandémie
Parti de Chine, le coronavirus s’est répandu comme une traînée de poudre. En quelques semaines, cette "petite grippe" est devenue une crise sanitaire mondiale. Le confinement des populations est une mesure totalement inédite qui a été imposée dans de nombreux pays. Les médias ont à peine eu le temps de se retourner. Il a donc fallu improviser pour faire face.

BTLV un Ovni dans les médias
Après avoir été un animateur "mainstream", Bob Bellanca a décidé d’importer un format des USA. De l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, un certain George Noory présente Coast to Coast un programme qui aborde les grandes énigmes de la vie, de la mort, l’ufologie et le développement personnel. "Aux États Unis, un ex de Fox News, Glenn Beck, a aussi monté sa chaîne d’infos payante et ça fait un carton." C’est à partir de là qu’est née BTLV. C’est à Boulogne que "Bob vous dit toute la vérité" a déjà produit plus de 4 000 programmes réécoutables en replay.

Dans les coulisses de Hondelatte Raconte
L'auditeur de l'émission Hondelatte Raconte entend régulièrement son nom : Céline Le Bras. Dans l'ombre, cette jeune professionnelle, passée par le Studec, réalise quotidiennement la célèbre émission d'Europe 1. Si Hondelatte raconte exige un vrai travail d'équipe, sa réalisation quotidienne, confiée à Céline Le Bras, nécessite quelques solides connaissances techniques…

Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio

RTL : dix ans d'affaires criminelles avec Jacques Pradelle
2010-2020 : Jacques Pradel fête cette année les dix ans de "L’heure du crime". Depuis deux ans, l’émission des débuts d’après-midi de RTL a été déplacée en prime et affronte la concurrence du JT de 20h. Mais cela n’effraie pas l’animateur, dont le savoir-faire en matière de narration d'affaires criminelles conquiert chaque jour quelque 300 000 auditeurs et dont les podcasts font partie des plus écoutés de la station.

Le savoir-faire des radios au service du podcast de marque
Nous avions déjà parlé dans ces colonnes de l’eldorado que représente le podcast. Les radios s’y engouffrent en proposant de nouveaux contenus originaux. Leur savoir-faire, en termes de production notamment, est aussi reconnu par les clients et partenaires, qui n’hésitent pas à les solliciter pour créer leurs propres podcasts de marque. Illustration en Alsace, avec Pascal Muller, le directeur de Top Music.

Pitchoun, la plus familiale des radios
Ce n’est certainement pas la première fois que La Lettre Pro vous racontera l’histoire d’une radio née par accident ! Derrière Radio Pitchoun, il y a Laurent Brochet, jeune papa de Lucie et Baptiste. En 2016, lors d’un trajet Nice-Paris en voiture, il zappe sur son autoradio et ne trouve rien de convaincant pour distraire ses enfants. Il décide donc de créer Radio Pitchoun, un média "sécurisé" pour les 4-10 ans, qui est en train de conquérir la France.

Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio

RRB : La radio Made in Nouméa
À 18 000 km de Paris, au large de l’Australie, la Nouvelle-Calédonie est un territoire français en plein Pacifique Sud. Un archipel d’une dizaine d’îles baignant dans la mer de Corail, au coeur de l’Océanie. Peuplée de 271 407 habitants (INSEE 2019), la Nouvelle-Calédonie s’étend sur un peu plus de 18 000 km² ; l’équivalent de quatre départements en métropole. Et sur le Caillou, six radios se partagent les ondes.

Confinement : les auditeurs sont captifs par Denis Florent
La crise sanitaire qui ne fait que commencer nous permet de faire le tri dans nos existences entre ce qui est nécessaire et ce dont, finalement, on peut tout à fait se passer. Or, il semble bien que nos concitoyens ont rangé les médias dans la catégorie du nécessaire. Rien de tel que l’isolement pour exacerber le besoin de lien.

Relations presse pour podcasteurs
Vous êtes un podcasteur en herbe ? Votre idée est géniale ? Oui, mais comment vous démarquer dans cette jungle podcastique ? Entre les podcasts de marque, les replays des radios ou les fictions audio lancées par les studios de télé à grand renfort de communication, les podcasteurs indépendants ont du mal à se faire connaître. Hervé Cocto (Music Media Consulting) vient de lancer L’Agence du Podcast dont l’objectif est d’accompagner des podcasts natifs non connus.

Quatre bons réflexes commerciaux en période de crise par Michel Colin
Au-delà de la gestion des annulations, de l'organisation d'un chômage partiel ou du télétravail, les commerciaux radio peuvent temporairement réorganiser leur activité autour de ces quatre axes : solidarité, décence, organisation et anticipation.

Téléchargez le 121e numéro de La Lettre Pro de la Radio

Et aussi...
À lire également cette semaine dans La Lettre Pro de la Radio, nos infos "Off Air", les classements Radioline et ACPM/OJD des indépendantes les plus écoutées, le classement exclusif HyperTop20 des 20 titres les plus diffusés à la radio…  et toute l’actualité pour les pros de la radio. Abonnez-vous au magazine papier de La Lettre Pro de la Radio et faites ainsi bénéficiez vos équipes de contenus exclusifs. Recevez ainsi tous les mois La Lettre Pro de la Radio en format papier et numérique pour consulter votre magazine sur toutes les plateformes existantes (Web, iPad, iPhone, Android...). 
Inscrivez-vous à notre newsletter quotidienne pour bénéficier gratuitement de toute l’actualité de la radio (sauf articles contenus dans le magazine). Tous les jours à 18h, recevez notre bilan de l'actualité radio du jour et accéder gratuitement à nos articles.


          

Covid-19 : Champagne FM invite les artistes en live à la maison   

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Après trois semaines de confinement, l’antenne de Champagne FM continue de se renouveler et mettre en place de nouvelles actions pour divertir ses auditeurs. Rester à la maison tout en étant au concert de son artiste favori, c’est désormais possible sur Champagne FM...
Covid-19 : Champagne FM invite les artistes en live à la maison

Chaque vendredi soir, jusqu'à la fin du confinement, la radio leader en Champagne-Ardenne proposera un concert inédit.  Le premier rendez-vous aura lieu ce vendredi 3 avril à 20h, avec un live de Jenifer. Le concert sera précédé d'un apéro virtuel avec toute "La Famille Champagne FM". Le vendredi 10 avril, c'est le groupe Tryo, fidèle soutien de la radio, qui proposera un moment de partage aux auditeurs.
Et avec son opération "Cash Code Solidaire", Champagne FM a déjà versé plus de 1 600 euros aux associations de soutien aux personnels soignants. Et chaque jour, en direct, de 6h à 20h, les animateurs et journalistes de la radio proposent un double programme pour plus de solidarité et d'interactivité avec un Facebook Live animé par ses équipes, elles-mêmes en confinement.

Covid-19 : Champagne FM invite les artistes en live à la maison


          

Covid-19 : "Les carnets d'un confiné" sur Tendance Ouest   

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Tous les jours, durant la période de confinement destinée à faire face à l'épidémie de coronavirus en France, le journaliste et auteur normand Philippe Bertin partage son "journal d'un confiné". Et c'est aussi sur Tendance Ouest.
Covid-19 :

Un nouveau podcast produit par le réseau Normand Tendance Ouest : "Les carnets d'un confiné". Les "Carnets d'un confiné" sont diffusés tous les jours à 8h05 sur la radio Tendance Ouest et donc, disponibles aussi en podcast. Chaque jour, le journaliste normand Philippe Bertin nous livre une page de son "journal de confiné" durant la période de confinement décrétée en France pour faire face à l'épidémie du Covid-19.
Tendance Ouest a également lancé, en début de semaine, le podcast "Derrière le masque " qui met en avant le témoignage des soignants qui travaillent dans les hôpitaux en Normandie.

Covid-19 :



          

An Indole Alkaloid Extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Inhibits Colonic Motility of Rats In Vitro   

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Evodiamine (Evo) is an indole alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Evodia rutaecarpa. Evo may regulate gastrointestinal motility, but the evidence is insufficient, and the mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Evo on colonic motility of rats and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Rat colonic muscle was exposed to Evo (10 and 100 μM) followed by immunohistochemistry of cholecystokinin receptor 1 (CCK1R). Muscle contractions were studied in an organ bath system to determine whether CCK1R, nitric oxide (NO), and enteric neurons are involved in the relaxant effect of Evo. Whole-cell patch-clamp was used to detect L-type calcium currents () in isolated colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). CCK1R was observed in SMCs, intermuscular neurons, and mucosa of rat colon. Evo could inhibit spontaneous muscle contractions; NO synthase, inhibitor L-NAME CCK1R antagonist, could partly block this effect, while the enteric neurons may not play a major role. Evo inhibited the peak in colonic SMCs at a membrane potential of 0 mV. The current-voltage (I–V) relationship of L-type calcium channels was modified by Evo, while the peak of the I–V curve remained at 0 mV. Furthermore, Evo inhibited the activation of L-type calcium channels and decreased the peak . The relaxant effect of Evo on colonic muscle is associated with the inhibition of L-type calcium channels. The enteric neurons, NO, and CCK1R may be partly related to the inhibitory effect of Evo on colonic motility. This study provides the first evidence that evodiamine can regulate colonic motility in rats by mediating calcium homeostasis in smooth muscle cells. These data form a theoretical basis for the clinical application of evodiamine for treatment of gastrointestinal motility diseases.
          

Pediatric Hematologist/ Oncologist | Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center   

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Bangor, Maine, Pediatric Hematologist Oncologist   Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center seeks an additional board-certified/board-eligible pediatric hematologist-oncologist to provide both inpatient and
          

“On laisse le terrain être dans l’invention et dans l’organisation”   

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Tahiti, le 2 avril 2020 - Entretien avec Thierry Delmas, le Directeur général des enseignements et de l’éducation, au sujet du système de continuité pédagogique mis en place à partir de lundi pour une poursuite des enseignements scolaires malgré le confinement général en Polynésie française.  L’école reprend lundi sur le principe du télé-enseignement mais vous demandez un effort certain aux parents et aux enseignants qui devront se débrouiller avec les moyens à leur disposition.  “A partir du 6 avril, en effet, il faudra que les élèves soient en activité et qu’ils soient accompagnés par les parents et enseignants, par tous les moyens possibles. Vous savez que nous sommes sur un territoire extrêmement dispersé, avec une hétérogénéité forte des connexions, donc effectivement, pour certains élèves éloignés, ce ne sera que par téléphone tandis que pour d’autres ce sera via internet. C’est pour cela que nous insistons beaucoup sur le fait que nous sommes dans une démarche apprenante. Tout sera fait par les enseignants et les inspecteurs pour ce ces élèves arrivent à niveau à la fin de l’année.”     Vous avez conscience que c’est un gros effort que vous demandez ? Avez-vous la garantie que ce système va fonctionner ? “Je ne suis pas très inquiet pour les enseignants. Je leurs fait confiance. Nous avons rencontré cette semaine avec M. Le Ray (vice-recteur par intérim : Ndlr) les chefs d’établissements. Nous avons fait une remontée de chacun des 35 établissements et des inspecteurs du premier degré. Ce qui ressort, c’est qu’une très grande majorité des personnels est déjà dans cette dynamique-là, en train de réfléchir à la mise en place opérationnelle. Des parents ont déjà reçu des ressources. La difficulté pour nous est de gérer l’hétérogénéité, c’est-à-dire le fait que certains élèves n’auront peut-être que la télévision ou que les manuels et d’autres auront plus. Encore une fois, le travail sera fait au retour en classe pour que tout le monde ait le même niveau et les mêmes compétences.  Pour les parents, il faut qu’ils aient ce rôle d’accompagnement. Et j’insiste beaucoup sur le fait que l’on n’a pas besoin d’être un as en math ou en français pour accompagner ses enfants. On a juste besoin de les écouter, de les motiver et de leur donner accès aux ressources… Il faut de la bienveillance, du calme et de l’écoute. C’est comme cela que les élèves garderont leur posture d’apprenant et réussiront à passer cette crise.”     Avant d’en venir aux moyens mis à disposition, quand les parents seront-ils contactés par les enseignants ? “D’abord, je rappelle que la rentrée c’est le 6 avril : nous sommes toujours en vacances. Les enseignants sont encore aujourd’hui en train de se préparer. Ils sont en contact avec leur établissement. Ensuite, il faut bien imaginer que si tous les parents appellent lundi matin, ce ne sera pas gérable. Il faut qu’ils soient patients. Ce seront les professeurs des écoles qui prendront contact avec eux. Pour les collèges et lycées, ce sera le professeur principal qui coordonnera tout ça. (…) On laisse le terrain être dans l’invention et dans l’organisation. Que les parents ne s’inquiètent pas.”   Par quels moyens passeront ces outils d’enseignement ? “On travaille depuis déjà dix jours avec Polynésie la 1ère et TNTV pour pouvoir diffuser des capsules très pédagogiques à heure régulière. Nous allons augmenter ce temps-là puisque nous allons passer à trois heures par jour. C’est un rendez-vous important. Ensuite, il y a internet avec le logiciel Pronote, qui permet déjà aux parents d’être en contact avec les enseignants dans 34 établissements sur 35 du second degré. Certains professeurs utilisent aussi Ma classe à la maison ou les contenus du Cned. D’autres enseignants sont habitués à d’autres outils, on leur laisse la possibilité de les utiliser. Nous sommes en situation de crise majeure. Dans un cadrage général, on laissera les libertés pédagogiques.”    Vous avez également soulevé la possibilité de transmettre directement des manuels papiers aux élèves via les mairies. “C’est en effet un appel qui a été fait par le directeur de cabinet du ministère. Les équipes ont travaillé sur un livret en français et en mathématiques, sur tous les niveaux dans le premier degré. On refuse que les parents doivent venir à l’école pour le récupérer. On s’appuie donc sur les maires et sur les mutoi pour diffuser ces documents. C’est déjà en marche dans beaucoup de mairies. En tout cas les inspecteurs de l’éducation et les chefs d’établissement sont en lien avec les maires. On en appelle à leur solidarité, en plus de tout ce qu’ils font en ce moment dans le cadre du plan de sauvegarde.”    Comment cela va-t-il se passer pour les examens, notamment le baccalauréat ? “Je vous invite vivement à écouter l’intervention de M. Blanquer (ministre de l’Éducation nationale : Ndlr), cette nuit. (…) Tout dépendra de la gravité de la crise et de sa durée. Mais encore une fois, l’objectif est de ne pas mettre les gens en difficulté et d’éviter une pression supplémentaire à ce confinement. Il faut rester serein. Les décisions seront prises au moment où la crise sera terminée et on arrivera à faire en sorte que les élèves ne soient pas pénalisés.” Tahiti-Infos, le site N°1 de l'information à Tahiti
          

​La rentrée à la maison   

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Tahiti, le 2 avril 2020 - L’école reprend lundi dans des conditions inédites pour assurer une continuité pédagogique aux 60 000 élèves polynésiens, malgré le confinement général de la population. Enseignants et parents sont appelés à collaborer pour que les élèves restent des “apprenants”, et remettent le pied à l’étrier depuis la maison.   Garder le lien avec les enseignants, rester dans une situation d’apprenant. De la reprise des cours, lundi, jusqu’à l’issue de la phase de confinement général en Polynésie française, ce sont les deux principes qui guideront l’opération de continuité pédagogique mise en œuvre pour les 60 000 élèves scolarisés au fenua. Un dispositif inédit pour lequel la Polynésie s’est beaucoup inspirée du système de télé-éducation mis en place dans l’Hexagone depuis trois semaines, mais en tenant compte de spécificités notamment dans l’accès à internet.    En ce qui concerne le mode opératoire, comme l’a expliqué hier Thierry Delmas, le directeur général de l’Éducation et des enseignements (DGEE), lors de la conférence de presse commune donnée avec le vice-recteur par intérim Stéphane Le Ray et le directeur de cabinet du ministère de l’Éducation, Manuel Sanquer, “les enseignants ont une mission, on compte beaucoup sur leur investissement. En situation de crise, c’est la solidarité qui prime”.    Les cours reprennent lundi matin et navigueront à tâtons jusqu’à nouvel ordre. “La maison, ce n’est pas l’école”, prévient la fiche explicative que doivent recevoir tous les parents d’élèves de Polynésie avant lundi. “Faites confiance aux enseignants pour vous guider, vous écouter avec bienveillance. L’ensemble des moyens d’information est mobilisé pour relayer les informations nécessaires à l’organisation et la mise en œuvre de cette opération ambitieuse et inédite.”   L’objectif principal de cette continuité pédagogique est de maintenir le lien entre l’élève et son école, son collège ou son lycée. Il est ainsi demandé aux parents de mettre en place les conditions propices pour que leurs enfants scolarisés puissent tous les jours, à heures régulières, avoir des activités pédagogiques et sportives. C’est à cette condition que le retour en classe, après la crise, sera facilité.    “On sait que le contexte familial économique est très variable”, reconnaît cependant Thierry Delmas. Mais il rassure : “On n’a pas besoin de maîtriser toutes les disciplines pour accompagner son enfant. Il suffit d’être attentif, d’imposer des rythmes et d’être rassurant. Les ressources sont disponibles.”   Les enseignants prennent contact   Les parents n’auront ni à se déplacer vers les établissements, ni à tenter de prendre contact. Concrètement, à partir de lundi les parents seront contactés par les enseignants en charge du suivi de leurs enfants pour organiser la continuité pédagogique. Pour les écoliers du premier degré, les contenus pédagogiques seront transmis par internet pour ceux qui disposent d’une connexion. Pour les autres, des livrets pédagogiques, en mathématiques et français, ont été élaborés spécialement par les inspecteurs de l’éducation et leurs équipes. Ils seront transmis avec le relai des agents municipaux.    Pour les élèves de collège et de lycée, ce sont les professeurs principaux qui seront en charge de la mise en œuvre de la continuité pédagogique. Ils seront en charge d’établir le lien avec les élèves confinés et de les orienter vers les cours et supports conçus par les enseignants, les ressources numériques sur internet, notamment celles du Centre national d’enseignement à distance (Cned). Des contenus pédagogiques sont également prévus sur les diffusions des radios de proximité, dans la presse écrite, via des émissions télévisées produites par la DGEE et les émissions nationales (Lumni). Un Guide des programmes hebdomadaire doit être communiqué à ce titre pour permettre le choix des programmes les plus adaptés au niveau de l’enfant.   Parallèlement, un accompagnement téléphonique ou internet doit être dispensé par les enseignants.    A partir du 13 avril, la diffusion quotidienne de 3 heures d’émissions éducatives sur les deux chaînes locales de télévision est annoncée. En Polynésie, une enquête réalisée en décembre dernier pour le compte de la Direction générale de l’économie numérique, constate que sur l’ensemble, deux foyer sur trois (66%) dispose d’une connexion internet sur l’ensemble de la collectivité avec de fortes inégalités selon les archipels (70% aux îles du Vent, 59% aux îles Sous-le-Vent, 45% dans les archipels éloignés), tandis que 92% des ménages polynésiens sont équipés d’une télévision. “Nos efforts vont essentiellement se porter sur les 10% de familles qui n’ont pas accès à internet ou à la télévision”, prévient Thierry Delmas en prévoyant un “gros travail” de remise à niveau une fois que l’école aura pu reprendre dans des conditions normales, pour que tout le monde finisse l’année “avec le même niveau et les mêmes compétences”.    Pour l’instant, la période de confinement général pour raison sanitaire est prévue jusqu’au 15 avril prochain en Polynésie française et rien n’indique qu’elle sera levée à cette date. Une levée partielle, notamment dans les archipels est à l’étude. Pour l’heure, les seuls cas constatés de malades infectés par le coronavirus sont concentrés dans l’archipel des îles du Vent.  Ce qu’ils en pensent Thierry Barrère, secrétaire général de la fédération Unsa-Education. "Nous sommes satisfait de ce qui est annoncé dans la mesure où le respect du confinement est annoncé en préambule. Notre préoccupation principale était le déplacement du personnel et les risques que cela pouvait engendrer.  La distribution papier avec les mairies est un point positif. Cela évite le déplacement des parents et des enseignants. Ce sera une première pour nous. On va s’adapter. Les enseignants ont déjà beaucoup travaillé pendant les vacances pour préparer cette rentrée. Mais il y a une disparité telle entre les situations que l’on ne peut pas envisager un enseignement équitable. Des élèves dans les archipels éloignés n’ont pas forcément internet. Les enseignants sont prêts, après le confinement, pour rattraper les retards. Je pense que la motivation est là."     Maheanuu Routhier, secrétaire général du syndicat enseignant Snetaa-FO "Je pense que cela se mettra en place durant la première semaine. Le problème sera pour contacter les élèves. On sait que les bases ne sont pas bonnes. Pour certains publics comme ceux des lycées professionnels, (…) on a du mal à avoir les parents. Souvent il faut appeler la tatie ou le tonton. On a souvent du mal à avoir les parents. Cette continuité servira à maintenir le lien, afin que les élèves n’aient pas le sentiment d’être totalement en vacances et pour qu’à la reprise, ils puissent se mettre en route dès le premier jour. On fera ce qu’on peut." L'école à la maison pour les élèves du 1er degré 3 heures par jour sur les chaînes télé    Dès le 13 avril, 3 heures quotidiennes, consacrées à des émissions éducatives sélectionnées par le ministère et organisées en fonction des niveaux d’enseignement sont proposées sur les chaînes de télévisions locales. Des rendez-vous réguliers pour tous les enfants d’âge scolaire vont permettre de conserver les liens avec les apprentissages à la maison. La mobilisation des radios est en cours. Une diffusion d’œuvres littéraires (contes pour enfants, récits en feuilleton) est envisagée. Il s’agira de développer l’imaginaire par une écoute régulière et quotidienne.     Des fiches d’activité pour 15 jours   Elaborées par les enseignants pour des activités à mettre en place à la maison, ces fiches, complémentaires des émissions télévisées concernent les Maths et le Français. Elles correspondent aux âges des enfants et sont organisées par niveaux d’enseignement. Ce ne sont pas des devoirs de vacances mais des activités à faire par votre enfant, pour une période de 15 jours. Ce sont d’abord des moments de partage d’activité avec votre enfant qui doivent rester des moments de plaisir. Un fascicule récréatif vous est également proposé. Ces fascicules vous seront envoyés par internet si vous disposez d’une connexion. Ils seront distribués dès lundi 6 avril selon des organisations locales, avec l’aide volontaire des mairies. Vous ne vous déplacez pas pour venir les chercher à l’école. ​L'école à la maison pour les collégiens et lycéens Les professeurs vont utiliser l’environnement numérique de travail (ENT) du collège. L’application souvent déjà utilisée est Pronote. Elle permet de connaître les évaluations des élèves et le travail fait en classe. Des exercices des professeurs seront mis en ligne et pourront être récupérés grâce à vos codes Pronote donnés par le principal.   Il est recommandé d’organiser un rythme de travail de cinq jours au moins par semaine. Les professeurs pourront donner des recherches à faire sur Internet. La communication élève-professeur sera possible via l’application Pronote.   Pour ceux qui n’ont pas d’équipement informatique  Dans certaines conditions à préciser avec le chef d’établissement, les professeurs peuvent faire parvenir des exercices à faire seul à la maison, éventuellement par la mairie et les policiers municipaux. Les élèves pourront appeler leur professeur par téléphone pour lui demander un conseil, une précision.  Des émissions pédagogiques seront programmées à la télévision. Tahiti-Infos, le site N°1 de l'information à Tahiti
          

Mise en place d’une solution respectueuse du confinement pour compenser la fermeture du marché   

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Suite à la fermeture des marchés, décidée par le gouvernement semaine dernière, de nombreuses personnes ont manifesté leur incompréhension et leur souhait qu’une solution alternative soit trouvée. Cette recherche de solutions est importante pour soutenir l’activité des producteurs qui approvisionnent … Lire la suite
          

Professions: CDL A Company Drivers - Boulder City, Nevada   

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Truck Driver Benefits * Medical/Dental, and 401K * Paid vacation * Paid orientation * No forced dispatch * No-touch freight * No hazmat * Cell phone reimbursement * Driver referral bonus Truck Driver Requirements * Class A CDL license * Minimum of 1-year OTR experience Start Here * indicates required field * Name* First Last * Email* * Phone* * Zip* City * State * AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyoming * Do you have 1 year of OTR driving experience?* Select OneYesNo * Are you willing to drive OTR?* Select OneYesNo * * * * * * * * * By providing my phone number and clicking the button below, I agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy, provide my electronic signature, and consent to receive automated marketing calls or text messages (e.g., prerecorded and/or autodialed calls), regardless of any previous registration on any company, State or National Do Not Call list, and emails from Poly Trucking and Randall-Reilly, LLC. Consent is not a condition of any purchase. You may opt out any time. Message & data rates may apply." name="rr_internal_consent_message"> * By providing my phone number and clicking the button below, I agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy, provide my electronic signature, and consent to receive automated marketing calls or text messages (e.g., prerecorded and/or autodialed calls), regardless of any previous registration on any company, State or National Do Not Call list, and emails from Poly Trucking and Randall-Reilly, LLC. Consent is not a condition of any purchase. You may opt out any time. Message & data rates may apply. About Poly Trucking Poly Trucking is headquartered in Grand Prairie, TX. We are a long and short-haul domestic carrier. Our fleet is comprised of late model, company-owned trucks. With Poly Trucking, you avoid the delays, logistical problems and additional expenses that often accompany third-party service. We'll deliver your freight safely, efficiently, and on-time. Call Us Today 855-276-0955 Call Now 855-276-0955 or or ()
          

Enedis répare un câble d’alimentation de l’Île aux Moines   

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Enedis a réparé, cette semaine, un chantier de réparation d’un câble sous-marin d’alimentation électrique de l’île aux Moines. L’île aux Moines est alimentée par deux câbles sous-marins connectés...
          

Adorable Maine Coon Kitten With Green Eyes Mouse Pad   

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Maine Coon Green Eyed Close Up Mouse Pad   

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14.25 Haapasalon Suomi   

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Kausi 1. Jakso 3/10. Kainuu. Kainuun reissullaan Ville Haapasalo kohtaa Lehmäjengin ja opettelee lehmä-agilityä. Jousiammuntaradalla nuolet lentävät ihan muualle kuin tauluun ja tanssisalilla Ville pääsee mukaan Äijät-tanssikerhon pyörteisiin. Matkalla selviää myös miksi ihmeessä lumilautailija Roope Tonteri on rakentanut skeittiramppisaunan Vuokattiin. Kotimainen ohjelma. (41')
          

15.10 Haapasalon Suomi   

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Kausi 1. Jakso 4/10. Etelä- ja Keski-Pohjanmaa. Ville Haapasalo selvittelee pohjanmaalaisten paikallisten juroutta ja uskaltautuu haastamaan painija Petra Ollin jokkisauto-kilpailuun. Kokkolassa Ville tutustuu hulluun vedenalaiseen saunaan Lehtisen veljesten kanssa. Kurikasta puolestaan löytyy lentokoneeseen rakennettu sauna ja Teuvassa Ville ahtautuu puhelinkoppiin saunomaan. Yllättävin sauna löytyy kuitenkin puimurin sisältä. Kotimainen ohjelma. (39')
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