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Hvor lenge skal vi leve slik som nå? Flere drastiske tiltak må gjelde «omtrent ett år», ifølge regjeringens eksperter.   

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1,6 millioner eldre og syke i isolasjon. Titusener av mennesker i karantene etter nærkontakt. Dette er tiltakene Regjeringens eksperter mener må gjelde til mars 2021. Hvor lenge skal vi leve slik som nå? I et nytt analysenotat fra Folkehelseinstituttet bestilt av Helsedirektoratet, oppsummerer Norges fremste smitteverneksperter det som er det store spørsmålet for de fleste menneskene i Norge i dag. Helt uavhengig av om Norge fortsetter en «stopp»-strategi, eller justerer til en «brems»-strategi, er det en rekke tiltak fagfolkene mener bør gjelde så lenge utbruddet varer. I siste risikovurdering fra helsemyndighetene anslås det at utbruddet kommer til å pågå «omtrent ett år», med en topp i mai-oktober. Andre har anslått 18 måneder. Dette er tiltakene som kan gjelde hele tiden Helsedirektør Bjørn Guldvåg har bedt Folkehelseinstituttet gi råd om hvilke tiltak som bør opprettholdes så lenge utbruddet varer. 23\. mars fikk han svar, i et notat Aftenposten har fått innsyn i: Alle i risikogruppen, 1,6 millioner eldre og mennesker med ulike sykdommer, må isolere seg så lenge utbruddet varer. Alle innbyggerne i Norge må holde avstand fra hverandre minst én meter så lenge utbruddet varer. Ingen håndhilsning skal heller skje i denne perioden Alle mennesker som i løpet av perioden har nærkontakt med syke, skal i full karantene uavhengig av symptomer. Full isolasjon av alle syke ved sykehus og sykehjem. Adgangskontrollen må opprettholdes ved alle helseinstitusjoner helt til utbruddet er over. Bruk av hjemmekontor anbefales så lenge som mulig. Disse er i risikogruppen Torsdag presiserte helseminister Bent Høie (H) hvem som er i risikogruppen: Personer over 65 år, særlig de over 80 år. Personer med hjerte- og karsykdom og/eller høyt blodtrykk. Personer med kols eller annen kronisk lungesykdom. Personer med nedsatt immunforsvar. Personer med diabetes. Personer med kreft. Personer som røyker eller er overvektige. \- Vi oppfordrer ikke til total isolasjon, men gir tydelige råd om hvordan de kan ferdes i samfunnet på måter som gir liten risiko, sa Høie. Målrettede råd og tiltak for å beskytte de mest utsatte, antas å ha god effekt, mener smittevernekspertene fra FHI. Rådene handler blant annet om å være hjemme så mye som mulig og unngå steder der mange samles, om du skal ut. Kan bli lengre enn ett år Selv om FHIs har anslått at epidemien vil vare i ett år, kan regjeringens nye «stopp viruset»-strategi innebære at tiltakene må vare mye lengre. Målet er nemlig å hindre at mange blir syke. Dermed vil det i mindre grad bli bygget imunitet hos nordmenn, men siden det fortsatt vil finnes smitte i befolkningen, er det stor risiko for tilbakeslag. Dermed vil kun en effektiv vaksine kunne stoppe viruset. Strategien ble endret med bakgrunn i en ny rapport utarbeidet ved Imperial College i London. De anslår at minimum 225.000 briter vil miste livet, i beste fall, hvis myndighetene utelukkende prøver å bremse epidemien. Dersom deres antagelser overføres til Norge, hevder forskerne at 20.000 til 40.000 personer kan dø i løpet av epidemien. «For å unngå et tilbakeslag i smitteoverføringen, må disse tiltakene være på plass inntil store lagre av vaksine er på plass for å immunisere befolkningen, noe som kan være 18 måneder eller mer», skriver britene. De mener tiltak som gir fysisk distanse må gjelde minst 2/3 av tiden. Dersom kampen mot epidemien mislykkes helt, vil utbruddet vare kortere. Men dødstallene kan bli høyere, ifølge beregningene til både Imperial College og FHI. Dette må vurderes underveis Av de andre tiltakene som er innført så langt, anbefaler Folkehelseinstituttet at man vurderer dette fortløpende underveis. Det gjelder blant annet reiseforbud, stengte grenser, stengte barnehager, hytteforbud og møteforbud for større arrangementer. Kun på ett punkt anbefaler FHIs eksperter en «snarlig» vurdering av om tiltaket bør stoppes, nemlig stengning av skoler for de yngste barna. Aftenposten skrev fredag at smittevernekspertene mener Norge «snarlig» må vurdere å gjøre som Finland. Finske myndigheter har frem til nå hatt de strengeste tiltakene etter å ha innført nasjonal unntakstilstand. Allerede mandag åpnet skolene fra 1. til 3. klasse. I Norge bestemte helsemyndighetene og regjeringen at alle skoler skal være stengt til over påske. Onsdag før skjærtorsdag skal politikere, helsetoppene og fagfolkene diskutere på nytt hva som skal gjøre. Hva som skjer videre, er helt avhengig av hvor fort viruset sprer seg i samfunnet, og hvor raskt antallet nye pasienter, intensivinnleggelser, dødstall og påvist smittede stiger. Ifølge notatet bør en rekke av tiltakene vurderes på nytt da. Dersom tiltakene ikke fungerer, kan det bli nødvendig med enda strengere tiltak. «Når mer data og analyser blir tilgjengelige i løpet av de neste dagene og ukene, mener vi at hvert enkelt av de iverksatte kontaktreduserende tiltakene og reisetiltakene bør vurderes nøye på nytt», skriver Folkehelseinstituttet. Muligheten for å reise til andre land vil kunne åpne seg før epidemien er over, men ikke før epidemien har spredt seg langt mer. Image-text: Strenge karanteregler, en meter distanse til andre mennesker og isolering av 1,6 millioner mennesker. Dette er blant tiltakene bør vare «omtrent» til mars 2021, ifølge regjeringens smittevernrådgivere. Stein J. Bjørge Flere av tiltakene bør vare frem til utbruddet er over, rådet FHI mandag. Helsedirektoratet Overlegene Christina Schøndorf (t.v.) og Anne Bøen klargjør den ene kohortstuen ved intensivavdelingen på OUS Ullevål sykehus. Her blir det plass til fire intensivtrengende koronapasienter, sannsynligvis på respirator. Anders Bayer / OUS FHI-direktør Camilla Stoltenberg, helseminister Bent Høie og helsedirektør Bjørn Guldvog etter pressekonferansen 12. mars da de regjeringen innførte de strengeste tiltakene i fredstid. Olav Olsen Soldater fra Heimevernet bistår i arbeidet ved Oslo lufthavn Gardermoen. Reiseforbudet og stengte grenser må vurderes fortløpende, mener FHI. Torbjørn Kjosvold / Forsvaret
          

Hvor lenge skal vi leve slik som nå? Flere drastiske tiltak må gjelde «omtrent ett år», ifølge regjeringens eksperter.   

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1,6 millioner eldre og syke i isolasjon. Titusener av mennesker i karantene etter nærkontakt. Dette er tiltakene Regjeringens eksperter mener må gjelde til mars 2021. Hvor lenge skal vi leve slik som nå? I et nytt analysenotat fra Folkehelseinstituttet bestilt av Helsedirektoratet, oppsummerer Norges fremste smitteverneksperter det som er det store spørsmålet for de fleste menneskene i Norge i dag. Helt uavhengig av om Norge fortsetter en «stopp»-strategi, eller justerer til en «brems»-strategi, er det en rekke tiltak fagfolkene mener bør gjelde så lenge utbruddet varer. I siste risikovurdering fra helsemyndighetene anslås det at utbruddet kommer til å pågå «omtrent ett år», med en topp i mai-oktober. Andre har anslått 18 måneder. Dette er tiltakene som kan gjelde hele tiden Helsedirektør Bjørn Guldvåg har bedt Folkehelseinstituttet gi råd om hvilke tiltak som bør opprettholdes så lenge utbruddet varer. 23\. mars fikk han svar, i et notat Aftenposten har fått innsyn i: Alle i risikogruppen, 1,6 millioner eldre og mennesker med ulike sykdommer, må isolere seg så lenge utbruddet varer. Alle innbyggerne i Norge må holde avstand fra hverandre minst én meter så lenge utbruddet varer. Ingen håndhilsning skal heller skje i denne perioden Alle mennesker som i løpet av perioden har nærkontakt med syke, skal i full karantene uavhengig av symptomer. Full isolasjon av alle syke ved sykehus og sykehjem. Adgangskontrollen må opprettholdes ved alle helseinstitusjoner helt til utbruddet er over. Bruk av hjemmekontor anbefales så lenge som mulig. Disse er i risikogruppen Torsdag presiserte helseminister Bent Høie (H) hvem som er i risikogruppen: Personer over 65 år, særlig de over 80 år. Personer med hjerte- og karsykdom og/eller høyt blodtrykk. Personer med kols eller annen kronisk lungesykdom. Personer med nedsatt immunforsvar. Personer med diabetes. Personer med kreft. Personer som røyker eller er overvektige. \- Vi oppfordrer ikke til total isolasjon, men gir tydelige råd om hvordan de kan ferdes i samfunnet på måter som gir liten risiko, sa Høie. Målrettede råd og tiltak for å beskytte de mest utsatte, antas å ha god effekt, mener smittevernekspertene fra FHI. Rådene handler blant annet om å være hjemme så mye som mulig og unngå steder der mange samles, om du skal ut. Kan bli lengre enn ett år Selv om FHIs har anslått at epidemien vil vare i ett år, kan regjeringens nye «stopp viruset»-strategi innebære at tiltakene må vare mye lengre. Målet er nemlig å hindre at mange blir syke. Dermed vil det i mindre grad bli bygget immunitet hos nordmenn, men siden det fortsatt vil finnes smitte i befolkningen, er det stor risiko for tilbakeslag. Dermed vil kun en effektiv vaksine kunne stoppe viruset. Strategien ble endret med bakgrunn i en ny rapport utarbeidet ved Imperial College i London. De anslår at minimum 225.000 briter vil miste livet, i beste fall, hvis myndighetene utelukkende prøver å bremse epidemien. Dersom deres antagelser overføres til Norge, hevder forskerne at 20.000 til 40.000 personer kan dø i løpet av epidemien. «For å unngå et tilbakeslag i smitteoverføringen, må disse tiltakene være på plass inntil store lagre av vaksine er på plass for å immunisere befolkningen, noe som kan være 18 måneder eller mer», skriver britene. De mener tiltak som gir fysisk distanse må gjelde minst 2/3 av tiden. Dersom kampen mot epidemien mislykkes helt, vil utbruddet vare kortere. Men dødstallene kan bli høyere, ifølge beregningene til både Imperial College og FHI. Dette må vurderes underveis Av de andre tiltakene som er innført så langt, anbefaler Folkehelseinstituttet at man vurderer dette fortløpende underveis. Det gjelder blant annet reiseforbud, stengte grenser, stengte barnehager, hytteforbud og møteforbud for større arrangementer. Kun på ett punkt anbefaler FHIs eksperter en «snarlig» vurdering av om tiltaket bør stoppes, nemlig stengning av skoler for de yngste barna. Aftenposten skrev fredag at smittevernekspertene mener Norge «snarlig» må vurdere å gjøre som Finland. Finske myndigheter har frem til nå hatt de strengeste tiltakene etter å ha innført nasjonal unntakstilstand. Allerede mandag åpnet skolene fra 1. til 3. klasse. I Norge bestemte helsemyndighetene og regjeringen at alle skoler skal være stengt til over påske. Onsdag før skjærtorsdag skal politikere, helsetoppene og fagfolkene diskutere på nytt hva som skal gjøre. Hva som skjer videre, er helt avhengig av hvor fort viruset sprer seg i samfunnet, og hvor raskt antallet nye pasienter, intensivinnleggelser, dødstall og påvist smittede stiger. Ifølge notatet bør en rekke av tiltakene vurderes på nytt da. Dersom tiltakene ikke fungerer, kan det bli nødvendig med enda strengere tiltak. «Når mer data og analyser blir tilgjengelige i løpet av de neste dagene og ukene, mener vi at hvert enkelt av de iverksatte kontaktreduserende tiltakene og reisetiltakene bør vurderes nøye på nytt», skriver Folkehelseinstituttet. Muligheten for å reise til andre land vil kunne åpne seg før epidemien er over, men ikke før epidemien har spredt seg langt mer. Image-text: Strenge karanteregler, en meter distanse til andre mennesker og isolering av 1,6 millioner mennesker. Dette er blant tiltakene bør vare «omtrent» til mars 2021, ifølge regjeringens smittevernrådgivere. Stein J. Bjørge Flere av tiltakene bør vare frem til utbruddet er over, rådet FHI mandag. Helsedirektoratet Overlegene Christina Schøndorf (t.v.) og Anne Bøen klargjør den ene kohortstuen ved intensivavdelingen på OUS Ullevål sykehus. Her blir det plass til fire intensivtrengende koronapasienter, sannsynligvis på respirator. Anders Bayer / OUS FHI-direktør Camilla Stoltenberg, helseminister Bent Høie og helsedirektør Bjørn Guldvog etter pressekonferansen 12. mars da de regjeringen innførte de strengeste tiltakene i fredstid. Olav Olsen Soldater fra Heimevernet bistår i arbeidet ved Oslo lufthavn Gardermoen. Reiseforbudet og stengte grenser må vurderes fortløpende, mener FHI. Torbjørn Kjosvold / Forsvaret
          

英연구진 “코로나19 대응실패시 4000만명 사망할 수도”   

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신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(코로나19) 확산을 막기 위한 대책이 마련되지 못하면 올해 안에만 전세계에서 4000만명이 코로나19로 목숨을 잃게 될 것이라고 영국의 임페리어 칼리지 런던(ICL) 연구진이 26일(현지시간) 밝혔다. ICL 홈페이지(https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news)에 따르면, 연구진은 이날 발표한 보고서에서 코로나19 확산을 막을 대책 마련에 실패할 경우 올해에만 전 세계 인구의 거의 대부분인 70억명이 코로나19에 감염돼 4000만명이 사망하는 엄청난 인명 손실을 피할 수 없을 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 사회적 거리두기를 철저히 시행해 사회적 접촉을 40% 정도, 특히 취약 계층인 노인들의 사회적 접촉을 60% 정도 줄일 수 있다면 인명 손실을 절반 정도로 낮출 수 있을 것이라고 보고서는 전망했다. 그러나 이 경우에도 세계 각 국은 코로나19 감염자의 급속한 증가로 의료 시스템에 극심한 압박을 받는 것을 피하지 못할 것이라고 보고서는 덧붙였다. 보고서를 대표
          

BOOK REVIEW: Painting Wargaming Figures: Early Imperial Romans   

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Corporation Volkov's Imperial Legion has joined alliance Federated Alliance of Mafias   

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Corporation Volkov's Imperial Legion has joined alliance Federated Alliance of Mafias
          

How Market Reforms Made the NHS Vulnerable to Pandemics   

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Date: 
Thursday, March 26, 2020 - 16:45
Article Image: 
Masked health care worker

March 24, 2020

 

A 2014 report warned that reforms to the NHS would make it vulnerable to pandemics – by making staff redundant, undermining public health and defining spare capacity as waste. It was ignored.

 

 

In 2014 a detailed report by two public health experts asked what Andrew Lansley’s Health and Social Care Act, passed two years earlier, meant for the state’s ability to protect its citizens when (not if) the next pandemic arrived.

“The next pandemic,” the authors pointed out, “could arise from H5N1 (‘bird flu’)… or come from elsewhere. When it comes, there may be only a few weeks’ warning before there are significant numbers of cases in the UK.” What the report showed was that although a pandemic was at the top of the government’s civil risk register, the Lansley Act had dramatically increased this risk. Institutional memory and expert resources had been discarded, with no less than 10,000 key NHS staff made redundant. Responsibility for co-ordinating the response to an epidemic had been divided among a variety of agencies with no clear line of central authority, and private providers of NHS care were not subject to central direction. 

A few weeks into the Covid-19 pandemic the 2014 report makes prophetic reading. The extraordinary U-turn of March 16, belatedly abandoning the idea of reaching ‘herd immunity’ by doing as little as possible at the cost of unknown thousands of deaths; the conflicting messages coming from different official quarters, such as the suggestion from ‘Whitehall sources’ on March 18 that London ‘might’ be ‘locked down’, compounding the rush to buy food; the confusing messages and hesitant moves towards tighter constraints on daily life; all these testify to the effects of having destroyed the structures that existed before 2012 to enable a government to quickly grasp the implications of what the scientists tell them, speak with a single voice, and act decisively and coherently. 

This crucial weakness was compounded by other factors. One was the extraordinary policy influence still exercised at the onset of the pandemic by Dominic Cummings, with his contempt for the civil service and his preference for ‘disruptors’ and ‘weirdos’ over the professional establishment. It required public alarm and the intervention of the MRC/WHO analysts at Imperial College to get the science seriously attended to. Another factor was the intense commitment to market ideology of the Brexiteers in the cabinet, which made them very reluctant to face the choice between losing legitimacy and undertaking a massive expansion of the role of the state. The end result was that by late March, instead of being in the position of South Korea or Hong Kong, the UK was ‘two to three weeks behind Italy,’ where the health service was being overwhelmed and almost 800 people had died in a single day.

The Lansley Act’s conversion of NHS into a system of competing businesses (‘trusts’) made the UK extra-vulnerable to pandemics in two other key ways. One was that it downgraded public health and made it vulnerable to further cuts – in the last five years alone the public health budget has been cut by £700 m in real terms. The other was that a narrow focus on efficiency conceived in market terms displaced a concern with resilience: spare capacity was redefined as ‘waste’. Hence the unforgiveable lack of adequate personal protection equipment for clinicians and care workers, of ventilators (not even included in the stockpiles listed in the latest [1917] flu response framework), and of capacity to quickly produce and administer tests. 

The obsession with competition was also a factor in the continued cuts in the number of general and acute hospital beds, taking out over 6,000 of them between 2010 and 2019 and leaving the UK with just 6.6 intensive care beds per 100,000 people today – and a shortage of over 40,000 nurses. At the same time it is important to recognise that the number of intensive care beds needed to treat the thousands of people likely to become dangerously ill with Covid-19 could not realistically be kept in reserve anywhere – ‘beds’ really means clinical staff, and in the case of intensive care, specially trained staff, with a high staff-patient ratio. That is why the ability to make decisive responses, exemplified by China’s rapid movement of medical staff and equipment so as to expand intensive care where it was most needed, is so critical. 

The pandemic has also underlined the importance of the state’s general capacity and resources, capable of such feats as China’s instant construction of new hospitals, treated by Western mainstream media as near-miraculous and almost sinister. Certainly no such capacity exists in the UK. As late as March 18 the government was reported to be still “planning to ask” UK companies “to step up, or start, production of the protective clothing on which staff rely.”

An ironic twist to the story of lack of resources is the renting by the Department of Health of most of the private hospital companies’ beds for the duration of the pandemic. Half the beds in these hospitals are in any case nowadays occupied by NHS-funded patients for routine surgery which NHS hospitals can’t do for lack of capital funding and staff. With the postponement of all planned NHS surgery, and self-isolation by prospective private patients, the private hospitals were facing huge financial losses: no wonder they are being so obliging. They also depend on the NHS for all their private patient income, since almost all the doctors who practice in them are NHS consultants, working in their non-NHS hours and being paid by their private patients, not by the private hospitals. So the NHS freely provides the private hospitals with NHS-trained specialists and loses the hours they spend there. The pandemic has revealed the gross irrationality of this parasitic relationship.

The lessons of the crisis for the future of the NHS are not complicated. The 2012 Act must be scrapped and the NHS restored to its status of a coherent public service, without further undermining by private providers. It needs a massive capital upgrade, and a major funding increase to make its staffing levels adequate and rebuild its planning and management capacity. The Thatcherite mantra that ‘there is no money’ is finished. The market in social care also needs to be replaced by an adequately funded public care service, and local authorities must be enabled to restore the range of supporting social services that have been destroyed in the name of austerity. The civil service must be rebuilt to be able to plan. And all these measures need underpinning by a radical democratisation, making management accountable to both staff and local communities. The crisis has shown that the problem is not undemocratic control by experts, but the disregarding of expertise by undemocratic politicians.

Colin Leys is the co-chair of the Centre for Health and the Public Interest (CHPI), an independent think-tank on health and social care policy. He is also an emeritus professor of political studies at Queen's University, Canada.

Author: 
Colin Leys

          

Coronavirus would have killed 40 million if the world didn't go on lockdown, say experts   

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(Natural News) The global coronavirus pandemic has claimed the lives of over 24,000 people as of Thursday, but that number could have been much, much worse. A new study points out that the outbreak could have caused 40 million deaths had it not been kept in check. The study comes from Imperial College London,  where researchers estimated the potential scale...

          

Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield Lead San Francisco Metro in Growth   

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In a March 26 article, The New York Times headlined: "Even before coronavirus, America's population was growing at slowest rate since 1919." Experts suggested that, with the coronavirus and falling immigration rates, the country could see a population decline next year.

Lurking behind this overall assessment was even bigger news for Californians. Improbably, the much smaller Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield metropolitan areas are now growing faster than the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, as well as the San Diego metropolitan area.

California’s five fastest growing metropolitan areas are all in the interior. Riverside-San Bernardino grew the fastest, adding 38,000 residents. This is equal to more than 75% of the state population growth total. Sacramento grew 22,000. Outside Riverside-San Bernardino and Sacramento, the state lost 9,000 residents. Some metropolitan areas gained population, but their gains were cancelled out by losses in other areas, especially Los Angeles.

Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield were third, fourth and fifth in metropolitan area population growth. San Francisco was sixth fastest growing, adding fewer than 5,500 new residents. This is about one-seventh the growth of Riverside-San Bernardino and one-fourth that of Sacramento. San Francisco’s growth rate from 2018 to 2019 was only 0.12%, one-quarter of the anemic national rate (0.48%). On the other hand, Merced, recently added to the Bay Area combined statistical area, experienced the strongest metropolitan area growth, at 1.29%, nearly 11 times that of San Francisco (Figure 1).

Meanwhile, the Los Angeles metropolitan area remains in the growth doldrums. The population has declined for three years in a row. Net domestic out- migration continues to increase, up to 122,000 in 2018-2019. Over 100,000 came from Los Angeles County, which saw its net domestic migration loss double from 2013. The other Los Angeles metropolitan county, Orange, lost 21,000 net domestic migrants, compared to a gain of 2,000 in 2011.

The annual population results are particularly sobering for the Bay Area. During the first half of the decade, the Bay Area experienced considerable population growth. However, in 2018-2019, the nine counties that abut the Pacific Ocean or San Francisco Bay (and which have long been considered to be the Bay Area) lost a combined 1,700 residents. By comparison, as commuters have been forced inland by exorbitant house prices, three counties have been added to the Bay Area combined statistical area. These counties, San Joaquin (Stockton), Stanislaus (Modesto) and Merced added almost 10 times as many new residents (15,700).

The contrast was even more stark in net domestic migration. The 9 counties that abut the coast or Bay lost 66,000 net domestic migrants, while the three added San Joaquin Valley counties gained 6,000 (Figure 2).

County Population Growth Analysis

This analysis compares population data in the coastal metropolitan areas from Santa Rosa (in the Bay Area combined statistical area) to San Diego, with that of the interior counties, which are in the Sacramento combined statistical area, the San Joaquin Valley and interior Southern California (Riverside-San Bernardino and Imperial County). The balance of the state is the counties north of the Bay Area and Sacramento combined statistical areas and non-metropolitan area counties in the Sierra.

The combined population loss in the coastal metropolitan areas in 2018-2019 was 34,000. This compares to the interior metropolitan counties from Sacramento south, which experienced growth of 94,000 (Figure 3). The balance of the state lost 10,000 residents.

Not surprisingly, the interior dominated net domestic migration as it has since 2000. The interior gained 24,000 net domestic migrants. By comparison, the coastal metropolitan areas lost 218,000 net domestic migrants, in a single year (Figure 4). This means that for every 10 residents that leave move elsewhere in the United States from the coastal metropolitan areas, barely one in ten moves into the interior. This suggests a major problem for California as people are not opting as much as in the past to stay in the state.

This can be seen by the fact that net domestic rate has plummeted, even in the interior, compared to previous generations. Between 2000 and 2009, the interior attracted 700,000 net domestic migrants. Between 2010 and 2019, the same area attracted only 106,000 net domestic migrants, a loss of 85% (Figure 5). Riverside-San Bernardino saw its net domestic migration gain from 2010 to 2019 (111,000) drop to less than one quarter than of the 2000 to 2009 gain (469,000).

California’s Success in Limiting Growth

In recent decades, there has been considerable political support for limiting growth in California. As a result, overly restrictive land use regulations, especially urban containment regulation adopted in many areas and now imposed by state government. The resulting higher house prices have become a virtual “no-vacancy” sign in California, as most people who would like to move there cannot conceivably afford to.

And then, there is a ripple effect with respect to business relocations from elsewhere. The state is routinely rated as the worst in the nation for business by CEO Magazine, in large measure due to its unfriendly regulatory environment. California’s high cost of living, driven by its high housing costs. As Richard Florida has said, “differences in living costs are basically all about housing.” More than 85% of the difference in cost of living between metropolitan areas in the United States consists of housing costs (Figure 6). The high costs of living means that obtaining a competent work force presents an ever severe challenge for any company wishing to move to California. The latest Census Bureau estimates suggest that California will be stuck in a slow growth — perhaps even negative — mode unless the policy environment changes dramatically.

Photograph: Downtown San Francisco (by author)

Wendell Cox is principal of Demographia, an international public policy and demographics firm. He is a Senior Fellow of the Urban Reform Institute - formerly Center for Opportunity Urbanism (US), Senior Fellow for Housing Affordability and Municipal Policy for the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (Canada), and a member of the Board of Advisors of the Center for Demographics and Policy at Chapman University (California). He is co-author of the "Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey" and author of "Demographia World Urban Areas" and "War on the Dream: How Anti-Sprawl Policy Threatens the Quality of Life." He was appointed by Mayor Tom Bradley to three terms on the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, where he served with the leading city and county leadership as the only non-elected member. Speaker of the House of Representatives appointed him to the Amtrak Reform Council. He served as a visiting professor at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, a national university in Paris.


          

Przy braku działań COVID-19 zabiłby 40 milionów ludzi. Wciąż może zabić 2 miliony   

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Gdyby nie podjęto żadnych działań koronawirus SARS-CoV-2 jeszcze w bieżącym roku zabiłby 40 milionów ludzi. Jednak nawet w najbardziej optymistycznym scenariuszu pandemia może zabić około 2 milionów ludzi. Takie wnioski płyną z analiz przeprowadzonych na Imperial College London
          

Saison Brut Impériale de Ras l’Bock   

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88 %

Saison Brut ImpérialeSaison impériale8,1% alc/vol750 mlRas l’Bock La Saison Brut Impériale a été produite par la microbrasserie Ras l’Bock pour célébrer les 30 ans de l’AMBQ (l’Association des microbrasseries du Québec). Il s’agit d’une Saison impériale mais en version brut, c’est-à-dire bien sèche (peu sucrée). Visuellement, la bière est dorée et plutôt voilée. Un large col mousseux bien dense se forme au service. Au nez,...

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The post Saison Brut Impériale de Ras l’Bock appeared first on L'amateur de bière.


          

Más de 400 organizaciones y defensores de DDHH se dirigen a la ONU exigiendo acciones para proteger a los presos políticos saharauis    

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Ginebra (Suiza), 27 de marzo de 2020 (SPS)- En respuesta al llamamiento realizado https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://porunsaharalibre.org/  para exigir acciones urgentes por parte de la ONU hacia la población saharaui ante la pandemia de la COVID 19 , más de 400  Organizaciones no gubernamentales, asociaciones, movimientos sociales y civiles, partidos, sindicatos, políticos, parlamentarios, abogados, médicos, científicos, docentes, investigadores, periodistas, defensores de los derechos humanos y otros de todo el mundo (América Latina, América del Norte, Europa, África, Asia y Oceanía) se han adherido a la carta  enviada a SE. Filippo Grandi, Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados; SE Michelle Bachelet, Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y todos los miembros del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas.

Los firmantes de la carta denuncian que “los presos políticos saharauis en las cárceles marroquíes, la mayoría de los cuales se encuentran en Marruecos y no en el Sáhara Occidental, son víctimas de malos tratos, tortura y negligencia médica intencional”. También advierten que “en el contexto de esta pandemia, son objetivos fáciles para el régimen marroquí y existe una necesidad urgente de intervenir para su protección”.

Las organizaciones internacionales y defensores de los derechos humanos  también exigen un “mandato especial” para que la Misión de naciones Unidas para el Referéndum en el Sahara Occidental (MINURSO) pueda “supervisar el acceso a una atención médica adecuada” a toda la población saharaui en las zonas ocupadas. “La población saharaui es más vulnerable y tiene menos acceso a la atención médica. Informes recientes de los territorios ocupados advierten sobre un aumento en los movimientos de las fuerzas militares y policiales y la entrada de un contingente más grande en la región. Al mismo tiempo, los colonos marroquíes están intentando abandonar el territorio por cientos. No se realizaron pruebas de Covid-19”.

En lo relacionado a los campamentos de refugiados, las organizaciones resaltan las medidas impulsadas por el gobierno de la RASD al implementar  “todas las precauciones necesarias, como cuarentena, medidas de higiene y prohibición de la entrada de extranjeros”.  En ese contexto advierten que “es urgente que la población tenga acceso a la prueba covid-19 y fortalecer el stock de medicamentos que ya son bajos e insuficientes”.

La situación de presos políticos ha sido abordada por la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos, Michelle Bachelet, quien ya ha lanzado un llamamiento a todos los países y gobiernos para que “actúen de manera urgente para proteger la salud y la seguridad de las personas en detención“.

Bachelet ha señalado que “ahora, más que nunca, los gobiernos deberían liberar a todas y cada una de las personas que están encarceladas sin suficiente base legal, incluyendo prisioneros políticos y otros detenidos”.

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Firmantes 

https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://porunsaharalibre.org/2020/03/27/mas-de-400-firmas-de-todo-el-mundo-carta-a-los-miembros-de-la-onu-para-avisar-sobre-las-consecuencias-de-covid-19-sobre-toda-la-poblacion-de-saharaui/

 

1. Acaps Anoia – Spain

2. ACAPS GAVÀ-Associació Catalana d’Amics del Poble Saharaui de Gavà – Spain

3. ACAPS Wilaia Alt Penedès – Spain

4. Acció Solidaria amb el Sàhara – Vilanova i la Geltru – Spain

5. Action et Réflexion pour l’Avenir du Sahara Occidental (CARASO) – France

6. AEAPS – Asociación Ecuatoriana de Amistad con el Pueblo Saharaui – Ecuador

7. AFAPREDESA – Asociación de Familiares de Presos y Desaparecidos Saharaui – Western Sahara

8. Agrupació Envar El Kadri-Peronismo de Base – Argentina

9. Agrupación Hacha y Tiza Suteba Lomas de Zamora – Argentina

10. Ahmad Lachkar – Spain

11. Ahmed Hmyadi, human rights activist, Dakhla – Western Sahara

12. Ahmedsalem Abdelhay – Western Sahara

13. Akihisa Matsuno – Friends of Western Sahara Japan – Japan

14. ALDCI – Associação Lusófona para o Desenvolvimento ,Cultura e Integração – Portugal

15. Alexandra Córdoba Heredia – Colombia

16. Alfredo Carrera Pérez – Jurista – Spain

17. Alfredo Magri – Spain

18. Ali Abdelhay – Western Sahara

19. Amal Association Centre Andalousie – Spain

20. Amalnanclares – Spain

21. AMAPS, Malaga – Spain

22. Amigos por un Sahara Libre – Mexico

23. Aminatou Haidar, 2019 Right Livelihood Award”, also known as “Alternative Nobel Prize,” and 2008 Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award – Western Sahara

24. AMRPEN – Association for the Monitoring of the Natural Resources and for the Environment Protection in Western Sahara – Western Sahara

25. Ana Aranbarri Arrasate – Spain

26. Ana Cristina Miranda, doctor – Portugal

27. Ana Luis Tavares, lawyer – Portugal

28. Ana Paula de Oliveira Henriques – Portugal

29. Ana Pérez Nordelo – Jurist

30. Ana Sebastián Gascón – lawyer – Spain

31. Ana Sousa Silva, teacher – Portugal

32. Ángel Ordóñez Cruz – teacher – Spain

33. Angel Rivero García – Spain

34. Annge Mohamed – Spain

35. Anton M. Marimon – President of Acaps Anoia – Spain

36. Antònia Valero Martí – Spain

37. Antonio López Ortiz, Secretario de la Federación Estatal de Instituciones Solidarias con el Pueblo Saharaui, FEDISSAH- Spain

38. APASOCASA – Asociación Panameña Solidaria con la Causa Saharaui – Panama

39. APDH Lomas de Zamora Junta Promotora – Argentina

40. APJD – Associação Portuguesa de Juristas Democratas/Portuguese Association of Democratic Jurists – Portugal

41. Artur Lourenço, journalist – Portugal

42. Artur Vilhena, teacher – Portugal

43. ASAARAUI, Associação de Solidariedade e à Autodeterminação do Povo Saarui – Brazil

44. Asociación de Sahrauis de Valdepeñas – Spain

45. Asociación “Amigos de África”, Lebrija – Spain

46. Asociación ARDI Hurrah, Seville – Spain

47. Asociación Chilena de Amistad con la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática – Chile

48. Asociación Colombiana de Amistad con el Pueblo Saharaui – Colombia

49. Asociación de Amigos del Pueblo Saharaui de las Islas Baleares – Spain

50. Asociación de amigos del Sàhara de les Terres de Ponent, “Sàhara Ponent” – Spain

51. Asociación de Amigos y Amigas de la RASD de Bizkaia – Spain

52. Asociación de Amistad con el Pueblo Saharaui de Sevilla (AAPSS) – Spain

53. Asociación de médicos Saharauis en España – Spain

54. Asociación de Saharauis en Ávila – Spain

55. Asociación de Saharauis en Alicante – Spain

56. Asociación de Saharauis en Bal – Spain

57. Asociación de Saharauis en de Navarre – Spain

58. Asociación de Saharauis en Fuerteventura – Spain

59. Asociación de Saharauis en Jerez de la Frontera – Spain

60. Asociación de Saharauis en Lebrija – Spain

61. Asociación de Saharauis en Tenerife – Spain

62. Asociación de Abogados Saharauis en España – Spain

63. Asociación Latinoamericana de Amistad con la RASD – Latino América

64. Asociación Libre de Abogadas y Abogados de Zaragoza (ALAZ) – Spain

65. Asociación Madrasa Catalunya – Spain

66. Asociación MAPO Derechos Humanos Universales – Spain

67. Asociación Mugarik Gabe – Spain

68. Asociación para proteger y divulgar el património saharaui – Western Sahara

69. Asociación Profesional de Abogados Saharauis en España – APRASE – Spain

70. Asociación Talha Xirivella – Spain

71. Asociación Zamour Valence – Spain

72. Asocición Americana de Juristas (AAJ) – Panama

73. ASOVESSA, Asociación Venezolana de Solidaridad con el Sáhara – Venezuela

74. Associação de Amizade Portugal Sahara Ocidental – Portugal

75. Associació Castelldefels Sàhara – Spain

76. Associació d’amistat amb el poble sahrauí Smara La Vall / La Vilavella – Spain

77. Associació WILAIA de Mataró (Barcelona) – Spain

78. Association Culture Sahara – Centre de France – France

79. Association Culturelle Franco-Sahraouie – France

80. Association d’Amitié avec le Sahara Occidental en Midi -Pyrénées (Toulouse) – France

81. Association de la Communauté Sahraouie en France – France

82. Association de solidarité avec le peuple sahraoui (Nancy) – France

83. Association des amis de la RASD en France – France

84. Association des Femmes Sahraouies en France – France

85. Association des Sahraouis de Bordeaux – France

86. Association des Sahraouis de Périgueux – France

87. Association des Sahraouis en France – France

88. Association Française d’Amitié et de Solidarité avec les Peuples d’Afrique – France

89. Association Sahraouie pour la Souvgarde de l’Environnement du Sahara Occidental (ASESO) – France

90. Association Sportive des Sahraouis de France – France

91. ASVDH – Sahrawi Association of Victims of Grave Human Rights Violations Committed by the Moroccan State – Western Sahara

92. ATE Verde y Blanca Lomas de Zamora – Argentina

93. Atilio Borón, Political scientist and writer – Argentina

94. Australia Western Sahara Association – Australia

95. Bani Hani Elmakki – Western Sahara

96. Banina. Mohamed Fadel Andala – Western Sahara

97. Bàrbara Sastre – Spain

98. Barrios x Memoria y Justicia de Lomas de Zamora – Spain

99. Beatriz Vaz, teacher – Portugal

100. Begoña Crego Reyes – Spain

101. Benda Lehbib Loucha – Western Sahara

102. Berenice Bento – University professor , Profa. Dra. – Departamento de Sociologia/UnB- Brazil

103. Bettina Hutter-Silva, teacher – Portugal

104. Bienvenida al Sur (BAS) – Spain

105. Carla Alejandra Gener Marqués – Spain

106. Carlos Bello, journaist – Spain

107. Carmelo Ramírez Marrero, Consejero de Cooperación Institucional y Solidaridad Internacional del Cabildo de Gran Canaria – Spain

108. Carmelo Suárez Cabrera, Architect – Spain

109. Carmen Hernandez Jorge – diputada del parlamento de Canarias Grupo político Nueva Canaria – Spain

110. Carmen Marques, journalist – Turkey

111. Carmen Marquez Montes, University professor – Spain

112. Carolina Brito Alves, teacher – Portugal

113. Carolina Valéria de Moura Leão – Portugal

114. Catalina Llaneras – Spain

115. Catalina Pujol Alemany- Spain

116. Catarina Casanova – Associated Professor at ISCSP (University of Lisbon) – Researcher at the Center for Research in Anthropology and Health, FCT, University of Coimbra – PhD in Anthropology (Specialty: Biological Anthropology; Primatology)- Portugal

117. Celso Calfullan, Director Werken Rojo – Chile

118. CEMD – Círculo de Escritores Moçambicanos na Diáspora – Portugal

119. Centro Brasileiro de Solidariedade aos Povos e Luta pela Paz (CEBRAPAZ) – Brazil

120. Centro Cultural Padre Mugica – Argentina

121. Centro de Documentación en Derechos Humanos “Segundo Montes Mozo SJ” (CSMM) – Ecuador

122. Centro de Estudios y Documentación con América Latina y Africa – Valencia – Spain

123. Chantal Stoeckel , ACAT Strasbourg – France

124. Chava Seini, presidenta del Comité de Asuntos Exteriores, Protocolo e Información del parlamento saharaui – Western Sahara

125. Claudia Iriarte, Doctor of Law – Chile

126. CODAPSO – Comité de Defensa del Derecho de Autodeterminación del Pueblo Saharaui – Western Sahara

127. Colectivo de Saharauis en Estepona – Spain

128. Colectivo de Saharauis en Jaén – Spain

129. Colectivo Sahraoui en GIPUZKOA – Spain

130. Colette Guillot da Costa – Spain

131. Comité Algérien de Solidarité avec le Peuple Sahraoui – Algeria

132. Comitê Anti-imperialista General Abreu e Lima – Brazil

133. Comite Argentino de Solidaridad con el Pueblo Palestino – Argentina

134. Comité de Amistad con el Pueblo Saharaui – Argentina

135. Comunidad Saharaui de Catalunya – Spain

136. Comunidad Saharaui de Castilla-la Mancha – Spain

137. Comunidad Saharaui de Castille y León – Spain

138. Comunidad Saharaui de en Aragón – Spain

139. Comunidad Saharaui de Gran Canaria (AISOC) – Spain

140. Comunidad Saharaui de Grenade – Spain

141. Comunidad Saharaui de Las Palmas – Spain

142. Comunidad Saharaui de Murcie – Spain

143. Conchi Fernández Gonzalez, delegada de SOGAPS y miembro de la directiva de SOGAPS – Spain

144. Confederación Intersindical – Spain

145. Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras de España – Spain

146. Conselho Português para a Paz e Cooperação – Portugal

147. Coordinadora de Gdeim Izik – Western Sahara

148. Coordinadora Euskadi-Sahara “27 de Febrero” – Spain

149. Coordinadora Sindical España/Canaria de Apoyo al Pueblo Saharaui COSCAPS – Spain

150. Cristina Dias, teacher – Portugal

151. Cristina Martínez Benítez de Lugo – lawyer – Spain

152. Cristina Rodrigues – MP of the party Pessoas-Animais-Natureza – Portugal

153. CRMN, Coordination – Refusing Moroccan Nationality – Western Sahara

154. CSDHPRN – Sahrawi Committee for the Defense of Human Rights and Protection of Natural Resources, Bojador – Western Sahara

155. CSPRON – Comité de Apoyo al Plan de Resolución de Naciones Unidas y la Protección de los Recursos Naturales del SaharaOccidental – Western Sahara

156. Daniel Vicente – teacher – Portugal

157. Danielle Smith, Sandblast UK Charity – United Kingdom

158. Das Zentrum für Europäische und Orientalische Kultur Zeok e.V Leipzig – Germany

159. David Caceres González – Jurist – Spain

160. de Vereniging van de Saharawigemeenschap in Belgie – Belgium

161. Dehba Mohamed – Western Sahara

162. Deilal Mohamed Saleh, Ex-preso político saharaui de Kalat Maguna-Marruecos – Western Sahara

163. Delmar Francisco Maia Barrigas Gonçalves – writer and professor – Portugal

164. Digna Hernandez – Spain

165. DISABI Bizkaia – Spain

166. Eduardo A. Déniz Cabrera, Secretario del grupo político de Nueva Canarias en el Cabildo de Gran Canaria – Spain

167. El Ghalia Djimi vice presidente de la ASVDH – Western Sahara

168. Elisabeth Schutz – Membre du groupe ACAT de Strasbourg – France

169. Emilio García Crego – Spain

170. Enfants réfugiés du Monde – France

171. Enric Casanova Peiró – Spain

172. Equipe Media – Western Sahara

173. Escola en Pau, Baleares – Spain

174. Esperanza Jaén Domínguez, teacher and writer, Lebrija – Spain

175. Esperanza Nogales Bro – Spain

176. Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya – Castelldefels – Spain

177. Esteban Maturana, Médico, Vice Presidente Confusam – Chile

178. Esteban Silva Cuadra, international analyst, sociologist – Chile.

179. Estella Acosta Pérez – Spain

180. Esther González González – Vicepresidenta primera Del parlamento de Canarias – Spain

181. Esther Ortega Romero – Spain

182. Facundo Geri – Spain

183. Familia de Hassana El Wali assassinado por Marruecos, Dakhla – Western Sahara

184. Familia Dembar, assassinado por Marruecos, El Aaiun – Western Sahara

185. Fecu Lubihhi, Presidente del Comité de Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, Smara – Western Sahara

186. Federación de Asociaciones Catalanas Amigas del Pueblo Saharaui (Federación ACAPS) – Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

187. FEDISSAH, Federación Estatal de Instituciones Solidarias con el Pueblo Saharaui – Spain

188. Felipe Briones Vives, Secretario General de IAJUWS – Spain

189. Felipe Mendes, lawyer – Portugal

190. Felix Sousa Santos , lawyer – Portugal

191. Fernanda Lousada, teacher – Portugal

192. Fito Àlvarez Tombo, director de porunsaharalibre.org – Spain

193. Flora Oliveira – Researcher at the Centre of African Studies of the University of Porto – Portugal

194. Foro Social de Lebrija: Mujeres contra las violencias machistas – Spain

195. Fórum para el futuro de la mujer saharaui, Smara – Western Sahara

196. Francesc Arbiol – Spain

197. Francesc Verdugo Ibarz – Spain

198. Francisco Delgado Poveda. Sitges – Barcelona – Spain

199. Francisco Villa, cantautor – Chile

200. Freedom Sun – Smara – Western Sahara

201. Friends of Western Sahara Japan – Japan

202. Fundación Constituyente XXI – Chile

203. Fundación Mundubat – Spain

204. Fundación Sáhara Libre – Venezuela

205. Fundación Sahara Occidental – Spain

206. Gemma Arbesú Sancho, Lawyer – Spain

207. Generación Amistad Sáharaui – Spain

208. Gregorio Eizagirre – Spain

209. Gregorio f. Armas Armas – Spain

210. Grup Parlamentari Mes per Mallorca – Spain

211. Grupo de Estudos Retóricas do Poder e Resistência/UnB – Brazil

212. Grupo de Saharauis en Lanzarote – Spain

213. Guillem Daviu Vich – Spain

214. Guillem Xavier Mesquida Xamena – Spain

215. Hamid Hosseini – Western Sahara

216. Hassana Moh Nayem Lareibi – Western Sahara

217. Helena Granja – Portugal

218. Henrique Tavares, teacher – Portugal

219. Hiroaki Idaka – journalist – Japan

220. IAJUWS, Internacional Association of Jurists for Western Sahara

221. Inês de Sousa Real – Deputy President of the Parliamentary Group PAN (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) – Portugal

222. Ines Miranda Navarro. – Jurist, Consejera Cabildo de Gran Canaria- Spain

223. Intergrupo Parlamentario “Paz y libertad para el pueblo Saharaui ” de Parlament de les Illes Balears – Spain

224. Intersindical Alternativa de Catalunya – IAC – Spain

225. Isabel Fernández Casado – Spain

226. Isabel Lourenço, Researcher at the Center for African Studies at the University of Porto – Portugal

227. Isabel Maria Jorge Gomes – Portugal

228. Isabel Peñate Ortega, Coordinadora del grupo político de Nueva Canarias en el Cabildo de Gran Canaria – Spain

229. Izquierda Unida Federal – Spain

230. J.A.Zuazua – Spain

231. Jamil Murad, Brazilian doctor, presidente do CEBRAPAZ – Brasil

232. Jana María González Alonso- Spain

233. Javier Martinez Alemany – Spain

234. Javier Moratalla Mata – Spain

235. Jean Paul Le Marec, SG de la plateforme de solidarité française avec le peuple sahraoui – France

236. Jerónima Amengual Morro – Spain

237. Joan Font Massot – Spain

238. João de Sousa, journalist, Director of Jornal Tornado – Portugal

239. Joaquina Teresa Peñasco Monés – Spain

240. John Gurr, member of WSRW, WSAF and WSC – United Kingdom

241. Jordi Martinez, Presidente de la Asociación Madrasa Catalunya – Spain

242. José Barreda Gutiérrez. Conserje, Lebrija – Spain

243. José Carlos Lourenço – Portugal

244. José Enrique Madrid López – Spain

245. José Luis Naranjo Cabrera – Spain

246. José Luis Paulín Seijas, doctor of Mundubat – Spain

247. José Manuel Mendes Dias, doctor – Portugal

248. Jose Revert Calabuig, Jurist – Spain

249. José Schulman. Presidente Liga Argentina por los Derechos Humanos – Argentina

250. Josefa Milán Padrón , jurist – Coordinadora del Servicio de Solidaridad Internacional del Cabildo de Gran Canaria – Spain

251. Josep Castells Baró, diputado de Més per Menorca en el Parlament de les Illes Balears – Spain

252. Josep Ramon Balanzat Torres – Spain

253. Juan Antonio Reynes Morro – Spain

254. Juan Jimenez Heredero – Spain

255. Juanjo Miera – teacher – Spain

256. JUPADEHU, Asociación Canaria de Juristas por la Paz y los DDHH – Spain

257. Katheryne Aldana Villalobos – Colombia

258. Laura Orfila Ferrer – Spain

259. Laurinda Gonçalves, teacher – Portugal

260. Le Sahara n’est pas à Vendre – Association Sahraouie à Bruxelles – Belgium

261. League des Jeunes et des Etudiants Sahraouis en France – France

262. Lehdad Bachir – Western Sahara

263. Lembarki de Palafrugell – Spain

264. Lesley Osborne, Secretary Australia Western Sahara Association – Australia

265. Liga de Atletas Saharauis en España – Spain

266. Liga de Estudiantes Saharauis en España – Spain

267. Liga de Periodistas Saharauis en España – Spain

268. Lila Thomàs i Andreu – Spain

269. Llorenç Carrió Crespí, Conejal del Ayuntamiento de Palma, Més per Palma – Spain

270. Lourdes Crespo Tarazón, Valencia – Spain

271. Lucia Carro Marina – Spain

272. Luís António Pinto da Silva – Portugal

273. Luís Blasco Bellido, teacher. Lebrija – Spain

274. Luis Portillo Pasqual del Riquelme, Ph.D. in Economics, former professor of Economic Structure and Institutions at the Autonomous University of Madrid – Spain

275. Luis Salvaterra Matos, teacher – Portugal

276. Luis Solé Murall – Spain

277. M. Fadel Sweyah – Western Sahara

278. Ma. Àngels Moseguí Figueras – Presidenta de la Asociación MAPO Derechos Humanos Universales – Spain

279. Macaréu – Cultural Association – Portugal

280. Madalena Santos, Presidente da Associação Portuguesa de Juristas Democratas/President of Portuguese Association of Democratic Jurists, Professor at Lisbon Law Faculty, Lawyer in the Lisbon City Council – Portugal

281. Mafalda Santos – doctor – Portugal

282. Magdalena Cardona Cardona – Spain

283. Maite Isla Avión Presidenta de SOGAPS – Spain

284. MAKSRA, Asociación de Amigos del Pueblo Saharaui de Segovia – Spain

285. Manuel Augusto de Matos Bastos – Portugal

286. Manuel Jorge Pérez, teacher – Spain

287. Manuel Tomás Saraiva, jurist -Portugal

288. Margarita Diego Subías – Spain

289. Mari Paz Hernández Meyin – Colombia

290. Maria Alberto Branco – Portugal

291. Maria Caldas, teacher – Portugal

292. Maria Coloma Gelabert Bassa – Spain

293. María del Carmen Cabrera Franquiz – Spain

294. Maria Filomena Clara Martins – Portugal

295. Maria José Maninha, doctor, Presidente da Associação de Solidariedade e pela Autodeterminação do Povo Saaraui – ASAARAUI – Brazil

296. María Luisa Sanchez Barbero – Spain

297. María Nebot Cabrera – Spain

298. Maria Pons Pons – Spain

299. Maria Santos, doctor – Portugal

300. Maria Teresa Sendra Soker – Spain

301. Mariana Fonseca, teacher – Portugal

302. Mark Luetchford, Chair of Western Sahara Campaign – United Kingdom

303. Marta Aoiz Linares – Spain

304. Marta Oriol Bitaubé, vocal Castelldefels Sáhara – Spain

305. Més per Menorca -Balears (España)

306. Mesa Nacional Agupacion Envar el Kadri-Peronismo de Base – Argentina

307. Michael Barton, Western Sahara Campaign New Zealand (WSCNZ) – New Zealand

308. Miguel Maia, teacher – Portugal

309. Minetu Larabas Sueidat, Secretary General of National Union of Saharawi Women (UNMS) – Western Sahara

310. Miquel Ensenyat Riutort, Portavoz del grupo parlamentario Més Per Mallorca – Spain

311. Miquela Vidal i Joan – Spain

312. Mohamed Manolo – ex-preso politico da la primera intifada pacifica, Dakhla, Sahara Occidental – Western Sahara

313. Mohamed Mustafa Mulud – Western Sahara

314. Mohamedsalem Werad, Founding Member and Co-editor of Saharawi Voice – Western Sahara

315. Moviment Valencià d’Ajuda al Poble Sahrauí – Spain

316. Movimento Democrático de Mulheres/ Democratic Women’s Movement – Portugal

317. Movimiento por los presos políticos saharauis – Spain

318. Nádia Moreno, teacher – Portugal

319. Najem Sidi, président du Comité Action et Réflexion pour l’Avenir du Sahara Occidental (CARASO) – France

320. Nieves Cubas Armas – Jurist – Spain

321. Nora Cortiñas. Madre de Plaza de Mayo Línea Fundadora – Argentina

322. Nora Podestá del Comité de Amistad con el Pueblo Saharaui – Argentina

323. Nuno Abreu – Researcher at the Center for African Studies at the University of Porto – Portugal

324. Núria Moreno Arjona – Spain

325. Nushatta Foundation for Media and Human Rights – Western Sahara

326. OAPSO – Observatorio Asturiano de Derechos Humanos para el Sahara Occidental – Spain

327. Observatoire Sahraoui pour Enfants et Femme (OSEF) – Western Sahara

328. Observatorio Aragonés para el Sahara Occidental en Aragón – Spain

329. Observatorio Galego para o Sáhara Occidental – Spain

330. Oliva Macías Rodríguez, teacher, Lebrija – Spain

331. Omar Abed Jalil responsable y presidente de AISOC y de COSCAPS – Spain

332. Pablo Peláez. Presidente de AUNA – Argentina

333. Pallasos en Rebeldía – Spain

334. Partido Comunista de España (PCE) – Spain

335. Patricio Guzmán A, economist – Chile

336. Patrick Husmann, teacher – Portugal

337. Pedro César Batista, Secretaria executiva do Comitê Anti-imperialista general Abreu e Lima – Brazil

338. Pedro Miguel, teacher – Portugal

339. Pedro Quevedo Iturbe – Spain

340. Pedro Saldaño, Taller Sol – Chile

341. Pedro Santos Leandro, lawyer – Portugal

342. Pilar Juan Ferrer – Spain

343. Plataforma por la Solidaridad de Lebrija – Spain

344. Poemario por un Sahara Libre – Spain

345. Porunsaharalibre.org – Spain

346. Raabub MOHAMED Lamin Mehdi, doctor – Spain

347. Rafael Borràs Ensenyat – Spain

348. Red Ciudadana “Bolivia con el Sahara” – Bolivia.

349. Regina Marques, member of the MDM national board and secretariat – Portugal

350. Remedios García Albert – Spain

351. Rita Borque – Vicepresidenta Associació Castelldefels Sàhara – Spain

352. Roberto Simões, teacher – Portugal

353. Rodrigo Loyola, Vice Presidente Agrupación de Ex Presos Políticos -Chile

354. Rosa Mª de León Caceres – Jurista y Vicepresidenta de JUPADEHU – Spain

355. Rosa Maria Alcover Colom – Spain

356. Rui Vaz, teacher – Portugal

357. Rute Henriques, Art and Design Director of Jornal Tornado – Portugal

358. Ruth Sebastian García – Jurist – Spain

359. S’Ateneu de Santa Margalida – Spain

360. Sahara Euskadi Vitoria – Spain

361. Sahara Gasteiz Vitoria – Spain

362. Sahara Lliure Paterna – Valencia – Spain

363. Saharawi Voice – Western Sahara

364. Sandra Santos, teacher – Portugal

365. Santiago Jiménez Gómez Observatorio Galego para o Sáhara Occidental – Spain

366. Saúl Sandoval – Argentina

367. SAUSA ( Sahrawi Association in USA) – USA

368. Secretaria de DDHH Fetia CTA – Argentina

369. Sergio Aguiló Melo, economist – Chile

370. Sergio Rodríguez Gelfenstein, international analyst – Venezuela

371. Sidi Talebbuia Hassan, lawyer – Spain

372. Silvy Raposo, teacher – Portugal

373. Simplicio del Rosario Garcia, Presidente de JUPADEHU – Spain

374. Sindicat IAC-CATAC Secretaria general – Spain

375. Sindicato Único de Bizkaia CGT-LKN – Spain

376. Sofia Tavares, nurse – Portugal

377. SOGAPS – Solidariedade Galega co Pobo Saharaui, Vigo – Spain

378. Sónia Morgado, teacher – Portugal

379. Stella Calloni. Journalist and writer – Argentina

380. Susana Figueiredo, teacher – Portugal

381. Suzanne Scholte, Seoul Peace Prize Laureate – USA

382. Sveriges Sahrawis förening VGS – Sweden

383. Tawasol lludio – Spain

384. Tayuch Amurio – Spain

385. Teresa Gonçalves, jurist – Portugal

386. Teresa Marques, lawyer – Portugal

387. Teresa Sánchez Armas – Spain

388. Tibsima Mollet Sàhara-España – Spain

389. Tolosaldea Sahararekin GK.E – España

390. Toni Guirao – Vicepresidente de Federació ACAPS – Spain

391. Toni Noguera Ortega, Coordinador del partido político Més Per Mallorca – Spain

392. UESARIO – Saharawi Student Union – Western Sahara

393. Union des Ingénieurs Sahraouis (UISAH)

394. UPLA – La unión y plataforma pensionistas indignadxs de Madrid – Spain

395. US Western Sahara Foundation – USA

396. Usune Zuazo Martín – Spain

397. Vega Díez Pérez – Colombia

398. Vicenç Vidal, Senador de Més per Mallorca (Illes Balears) – Spain

399. Víctor Kot. Secretario General Partido Comunista de Argentina – Argentina

400. Víctor Rodríguez Sánchez, Asesor de Cooperación Institucional del Cabildo de Gran Canaria – Spain

401. WSCNZ ,Western Sahara Campaign New Zealand – New Zealand

402. WSRWE, Observatorio de recursos naturales del Sahara Occidental -Spain

403. Xabier Onaindia Ribera – Spain

404. Xosé Henríque Porto Varela – Licenciado en Ciencias da Educación e profesor xubilado, Galicia – Spain

405. Ylenia Pulido González – Jurist – Spain

 


          

Social Distancing and Stay-Home Orders Are Likely To Save Millions   

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A new study by influential researchers at Imperial College, London finds that COVID-19 is more infectious and deadly than scientists had thought.  The New Imperial study finds that had nations done nothing, COVID-19 would have killed 40 million and infected 7 billion.  An earlier, March 16 study by Imperial College, London, predicting millions of deaths, helped inspire UK, US and other governments around the world to take much stronger actions including stay-at-home orders, last week. Some conservative pandemic skeptics misrepresented the new study as saying something closer to the opposite of what it actually said. “Epidemiologist Neil Ferguson, who created the highly-cited Imperial College London coronavirus model,” wrote the Daily Wire, “offered a massive revision to his model on Wednesday.” What the reporter failed to note was that the revision to the model was based on the nationwide lock-down the UK government imposed, not because researchers had over-estimated the risk. “Our analysis, therefore, suggests that healthcare demand can only be kept within manageable levels,” the Imperial researchers conclude, “through the rapid adoption of public health measures… …

The post Social Distancing and Stay-Home Orders Are Likely To Save Millions appeared first on Quillette.


          

Imperial College walks back expected death toll from 500K to 20K   

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I saw that the lead guy made the statement that they are expecting 20K deaths not 500K as the media latched on to. He kinda admonished the media for only reporting part of their "thoughts". This is the same report/model that predicted 2.2 million Americans would die and despite several...
          

Coronavirus doesn't stop Montana boy's Star Wars-themed adoption, complete with lightsaber duel   

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GREAT FALLS, Mont. — A pair of Darth Vaders strode up the aisle of the Cascade County District Courthouse on Friday to the opening drumbeats of the Imperial March.Where the prosecuting attorneys normally sit, twin lightsabers stood on the desk, ready for battle.On a television screen that usually displays criminal hearings and trial evidence, "Star Wars: Episode IV – [...]
          

The Regiment   

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An Abridged History

The life of our Regiment began in Flanders. At many times in the last three hundred years the towns and villages of the Low Countries have been familiar to men of the Ist Guards. They fought in 1658, and again in 1940, against great odds, on the road between Furnes and Dunkirk. Under the great Duke of Marlborough they bore their part in the victories of Ramillies, Oudenarde and Malplaquet. At Waterloo in 1815 they won their name, a name to which great honour was added a century later in the mud and suffering of the Western Front. In 1944 they entered Brussels at the head of a victorious British Army. They have returned gloriously many times to Flanders, and in Flanders they were first formed.

In 1656 King Charles II was in exile, and England lay under the military dictatorship of Cromwell, the Lord Protector. In May of that year the King formed his Royal Regiment of Guards at Bruges, under the Colonelcy of Lord Wentworth. The Regiment was first recruited from the loyal men who had followed their King into exile rather than live under tyranny, and their reward came in 1660 when the King was restored to his throne. After the Restoration, a second Royal Regiment of Guards was formed in England under the Colonelcy of Colonel John Russell. In 1665, following Lord Wentworth's death, both Regiments were incorporated into a single Regiment with twenty-four Companies, whose royal badges or devices, given by King Charles II, are still emblazoned on its Colours.

The Regiment, later termed "The First Regiment of Foot Guards", and now called "The First or Grenadier Regiment of Foot Guards", has fought in almost every major campaign of the British Army from that time until our own. Under the last two Stuart Kings it fought against the Moors at Tangiers, and in America, and even took part as Marines in the naval wars against the Dutch.

In the Wars of the Spanish Succession, the 1st Guards served under a commander who had joined the King's Company of the Regiment as an Ensign in 1667. His name was John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough who was Colonel of the Regiment and who, with his brilliant victories of Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), Oudenarde (1708) and Malplaquet (1709), established his reputation as one of the greatest soldiers of all time. The 1st Guards took part in his famous march from the Low Countries to the Danube in 1704, and when the British stormed the fortified heights of the Schellenberg before Blenheim, the Regiment led the assault.

In the long series of wars against France - then the chief military power of Europe - that covered fifty-six of the 126 years between 1689 and 1815, the 1st Guards played their part. They fought at Dettingen and Fontenoy, where the superb steadiness of their advance under a murderous cannonade won the admiration of both armies. Rigid attention to detail, flawless perfection of uniform and equipment and a discipline of steel were the hard school in which the tempered metal of the Regiment was made for the service of the State. Yet running through that tradition of discipline, of harsh punishments, of undeviating rule, ran a vein of poetry, of humour, of loyalty to comrade, of sense of belonging to something greater than any individual, something undying and profound. And the letters and diaries of men of the Regiment of those days bear witness to it.

During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the 1st Guards, crossing to Holland in 1793, were among the first British troops to land in Europe. Driven from the Continent two years later, they returned in 1799 when another British Army attempted, though in vain, to liberate Holland. In the autumn and winter of 1808 they took part in Sir John Moore's classic march and counter-march against Napoleon in Northern Spain and, when under the terrible hardships encountered on the retreat across the wild Galician mountains the tattered, footsore troops, tested almost beyond endurance, showed signs of collapse, the 1st Foot Guards, with their splendid marching discipline, lost fewer men by sickness and desertion than any other unit in the Army. Subsequently they took part in the battle of Corunna and when Sir John Moore fell mortally wounded in the hour of victory it was men of the 1st Foot Guards who bore him, dying, from the field. Next year, they fought again in Spain under one of the great Captains of history, an officer also destined to become Colonel of the Regiment, Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington. Under Wellesley, they took part in the desperate engagements of the Peninsular War.

When, after the victorious peace that followed, Napoleon escaped from Elba and re-entered Paris, the Regiment returned to the Low Countries. In the middle of June 1815 the Emperor struck at the British and Prussian forces north of the Meuse, seeking to separate them and destroy them severally. After a fierce encounter at Quatre Bras on June 16th, 1815, in which the 3rd Battalion suffered heavy casualties, Wellington's Army withdrew to Waterloo, and on Sunday June 18th, was fought the battle in which the Regiment gained its present title and undying fame. During the morning the light companies of the Guards defended the farm of Hougoumont, the light companies of the 1st Guards being withdrawn later to join their battalions - the 2nd and 3rd Battalions. At evening these two battalions, together forming the 1st Brigade, were in position behind the ridge which gave shelter to the Army. At this point Napoleon directed his final assault with fresh troops - the Imperial Guard, which had hitherto been maintained in reserve. That assault was utterly defeated, and, in honour of their defeat of the Grenadiers of the French Imperial Guard, the 1st Guards were made a Regiment of Grenadiers and given the title of "First or Grenadier Regiment of Foot Guards" which they bear to this day.

During the Crimean War, the 3rd Battalion formed part of Lord Raglan's Army, which stormed the heights above the River Alma and besieged the Russian fortress of Sebastopol. During the early part of that grim siege was fought, in November 1854, the battle of Inkerman. The defence of the Sandbag Battery in the fog against overwhelming odds is one of the epics of British military history. On that day the Brigade of Guards, of which the 3rd Battalion of the Grenadier Guards formed part, lost half its officers and men, but not a single prisoner or an inch of ground.

The Grenadier Guards fought at Tel-el-Kebir and in the Boer War, proving the worth of discipline and esprit de corps in the era of khaki, machine guns and open order as they had done under the old dispensation of muskets and scarlet and gold. In the first Great War of 1914-18, they fought in nearly all the principle battles of the Western front. At First Ypres all but 4 officers and 200 men of the 1st Battalion and 4 officers and 140 men of the 2nd fell in action.

During this war a 4th Battalion was formed for the first time and covered itself with glory in the critical fighting in the spring of 1918. The Marne, the Aisne, Ypres, Loos, the Somme, Cambrai, Arras, Hazebrouck and the Hindenburgh Line are inscribed on the Colours of the Regiment, commemorating its part in the bloodiest war of our history. Before the final victory was won and the German Imperial Army was broken by Britain's new Armies, 12,000 casualties had been suffered by the Regiment.

In 1939 the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalions again returned to the Continent, forming part of the British Expeditionary Force under Lord Gort, himself a Grenadier. During the retreat of 1940, the traditional discipline of the Regiment stood the test as it had done at First Ypres, Corunna and Waterloo. Two of its Battalions fought in the Division then commanded by Major General, later Field Marshal, Montgomery and another in that commanded by Major General, later Field Marshal, Alexander. At Dunkirk, which the Regiment had garrisoned under Charles II, it took part in the defences of the perimeter, under cover of which the embarkation of the Army was made. In the course of that year the 4th Battalion was re-formed, and in 1941 two further Battalions, the 5th and 6th, were raised.

The Regiment was represented in the Eighth Army's famous advance to Tunisia, taking part in the battle of Mareth, where the 6th Battalion, the first to meet the enemy after the evacuation of Dunkirk, suffered heavy casualties but won the respect of friend and foe alike. The 3rd and 5th Battalions shared in the invasion of North Africa; all three Battalions were engaged in the invasion of Italy and the Italian campaign, the 5th Battalion forming part of the force that landed at Anzio.

Meanwhile, in England, the 2nd and 4th Battalions had been converted to armour, and the 2nd Battalion, with the 1st Battalion, which had become a Motor Battalion, served in the Guards Armoured Division under the command of Major General Allan Adair, another Grenadier, and later to become Colonel of the Regiment. The 4th Battalion formed part of the 6th Guards Tank Brigade. These three Battalions fought in the battles of Normandy and across France and Germany. In September 1944 the 1st and 2nd Battalions entered Brussels. On September 20th tanks of the 2nd Battalion and troops of the 1st Battalion crossed the Nijmegen Bridge. In 1945 the Army entered Germany.

The British public most frequently sees the Grenadier at his ceremonial duties in time of peace. But behind this ceremony lies a tradition tested on the battlefields of British history, a tradition as valid to-day as ever, a tradition of discipline, comradeship, loyalty and fidelity to one another, to the Country, and to the Crown. It was expressed by the then Colonel of the Regiment, the Prince Consort, speaking on the 200th anniversary of our formation in words that remain as true over a century later. "That same discipline which has made this Regiment ever ready and terrible in war has enabled it to pass long periods of peace in the midst of all temptations of a luxurious metropolis without the loss of vigour and energy; to live in harmony and good-fellowship with its fellow citizens; and to point to the remarkable fact that the Household Troops have for over 200 years formed the permanent garrison of London; have always been at the command of the civil power to support law and order, but have never themselves disturbed that order, or given cause of complaint, either by insolence or licentiousness. Let us hope that for centuries to come these noble qualities may still shine forth, and that the Almighty will continue to shield and favour this little band of devoted soldiers".

Post Word War 2

Since 1945 the Regiment has served in virtually every one of the "small campaigns" and crises which have marked the last few decades, and has continued its traditional and privileged task of mounting guard over the person of the Sovereign.

In the Gulf war of 1991, the 1st Battalion went from the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) - Germany - to fight in their Warrior armoured personnel carriers.desert

They then returned to London to Troop their Colour on the Queen's Birthday Parade in 1992, before going to South Armagh for a six month operational tour in Northern Ireland.

They have since carried out operational tours in the Falkland Isles, operational tours in Northern Ireland and in April 2000 were part of 12 Mechanised Brigade, ready to embark on operations worldwide.

In 2001, the deployment of troops to Heathrow airport held no surprise to see the Grenadiers, along with the Household Cavalry, deployed in an anti-terrorist role. Even though the year was just 5 weeks old, the Regiment had been on Public Duties, covered for the Firemen strike and had undertaken anti-terrorist duties.

In 2002, the Trooping the Colour Parade was somewhat of a unique occasion as the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalion Grenadier Guards were represented on parade by:

  • Escort - The Queen's Company
  • No 2 Guard - Nijmegan Company
  • No 3 Guard - The Inkerman Company

Today the Regiment consists of the First Battalion, Nijmegen Company, 15th Company (Regimental Headquarters and the Regimental Band), 14th Company (Guards Company - Army Training Regiment, Pirbright) and the 13th Company (Guards Company - Infantry Training Centre, Catterick).

The Right Flank Company of the 1st Battalion is called the Queen's Company. The Left Flank Company is called the Inkerman Company and retains the inherited privileges of the 3rd Battalion.

During its 2007 operational tour in Afghanistan (OP HERRICK 6), the third operational tour in as many years, the 1st Battalion was engaged in some of the fiercest and most prolonged infantry fighting the British Army had experienced in recent times.

In April 2010, the 1st Battalion returned from operations in Afghanistan (OP HERRICK 11).

On Tuesday 11 May 2010, Her Majesty The Queen presented new Colours to the 1st Battalion. The 1st Battalion subsequently Trooped their new Queen's Colour on the 2010 Queen's Birthday Parade. The old Colours were laid up in Lincoln Cathedral on Thursday 21 October 2010.

In April 2012, the 1st Battalion deployed on operations in Afghanistan (OP HERRICK 16) and retuned to the UK in October 2012.

Her Majesty presented new Colours to Nijmegen Company on Wednesday 26 June 2013.

The 1st Battalion is presently stationed in Lille Barracks, Aldershot.


          

#laculturaincasa: ecco gli appuntamenti digital per il fine settimana dal 27 al 29 marzo   

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Nell’ambito dell’iniziativa Io resto a casa e disegno il pleistocene del Museo di Casal de’ Pazzi, continua il contest per bambini e ragazzi Un mondo scomparso. C’è tempo fino a domenica 29 marzo per inviare i propri disegni dedicati all’età pleistocenica di 200.000 anni fa e tentare di vincere un libro dedicato alla preistoria. Basterà inviare le proprie composizioni all’indirizzo e-mail info@museocasaldepazzi.it oppure postarli sulla pagina facebook del Museo e attendere la proclamazione del vincitore con più like in programma lunedì 30 marzo.

Sempre in tema di contest, #FinestresuRoma realizzato in collaborazione con Sapienza Università di Roma - Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia (corso di laurea in Storia dell’arte) e Master Digital Heritage. Cultural Communication Through Digital Technologies. Con gli scatti di ciò che si vede dalla propria finestra di casa si contribuirà a costruire un racconto collettivo di questo momento particolare della nostra città, fatto di luoghi, storie e monumenti.

Nel corso del fine settimana, saranno sempre attivi e disponibili i cinque tour virtuali dei Musei Civici, in lingua italiana e inglese, per scoprire da vicino, attraverso mappe interattive, le sale e le opere dei Musei Capitolini, Mercati di TraianoMuseo dei Fori imperiali, Museo dell’Ara Pacis, Museo Napoleonico e il Casino Nobile dei Musei di Villa Torlonia.

Così come non cesserà l’attività divulgativa dei canali social: i Musei in Comune racconteranno le loro collezioni, si scopriranno le particolarità delle mostre in corso all’interno dei Musei, mentre la Sovrintendenza Capitolina offrirà una panoramica dei monumenti sul territorio romano.

Sempre a disposizione dell’utente, inoltre, la piattaforma online Arts & Culture sviluppata dal Google Cultural Institute, attraverso la quale si potranno ammirare le immagini ad alta risoluzione delle opere più importanti di quindici dei nostri musei partner (Musei CapitoliniCentrale MontemartiniMercati di TraianoMuseo dell'Ara PacisMuseo di Scultura Antica Giovanni BarraccoMuseo della Civiltà RomanaMuseo delle MuraMuseo di RomaMuseo NapoleonicoCasa Museo Alberto MoraviaGalleria d'Arte ModernaMuseo Carlo BilottiMuseo Pietro CanonicaMuseo di Roma in TrastevereMusei di Villa Torlonia) e, per 12 di questi musei, si potranno visitare virtualmente le sale grazie alla tecnologia Street View.


          

The Competing Models of Corona Virus   

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Oxford and Imperial. At least one doctor participated in both-he pointed out the differences between the two. I'm not a math wizard, by a long...
          

Coronavirus doesn't stop Montana boy's Star Wars-themed adoption, complete with lightsaber duel   

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GREAT FALLS, Mont. — A pair of Darth Vaders strode up the aisle of the Cascade County District Courthouse on Friday to the opening drumbeats of the Imperial March.Where the prosecuting attorneys normally sit, twin lightsabers stood on the desk, ready for battle.On a television screen that usually displays criminal hearings and trial evidence, "Star Wars: Episode IV – [...]
          

5 Awesome Things on eBay this week   

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Image: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/e5kAAOSwbklefWrX/s-l1600.jpg Electra Woman Halloween Costume- I actually own one of these, it's one of the nicest pieces of Merchandise the show got and it got some respectable stuff! Image: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/6N0AAOSwNhNd67et/s-l1600.jpg Torak GI Joe Falcon Reproduction- So this isn't original but it is a pretty brilliant recreation of the crazy cool science fiction characters that Brazilian toy company Estrealla made in the late 1970s. They're sort of like 12" Super Joes and they are rare as hell to find vintage, so I totally support this effort and hope they do characters I didn't already shell out the cash for. Image: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/a8cAAOSwZM1dolW0/s-l1600.jpg Imperial Inflatable King Kong- I'm tempted to buy this and pretend I have a friend over, I could also blame him for drinking all my bourbon (again!) Image: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/1YUAAOSwevZdl1CJ/s-l500.jpg Nomura diecast Argo from Starblazers- I used to own one of these but sadly to pay off ironically more Star Blazers toys from Nomura. I miss it, it's really cool. Image: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/xB4AAOSwHMJYJKCV/s-l1600.jpg Space:1999 Colorforms set- As I mentioned in the latest Pod Stallions episode this is a really beloved childhood Space:1999 toy that I was gifted in the early 1980s. I really need to track one down in the Canadian box, where I assume they spell "Colour" the correct way... To Subscribe to our channel click here: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwY..._as=subscriber Pod-Stallions Facebook group: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.facebook.com/groups/2226244254053126/ PlaidStallions Facebook page: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.facebook.com/Plaidstallionsdotcom For more Fashion Mockery and 70's toy love visit us at Plaid Stallions.com More...
          

Coronavirus could have killed 40 million across world if lockdowns weren't imposed, say researchers at Imperial College London   

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Coronavirus could have killed 40 million across world if lockdowns weren't imposed, say researchers at Imperial College London
          

Díaz-Canel: “Estamos convocando a que este fin de semana las personas salgan lo menos posible” (+Audio) (+Video)   

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El presidente Miguel Díaz-Canel encabezó, este viernes,  la reunión diaria de análisis al plan nacional de medidas de prevención y control para el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 donde participaron autoridades del Partido y el Gobierno.

El mandatario leyó un tuit que diera a conocer en redes sociales Jesús Álvarez López, el primer paciente cubano recuperado, tras haber sido dado positivo al nuevo coronavirus en el que expresa su agradecimiento al sistema de salud cubano por las atenciones recibidas.

  

A continuación, Díaz-Canel habló de los esfuerzos del país para enfrentar la pandemia, la autorresponsabilidad de cada cubano en la protección, de cómo enfrentamos esta nueva batalla en condiciones de asedio por el bloqueo imperialista y de la disciplina que es necesaria mantener en estos momentos, particularmente el fin de semana.

“Nosotros no hemos dejado de estar asediados hay productos que tenemos, pero no en la cantidad necesaria”, acotaba ante el reclamo de muchos de distribuir determinados renglones a través de la libreta de abastecimiento.

Hay que tener disciplina porque es la misma situación que hemos tenido durante los últimos meses, ratificaba. Y a continuación dijo que dentro de las limitaciones que tenemos hace falta que todo el mundo no acuda a la vez a los mercados para evitar grandes concentraciones, y mucho menos con niños, recalcó la necesidad de mantener la distancia entre personas en las colas y ser responsables, en el orden individual, para protegernos los unos a los otros.

Estamos convocando a que este fin de semana las personas salgan lo menos posible. No vamos a tener todos los recursos que necesitamos para satisfacer toda la demanda, puntualizaba, pero eso no va a echar por tierra todos los esfuerzos que ahora hace el país.

En su intervención en la reunión de análisis y evaluación sobre el comportamiento e impacto de la COVID-19 en el país, el presidente dijo que, si trabajamos bien el fin de semana, podemos ganarle dos días a la enfermedad.

Llamó entonces a aprovechar este fin de semana para intensificar el pesquisaje activo lo cual nos permitirá detectar más casos, más contactos, y más personas sospechosas para ser trasladadas a aislamiento.

Eso es lo que le pedimos a la población.

Es importante que haya el comportamiento más responsable para, entre todos, salir de la situación.

En la reunión de análisis sobre el comportamiento de la COVID-19 en el país, el titular de Salud, José Ángel Portal Miranda, dijo que en Matanzas se abre la primera transmisión local de la enfermedad vinculada a un turista italiano que tuvo contacto con un trabajador del Hotel Memories, y este último con otras personas ya identificadas y parte de su familia.

El viceprimer ministro, Doctor Roberto Morales Ojeda insistió en la importancia del aislamiento social, la pesquisa activa que suman más de 5 millones 400 mil en el país, y lo que representa acudir rápidamente a los centros hospitalarios para acortar los plazos en el diagnóstico epidemiológico, clínico y de laboratorio que permitan establecer prioridades.

En la reunión de este viernes en la que también participó el Primer Ministro, Manuel Marrero Cruz, rindieron cuenta el Ministerio de Industrias y el Instituto Cubano de Radio y Televisión, este último con un reconocimiento por la labor que realiza en la información oportuna e inmediata a la población sobre el impacto de la COVID-19.

Fuente. Radio Rebelde, Canal Caribe./ Editora. Carmen Torres

  

 

 


          

Quella flotta imperiale   

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Le navi d’epoca zarista tra il 1603 e il 1917 esaminate nel nuovo studio realizzato da Alberto Caminiti. Come i precedenti, per le immagini impiega anche i francobolli
          

Kremlin Imperial Stout   

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Was tasty . 4 bottles are my head is still holding some of it in apparently 🤣 . Very thick and rich . Will have to get a hydrometer to see what the ABV is next time..because nameplate says 9.5% but they feel heavier now.
          

Kremlin Imperial Stout   

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Looks darn good and tasty, very rich looking. Banned!! Wonder why?
          

Relics of St. Corona will be displayed in German cathedral, but after pandemic   

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CNA Staff, Mar 27, 2020 / 08:30 am (CNA).- A German cathedral will publicly display the relics of St. Corona, an early Christian martyr, once the COVID-19 outbreak has ended in the country. 

The Catholic cathedral in the city of Aachen, western Germany, was already planning to display the reliquary of St. Corona before the global COVID-19--also known as the novel coronavirus--pandemic struck. The shrine was to be included in an exhibit on goldwork and gold craftsmanship, and has not been able to be viewed by the public for the past 25 years. 

The cathedral, commonly known as the Imperial Cathedral because it was used by the Emperor Charlemagne, has housed the relics since the year 997 AD.

A spokeswoman for the cathedral was quoted by Reuters saying that, due to the coincidence of the saint’s name and the subfamily of the virus that has infected thousands of people around the world, she expects there to be “more interest” in viewing the saint’s remains. 

“We have brought the shrine out a bit earlier than planned,” said the spokeswoman, Daniela Loevenich. 

It is not yet known when the public will be able visit and venerate the relics St. Corona - Germany has banned gatherings of more than two unrelated people in an attempt to stem the spread of COVID-19, which has killed nearly 200 people in the country. 

The saint’s name, Corona, comes from the Latin word for “crown.” She is also known as St. Stephanie, derived from the Greek word stephanos, which also means “crown.” The subfamily of viruses known as “coronaviruses” were named for their resemblance to crowns. 

St. Corona is believed to have been martyred as a 16-year old in the second century, but few details are known about her. Tradition holds that her martyrdom occurred after she, hearing that St. Vincent was being tortured for his Christian faith, confessed her own faith and was subsequently executed. 

The two saints share a feast day of May 14. 

Despite viral internet posts stating that St. Corona is the patron saint of epidemics, she is actually venerated as the patroness of treasure hunters and lumberjacks, the latter because of the tradition that she was martyred by being tied between two palm trees. 

St. Edmund and St. Roch are venerated as the patron saints of pandemics and the plague. 

St. Edmund was credited for saving the city of Toulouse from the plague in the early 17th century, and St. Roch was invoked many times in the centuries after his death for protection from plagues and other ailments.


          

You Call That Service? Novel 2 (M)    

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Ryota's finally starting to settle in to his new life in Akinomiya as a minion to the vampire-er, Sacred Blooded girl-Shiren. But when his class gets not one, not two, but three transfer students (the Emperor, an imperial guard, and a vampire hunter), things are about to get even more complicated! You Call That Service? Novel Volume 2 features story by Kisetsu Morita and illustrations by Hiroki Ozaki.
          

Cross Site Scripting on imperialrange.com   

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Cross Site Scripting vulnerability on imperialrange.com, XSS mirror https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.openbugbounty.org/reports/1124691/
          

I’m free! (again)   

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Today is mostly free. I'm in no rush to rise. After a quick shower I'm down in the breakfast room by 8:30.

Because I do have one appointment: with Doug Merlo at 9. He's driving a bunch of us loafer judges around for the day. It's going to be quite a tour: a distillery, a brewery, a cheese maker and another brewery. It's going to be a busy day.

As six judges are going along (Martyn, Ben, Peter Bouckaert, Pete Slosberg, Stephen Beaumont, and, of course, me) we're in two cars.

I'm particularly excited about the distillery. Never toured one of those before. Plus I'm really intrigued by cachaça, which is the local spirit. I annoyed the Brazilians in Chile a couple of years ago by saying: "Oh, it's a kind of rum." when told it was made from sugar cane juice. "No, it's totally different from rum." I wasn't convinced.


The Xanadu distillery looks like it's in the middle of the jungle, even though it's technically in Blumenau. Surrounded by palms and loads of other exotic trees. A beautiful spot.

We begin with a tour. Everything kicks off with cane juice, which is about 16º Plato. After 24 to 48 hours of fermentation it’s 9% ABV. At which point it goes into the still. Where it’s distilled just once. The spirit is 50% ABV.

The heads and tails are distilled again to be used as sanitiser or fuel for their cars.


Premium cachaça has 1 to 3 years in wood, extra premium more than three years. Casks which are being aged are sealed by an excise man and are also unsealed by the same one when ready for bottling. The casks can’t be sampled in the meantime, which surely makes life difficult.

Different casks aren’t blended at bottling time, meaning every bottle is single-barrel.

When we get to the tasting, the owners pride in his products is obvious. You can see that they're like his children. Working logically, we start with the youngest and work our way through to the strongest. Even the ones with just a year in wood are really good.


"What's the origin of the name cachaça?"

"No-one knows for sure. It could come from an indigenous word. Or the Spanish word for the handle of a knife"

Well that's cleared that up.

As we work up through the ages, they get better and better. Then there are the different woods. Some of their barrels are oak, as you would expect. But there are also one from balsam, chestnut and a tree whose name I don't recognise. Some of the woods add incredible notes. Not just spice but even chocolate. It's an eye-opening experience.


I get a really nice bottle for Andrew: 6 years old, aged in American oak. It's like a combination of rum and bourbon. The price is a bit steep - about 9 euros. But I'm prepared to splash out this once.

Next stop is Cerveja Blumenau. A very significant brewery, but we'll come to that later.


The brewer starts by showing us his barrel-ageing room and gives us a few samples. The very technical way of just bashing a little spike through the head.

First, the base beer, which is a Belgian Blonde Ale. We then try a couple of older, fruited versions. They seem to be coming along nicely.

We have a wander through the brew house, which is surprisingly large. Full of shiny things, of course.


Once we're done, we have a buffet lunch. Been mostly buffets, so far. Ok by me as I can dodge the carbohydrates and stuff myself with meat. Sorry, eat a healthy balance of protein and vegetables. I hadn't expected beetroot to be so popular here. Not a problem for me. I love the stuff.

As we're eating, I notice Stephen is looking through the bags of condiments.

"I was hoping for some hot sauce. The Feijoada (bean stew) is good, but I'd have preferred it hotter."

The chat also turns to Catharina Sour, the new Brazilian style. One which was first brewed in this very brewery.

I'd assumed it was named after the state: Santa Catarina. But it wasn't. The first example - Son of a Peach - was inspired by the peach pies given to the brewer by his grandmother, who was named Catharina. With an "h". Which explains the difference in spelling between the state name and the style.

"Here's a myth in the making." I say to Martyn. "Good to have got the story from the source. Though I guess we'll be arguing about this for years."*

Before we leave, Martyn gets himself a T-shirt. Seems to be a thing of his. Though the one he would have preferred - one with those big rodent things on it - only comes in women's form.

As we're on our way out, Peter asks: "Can we get a beer for the car?"

"Of course." I love Brazil. And thankful to Peter for bringing the matter up.

As it's boiling, I get the perfect hot weather beer: an Imperial Stout.

"That's an odd beer to be drinking in the heat." Peter remarks.

"Not at all. In the 19th-century, strong Stout was popular in the West Indies and in Asia. And I have a reputation to maintain."

It also has the alcoholey goodness I'm craving at this moment. But I don't say that aloud.

The fucking heat today. I was lulled into a false sense of security the first couple of days when it was a pleasant 25-27 C.

Next stop is Pomerode. "Our little Germany" as the sign on the way in claims.

Our destination is a cheesery, Pomerode Alimentos, run by the Mendes family which used to own Esienbahn, the largest brewery in Blumenau, before they sold up to AB Inbev.

"That's the largest Easter egg in the world" Doug tells me. "It's in the Guinness Book of Records." What an odd claim to fame for this small town.

It's even hotter than earlier. Even though the cheesery is just over the road from where we park, I'm doing a pig impression by the time we get there.

After I've finished putting on all the protective gear, I'm even sweatier. It doesn't help that the room where the cheese-making process kicks off is 28º C. There's a layer of sweat between me and the plastic protective shit.


They make mostly French-style cheese - camembert and brie - but also others. The next room, where the cheese is maturing, is thankfully much cooler. Which brings my temperature a treat. It's fascinating to look at the ones of slightly different ages and how the rind develops.

Sadly, we leave the lovely coolness and re-enter the furnace outside. Where we get to taste some cheese. They're so good, I almost forget that I'm melting. The St. Marcellin is outstanding. Dead, dead good.


Surprisingly, Martyn doesn't buy a T-shirt.

Our final spot of the day is just 50 metres away: Schornstein Brewery. I'd noticed the old chimney on the way in. The brewery began in the building to which the chimney belonged, a former brickworks. There's now a production brewery in the former indoor market next door.

We enter through the shop, which is beautifully air-conditioned. Then continue on into the brewery, which isn't.

They're canning an alcohol-free Weissbier, and we're given one each to try. I'm not a great fan of beer without the best bit and can't finish it.

"Throwing in a triple vodka would improve it." I say to Stephen.


We pass through to the fermenting room and are given samples drawn straight from the tank. I don't even bother with the second, a Dry Stout. I'm about to do an Andrew and collapse. All I can think is: "When will this torture end?"

"I'm going back into the shop to cool down." Pete says. Why didn't I think of that? I follow him there.

After a while the others trickle in and Martyn starts looking through the T-shirts.

"How many of those things do you have?" I ask.

"Quite a few."

"What do you do with them all?"

"Wear them, of course."

I hadn't considered that. After all, I haven't read most of my book collection and I've a pile of undrunk beer.

On the way back, Doug buys some petrol.

As we pull into a petrol station a red-haired, pale-skinned attendant attracts both mine and Martyn's attention.

"I doubt he has much Portuguese heritage." Martyn quips.

I get myself a bottle of water. Need to keep hydrated. Did I mention that it's fucking hot?

We get back to the hotel just about in time for the most important event of the week: the old beer tasting.


It's not an official event, but a random thing me and Martyn have organised. We did the something similar at Williamsburg a few years back and it was a real blast. The venue then was Paul and Jamie's room. As the rooms here are tiny, we're doing it in the lobby.

We're aren't expecting many of the beers to be drinkable. They are all petty old. My money is on the Samichlaus being the only one still in any sort of shape

We start with the most likely fucked beers. Like my weird old La Chouffe. With an Italian label, with the wrong volume. It says 75 cl, but it's a 33 cl bottle.

"Do you know how old it is?"

"I got it about 25 years ago. And it was old then. It was sitting on a shelf in a pub I used to be a regular in and the landlord gave it to me."

Obviously, it tastes like shit. But not as bad as the Greene King Coronation Ale from 1953. Which reaches new levels of awful. The crown cork disintegrating while opening wasn't a good sign. Nor the black stuff on the underneath of it.

There are two Silver Jubilee Ales from 1977: Tetley's and Hook Norton. The former is surprisingly OK, with some hop character remaining. The latter is pretty crap.

As we open the Samichlaus, Stephen tells a story about it. When the LCBO were going to import it into Canada, they asked him to write something about the beer. Unfortunately, his article mentioned that Samichlaus was Swiss German for Father Christmas. On learning this, the LCBO cancelled the order.

Which prompts a discussion about the Portman Group's recent idiotic rulings. The beer itself is surprisingly dreadful.

When we're about halfway through the tasting, we start getting hassled about boarding the bus to the awards ceremony. Learning that there's a later one, we continue with our delightful tasting.

"Do you know the history of this beer?" I ask when we get to my old bottle of Carlsberg Special Brew. "It was originally brewed for Winston Churchill when he visited Denmark shortly after WW II. They knew he was a pisshead, so brewed something strong."

The last beer is by far the best. Hansens Kriek. It's not that old. And Lambic is basically indestructible. I've had ones from breweries which had been closed for decades which were perfectly drinkable. The Hansens is delicious. But it is a personal favourite.

Arriving at Vila Germanica, we spot a mass of people hanging around outside the hall. The doors aren't open yet.

"I'm glad we didn't get the earlier bus." I say.

"Beers in Bier Vila?" Chris sensibly suggests. He won't have to twist my arm.

Though I don't have beer. Instead an oak-aged cachaça. I'm getting a taste for this stuff.


We order some food. Chris suggests a mixed grill. "It's enough for four." As there are eight of us, we get some other bits and bobs.

Chris tells me that they’ve been taking the piss out of me in the Whatsapp group. As I don’t have a smart phone, they’ve been joking about how to contact me: fax, telegram, post, semaphore or carrier pigeon. Very droll.

When the mixed grill arrives, it's only slightly larger than the one Martyn had yesterday for himself.

We notice the crowd outside the hall is dissipating and trail over ourselves. Though it's a while before anything happens. Chris suggests that we stand at the back. Directly in front of the curtain concealing the bar.

"At a certain point they'll start serving all the beer left over from the competition." Good tip.

Though he's unlucky enough to pick a minute before the curtain rolls back to go for a piss. I, on the other hand, am second to the bar.


The awards are real fun. As I tasted all the gold medal winners in the Best of Show that I spent 3 hours judging. I give a running commentary to Martyn on which were OK, which were shit and how the discussion went amongst the judges.

After the awards were all awarded, we head off to one of the winners, brewpub Balburdia. It's jacked, as all the judged have tipped down there.

I get myself a pint of Imperial Stout. It is still quite hot, after all.


Me and Melissa had what you might describe as a forthright discussion at some points during the final judging. She apologises for being cranky yesterday.

"No problem, Melissa. I actually found the discussions quite fun." Better to be opinionated than dull and bland.

After a second pint of Imperial Stout, I'm starting to fade. And it is 1:30. We head back to the hotel.

Where there's just enough time for my traditional Islay eye-closer.

Hopefully the planes will still be flying when it's time to go home.




* It turns out that, as always, the story is more complicated. It seems there was one earlier example than Son of a Peach. I did have it all explained to me, but it was after a few beers and I can’t recall all the details.



Xanadu
R. Euclídes da Cunha, 1837
Velha, Blumenau.
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://www.xanadu.com.br/


Cerveja Blumenau
R. Arnô Deling, 388
Itoupavazinha, Blumenau
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://www.cervejablumenau.com.br/


Pomerode Alimentos
Rua dos Atiradores, 71
Centro, Pomerode.
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://www.pomerodealimentos.com.br/


Schornstein
Rua Hermann Weege, 160,
Centro Pomerode,
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://www.schornstein.com.br


Choperia Bier Vila
R. Alberto Stein, 199,
Velha, Blumenau

Balburdia
Rua Antonio da Veiga 464,
Blumenau.
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://balburdia.com.br/
          

Judging day two   

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When I get down to the breakfast room everyone is wearing green. We're having a photo taken and are supposed to be wearing the judge shirt they've provided. I nip back upstairs to change into it.

Martyn arrives, not wearing green. “Why aren’t you wearing your judge’s shirt?”

“Green really isn’t my colour.”

The session starts with a group photo. Which is why we were asked to wear our green shirts. I notice that, after all, Martyn is wearing his.

Just as we’re breaking up after the snap, three more judges. Appear in the distance. Just too late to be included.

I'm on a different table today, with two new judges: Brazilian Eduardo Pelizzon and Chilean Gabriel Lara Martinez. Whom I recognise as, I judged with him in Chile a couple of years back. A really lovely bloke. Quiet, but knows his stuff.

Both are brewers. This how I like to judge. With people more knowledgeable than me, so I can conceal my own ignorance more easily.

Yesterday they said they'd try to give me some British styles today. We kick off with Irish Red. Great.

I explain to my companions: "It's a made-up style." But we crack on, anyway. In the first group, nothing's even vaguely worthy of going through.


When the second flight comes out, I assume it's a different style, as some of the beers are as pale as Boddies. Nope, it's more Irish Reds. Well, that's made my job easy. There are two OK beers. By that, I mean ones without faults.


The beers in the next flight are all very pale. Turns out this is fine, as the class is Speciality Saison. Which seems to mean Saison with other shit in it.

Surprisingly, most of them are pretty good. A couple are outstanding. Finally, some really good beers. Only a couple of my glasses are undrained at the end of the tasting.

That's us done for the first round and it's only 11:30.

We quickly have yet another buffet lunch in Eisenbahn Bierhaus. At least it isn’t exactly the same every day. There’s a German theme today. So lots of pork.

"Do you fancy a pint?" Eduardo asks after we’ve finished eating.

"Of course."

"You English are always ready for a pint." he replies. How very true. Eduardo lived in Dublin for a couple of years and understands Irish/British culture well.

We head over to Bier Vila, which luckily isn't far, given how hot it is.

Eduardo had been telling me about Catharina sours, so we try samples of a couple, then decide on a lovely pink one.


We start talking about beer history. He asks; "The story about Ale conners - is that true?"

I'd seen Martyn enter the bottle shop a couple of minutes before. No longer in his green shirt.

"I'm pretty sure it's bollocks, but I've just spotted the man who can give you the full story."

I fetch Martyn.

"Do you want a beer?" Eduardo asks.

"Not just now."

"What? You're English. You always want a pint."

Martyn then demolishes the leather britches story.

The waiter comes around and Martyn says: "Go on then, I will have a beer."


Eduardo mentions the Oxford Companion to Beer and we explain its variable quality. He looks quite surprised. We then go through several other beer history myths. Eduardo looks slightly distraught.

"What I've been teaching is all wrong."

I've still most of my second beer when it's time to leave.

"Don't worry," Eduardo says. "You can get a plastic glass and take it with you." A sort of liquid doggy bag. What a civilised country this is.


We're doing mini Best of Show this afternoon.

The first flight looks promising: the beers are pitch black. "I'm guessing they're Imperial Stout."

They are. British-style Imperial Stout. I take a look at the style guidelines:

"Traditional British-style Imperial Stout can be dark amber."

You fucking what? I have a mini rant about how totally and utterly wrong that is. Luckily none of the beers is anything less than black.


They're all reasonable, with a couple pretty good. We agree on the three best, then each award 3 points to the best, two to the second and one to the third. Then add up the points to see which beer gets which medal. It's all over pretty quickly.

The next flight is a single beer. Brown Porter the style. I don't even have to taste it as just from the aroma I can tell it's riddled with faults. No Best of Show for that.

And that's us done. Brilliant. It's only 14:30. I'm free.

Then Fe comes up and says: "Don't leave, Ron. You're judging Best of Show." Damn.

Eduardo and Gabriel escape. Bastards. I hang around for a while with Gordon Strong, who's also judging Best of Show.

"Why did they pick me?"

"They saw your name in the BJCP guidelines."

I knew getting involved with the evil empire was a bad idea. At least we’ll be done today, leaving tomorrow as an unscheduled free day. I’ll need it after this marathon.

Most of the other tables are still busy with mini Best of Show. So we hang around. Some of the tables are taking forever.

By the time everyone is done, it's getting on for 5 PM.

Fe comes over. "There are 54 beers in Best of Show. We'll be ready to start in about 5 minutes."

Gordon is appalled. "Best of Show is rarely more than 20 beers. The most I've done before is 30. It's going to take all night." Bum.

We have a discussion on how to do the judging and settle on 5 flights, max. 3 beers from each go forward to a final round. It's not going to be quick.

It turns those 5 minutes are 5 Brazilian minutes. Which seem to be quite elastic. It's 5:30 when we finally get going.


There are 7 of us - me Martyn, Melissa, Gordon, Scott, Peter Bouckaert and 2 Brazilians.

We have some lively discussions. Very lively at times. Which means we're taking 30 minutes for an 11 beer flight. As the clock ticks on, I realise I've no chance of meeting Martyn as arranged at 7 PM in the hotel. And, not having a phone, I can't get in touch to warn him.

Melissa remarks: "It's strange we've never judged together before."

"What? Don't you remember our argument about Harvey's Imperial Stout?"

"Oh, yes. It tasted like shit, though. Literally excrement."

"What do you mean? It's one of the best beers in the world."

"It tastes like shit, Ron." I decide to leave it there. Don't want to waste any more time.

I arranged earlier to meet Martyn in the hotel lobby at 7 PM. I’m never going to make that.

The judging takes 3 hours. At the end there's near unanimity on the best two beers. The only dispute is about which gets gold and which silver. My first choice gets outvoted.

I get an Uber with Scott. His friend Fatima has been waiting patiently outside for hours.

The barbeque we're going to kicks off at 18:30, with the meat arriving at 20:30. I'm worried it will all be gone by the time I get there. Especially as I’ve already paid for it.


I spot Martyn straight away. I'm relieved that he isn't still waiting at the hotel.

I grab myself a beer to calm down. Then get stuck into some of the meat. There is still plenty left, luckily.

There was music billed for tonight. I thought it would just be the duo playing when I arrived. But various judges stand up and sing with them. Mostly hard rock. Highway to Hell, Paranoid. But also Blitzkrieg Bop. South Americans are nothing like as reserved as us Northern Europeans. I remain firmly glued to my seat.

"Beer judges in Britain would never do this." Martyn remarks.

I'm fading well before the party is over. Me, Martyn and Stephen order an Uber. I'm as knacked as 10 knackering sticks. Bed is all I'm thinking of. Especially as the hotel bar has already closed.

Though there's just enough time for a Bowmore to lull me to sleep.


Eisenbahn Bierhaus
R. Alberto Stein, 199.
Setor 4 - Velha, Blumenau


Choperia Bier Vila
R. Alberto Stein, 199,
Velha, Blumenau


Jeep clube Blumenau
R. das Canelas, 69
Itoupava Norte, Blumenau
          

Let's Brew - 1916 Courage Double Stout   

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WW I and WW II went very differently when it comes to beer. In the second conflict gravities fell gradually until 1942, then stabilised until the end of the war. In the first war, therewere only minimal gravity reductions in the first couple of years. But after 1917 gravities were progressively slashed.

Which explains why Courage Double Stout still had a prettty decent gravity halfway through the war.

Parti-gyled with the Porter was Double Stout. A two beer parti-gyle, as Imperial Stout had been discontinued in 1915.

Like the Porter, the gravity of Double Stout has taken a hit. It’s now 10 gravity points weaker than in 1914. Though the grist was much the same.

The grist is near identical in terms of percentages: 60% pale malt, 20% brown malt, 10% black malt and 10% black invert. Which produces a pretty black beer.. So it makes you wonder the reasoning behind the one change, the addition of caramel.

The hops have changed a little. Unsurprisingly, the German hops have been dropped. There are still foreign hops, in the form of Poperinge (1915) and Californian (1914) as well as English (1914).


1916 Courage Double Stout
pale malt 9.50 lb 60.98%
brown malt 3.00 lb 19.26%
black malt 1.50 lb 9.63%
No. 4 invert sugar 1.50 lb 9.63%
caramel 500 SRM 0.08 lb 0.51%
Strisselspalt 120 mins 0.75 oz
Cluster 120 mins 0.50 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 1.25 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 1.25 oz
OG 1069
FG 1025
ABV 5.82
Apparent attenuation 63.77%
IBU 43
SRM 58
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 159º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread Ale

The above is an excerpt from Armistice,  my wonderful book on brewing in WW I.





Support independent publishing: buy this book on Lulu.

There's now also a Kindle version.
          

Blumenau day one   

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I awake feeling much better than when I arrived. 22 hours on the road can really knock the stuffing out of you. And I'm scarcely packed full of it at the best of times.

I expect to bump into some other judges at brekkie. But none to be seen. I eat my scrambled eggs and weird sausage bits. While drinking bitter tears of disappointment.

So I wander down the main drag. Doing what any true Englishman would do. Looking for an open pub.


When I do find one, called Tunga Choperia, I pop in. Bad luck to pass an open pub, as I always told my kids. Not sure they ever believed that. They could have been just humouring me.

Everyone else is piling up their plates with the very reasonably priced buffet. 18 reals for as much as you can eat. While a draught beer is 10 reals. Couldn't face any food myself, at the moment.

I sit outside, revelling in the street view. As the locals bubble up and down the street with their shorts and muscles. Then there are the blokes. It’s not as hot as I’d feared. Around 25º C. Quite pleasant, really.

I don't linger. Just the one beer. What have I become? I used to hate one pint wonders. Now I am one.


Blumenau is an odd place, with lots of fake half-timbered buildings in an attempt to look German. They’re very proud of their German heritage.

Back at the hotel, several people I know are checking in: Melissa. Cole, Fernanda Meybom, Chris Flaskamp and Gordon Strong, amongst others.

Martyn messaged me earlier that he was on the bus from Navegantes. He must be here by now. Up in my room, I message him to see if he fancies a beer. He says he'll get in touch after showering.

After 1.5 hours, I wonder what's up. At starting to panic a little. Then there's a knock on the door. It's Martyn. For some reason he couldn't message me.

As all the craft beer bars are still closed, we return to the pub I was in earlier, Tunga,  and have a couple of beers.


Then we head off to Omas Haus brewpub, which isn't far, just over the river. No opening times on the web. But most beer places open around 5 PM. It's after that, but the place is very closed. No signs of life whatsoever.

So we drop in another fairly basic pub restaurant around the corner, Tip Tim Lanches. (I love the eccentric Portuguese spelling of “lunch”.) Martyn has a Skol, purely for academic purposes. As you'd expect, it's dreadful.


We need to get back to the hotel, as there are plans for tonight. A welcome meal for all the judges. Wouldn't want to miss that. And the bus leaves at 7 PM. The walk isn't long and it's already getting cooler.

The dinner is at Thapyoka, a massive beer hall. I sit with Florian Kuplent, of Urban Chestnut in St. Louis and Martyn. It’s a buffet meal. Upon which I try not to gorge too much. I find food gets in the way of drinking, if indulged in to excess.


My frugality extends into beer drinking. Just two half litre bottles. Of Schornstein Imperial Stout. I'm turning into lieutenant sensible. And I don't want to fill my stomach too much.

I get on a bus back with Martyn, Florian and Stephen Beaumont. Plus Fernanda Meybom, who declares:

"I'm surprised to see you on the first bus back to the hotel, Ron. In Santiago you fell asleep during your own talk." Fernanda says.

"That's vile lie. I fell asleep during the table discussion. Totally different. And it was my birthday.”

It's Bowmore which lures me into slumber, not the stuff whose name I continually forget. Sleep doesn’t hide in the shadows.



Tunga Choperia
R. Quinze de Novembro, 1020,
Centro, Blumenau


Omas Haus BrewPub
R. Paraguai, n 223
Ponta Aguda.


Tip Tim Lanches
R. República Argentina, 74
Ponta Aguda, Blumenau.


Thapyoka
R. Quinze de Novembro, 160
Centro, Blumenau.
          

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1940 Barclay Perkins Imperial Russian Stout   

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Wartime Russian Stout might come as a shock when you look at its strength. It’s barely more than 50% of gravity of the full-strength version.

Between the wars, rather confusingly, Barclay Perkins brewed two strengths of Russian Stout, called, in the Brewhouse, IBS and IBS Ex, the latter being the strong one. I’m not quite sure what was sold where. But, looking at wartime price lists, it looks like the strong version was being sold in Barclay’s pubs.

How do I come to this conclusion? I looked at Best Stout, which I know the OG of: 1041.5º. In 1943 it cost 13.5d per pint. While Russian Stout was 33d. Assuming that the two beers costed the same per gravity point, that would give Russian Stout a gravity of 1101º. That is, full strength.

Should you want to recreate that version, just double all the quantities given in the recipe below.

The recipe is the same as their other Stouts, with four different malts, two adjuncts and three types of sugar. One of those sugars – lactose – is slightly odd to find in an Imperial Stout. But that’s probably because some of the London Stout with which it was parti-gyled was being sold as Milk Stout.


1940 Barclay Perkins Imperial Russian Stout
mild malt 5.50 lb 42.72%
brown malt 0.75 lb 5.83%
amber malt 1.25 lb 9.71%
crystal malt 60 L 0.75 lb 5.83%
roast barley 1.25 lb 9.71%
flaked rice 1.25 lb 9.71%
lactose 0.25 lb 1.94%
No. 3 invert sugar 1.75 lb 13.59%
caramel 1000 SRM 0.125 lb 0.97%
Fuggles 120 mins 1.50 oz
Fuggles 60 mins 1.25 oz
Fuggles 30 mins 1.25 oz
OG 1057
FG 1022.5
ABV 4.56
Apparent attenuation 60.53%
IBU 29
SRM 37
Mash at 142º F
After underlet 149º F
Sparge at 172º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 60.5º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale

          

Educação para a Paz | E.S. Padre António Vieira   

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educacao para a paz es padre antonio vieira 1 20200326 1398689126

No âmbito das comemorações do Mês da Juventude na cidade de Lisboa, promovidas pela Câmara Municipal de Lisboa, o Conselho Português para a Paz e Cooperação (CPPC) realizou no dia 11 de março uma palestra na ES Padre António Vieira, intitulada «A luta pela paz e a diversidade cultural», enquadrada no tema proposto pela turma 12.º LH2. Perante uma assistência interessada e participativa, Carlos Garcia, da Direção do CPPC, partiu da diversidade cultural que caracteriza a sociedade actual onde convivem diferentes povos, considerando o seu contributo para o enriquecimento da humanidade, para abordar as diversas formas de racismo como fatores de divisionismo entre os povos, pondo em causa direitos humanos e princípios fundamentais da Carta das Nações Unidas e da Constituição da República Portuguesa, contribuindo para suportar o belicismo e o imperialismo, pondo em causa a cooperação e a defesa da paz.


          

Bank Band 6 Biomedical scientist   

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London-London, Job Reference: 290-A-19-35701 Employer:Imperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLocation:LondonSalary:£24.58 (including WTR) Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust Values We are absolutely committed to ensuring that our patients have the best possible experience within our hospitals. We are looking for people who are committed to delivering excellent patient care, whatever their role, and who take prid
          

Band 7 Echocardiographer   

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London-Charing Cross Hospital, London, Job Reference: 290-BCD-051-D Employer:Imperial College Healthcare NHS TrustDepartment:EchocardiographerLocation:Charing Cross Hospital, LondonSalary:£44,347 - £50,549 pa inc Join us at the heart of the action “I trained here when I was a junior, and I benefitted from so much support. My subspeciality is congenital heart disease in paediatrics. I’ve been encouraged to develop this interest and to b
          

Coronavirus doesn't stop Montana boy's Star Wars-themed adoption, complete with lightsaber duel   

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GREAT FALLS, Mont. — A pair of Darth Vaders strode up the aisle of the Cascade County District Courthouse on Friday to the opening drumbeats of the Imperial March.Where the prosecuting attorneys normally sit, twin lightsabers stood on the desk, ready for battle.On a television screen that usually displays criminal hearings and trial evidence, "Star Wars: Episode IV – [...]
          

Los jardines de Chapultepec en el siglo XIX   

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Los jardines son una “isla de esperanza”, donde el hombre pretende encontrar la dicha en sintonía con la vegetación, dispuesta de manera artificial por quien la disfruta. Un lugar así se encuentra en el bosque de Chapultepec. No hay otro sitio en los alrededores de la ciudad de México más favorecido por la naturaleza que este legendario lugar, el cual ha merecido innumerables descripciones y alabanzas de escritores nacionales y extranjeros. Además, cotidianamente es visitado por todo aquel que desea y busca recrear el espíritu, contemplando el lugar y aspirando el aire libre y puro que ahí circula. Nada más solemne que su bosque, formado de árboles seculares; nada más agradable que sus frescos senderos; nada más simétrico que sus rocas levantadas como a propósito, a conveniente altura para sostener en su cima la construcción del bello edificio que ha merecido los nombres de castillo, fortaleza y palacio. Quien desde ese lugar dirige su mirada a la Cuenca de México, no puede menos que entusiasmarse con el panorama que descubre y tener una impresión que jamás olvidará. Por algo, desde tiempos inmemoriales ha sido considerado uno de los lugares más sagrados, dotado de manantiales que forman verdaderos riachuelos que desembocaban en tres hermosos estanques llamados “albercas” y conocidos con los nombres de los Llorones, Moctezuma y de los Nadadores. Las albercas de Chapultepec abastecían de agua a la ciudad de México. En el Calendario de Galván se describía así a Chapultepec en 1838:

Cerca de una legua de distancia al Oeste de la ciudad de Mégico se eleva magestuosamente una pequeña colina llamada Chapultepetl (cerro del Chapulín). En su cumbre descuella un pequeño   palacio, y rodean su falda un espeso bosque de ahuehuetes (viejos del agua), un pequeño jardín de plantas exóticas y tres albercas que fertilizan la llanura. Una reunión de objetos tan interesantes a tan corta distancia de esta capital, hacen de Chapultepetl un sitio de recreo bastante frecuentado y que excita en muchos concurrentes el deseo de saber el origen de aquel palacio y de las construcciones que le circundan, la antigüedad de aquellos árboles gigantescos, la época del establecimiento de aquel jardín   botánico, el destino de las aguas de sus manantiales, y todos los objetos de aquel sitio encantador más las noticias de algunas de estas cosas se han perdido en la oscuridad de los tiempos y dado margen a tradiciones más o menos verosímiles, y aún a anécdotas verdaderamente extrañas... de      este memorable sitio.

A esta especie de árboles hacían compañía numerosos fresnos, álamos, sauces comunes y llorones, que con su ramaje sombreaban y daban frescura al parque y a los céspedes esmaltados donde lucían preciosas flores, de las que abundan en la Cuenca de México, y que parecían reunidas ahí a propósito, formando un tapiz de mil colores, en el que descollaban los girasoles amarillos, el monacil amarillo, los lirios morados, las cantuas, azaleas, siemprevivas, borlas de San Pedro, cicutas, yerbas del negro, tempranillas, verbenas, mazorquillas, hiedras rojas, toloaches, dalias, heno pequeño, cardenales, cempoalxóchitl, zoapatles, yerbas del ángel,  siemprevivas amarillas, malvas, espinosillas, obeliscos rojos y muchas otras. Como rocío de punto azul pálido se extiende el precioso forget me not, el “no me olvides” de los enamorados, que en conjunto mantenía el bosque en perpetua primavera.

El Castillo de Chapultepec se engalanó con jardines artificiales cuando lo habitó el emperador Maximiliano de Habsburgo, entre 1864 y 1867. El monarca no escatimó ninguna cantidad, por elevada que ésta fuera, para embellecer su mansión imperial. Educado en la cultura de los jardines europeos, Maximiliano trajo de Austria y de Trieste jardineros y arquitectos para hacerse cargo del embellecimiento de los jardines de su residencia imperial.

Gracias a las memorias de Wilhelm Knechtel, jardinero de la corte de Maximiliano –recientemente traducidas del alemán y próximas a publicarse por el Museo Nacional de Historia–, hoy sabemos que los jardines de la terraza superior del Alcázar fueron diseñados por la mano del emperador de México y realizados tanto por el arquitecto Julius Hofmann como por nuestro jardinero escritor, quien relató:

En plena armonía con la arquitectura se empezó al mismo tiempo el diseño del jardincito en la terraza   superior, lo que requirió el transporte de la tierra necesaria colina arriba a lomo de burros. […] Árboles con flores abundantes, en su mayoría exóticas y arbustos, muchas rosas y otras flores atraían a los colibríes, que muy pronto empezaron a construir sus nidos, lo que complació mucho a sus Majestades al observar el ir y venir de estos pajaritos vivarachos que parecen mariposas.

Sobre estos trabajos, la emperatriz Carlota compartió su alegría con su abuela materna, la reina María Amelia, a quien le comunicó en noviembre de 1864: “Max ya arregló aquí el jardín, o más bien la terraza, de una manera admirable...”. Al finalizar dicho jardín, los trabajos continuaron en la planta baja del Alcázar y en el Patio de Honor del Castillo, donde se plantaron palmeras Thrimax, higueras, thuya o alheña, Caprisolium, bugambilias y Tacsonia, además de varias especies traídas de los viveros de Miramar, como la Rhopala corcovadensis y la Grevillea robusta, entre otras.

Los jardines de Maximiliano fueron bellamente descritos por el presbítero e historiador Dámaso Sotomayor, en el invierno de 1865, quien llamó a Chapultepec la Perla del Valle de México:

Chapultepec, he aquí la joya más preciosa y el más rico pensil del espléndido y sin rival valle de     México... encontrándonos ya sobre el gran patio de la Plaza de Armas, haremos la descripción particular   del castillo... Hacia el interior se deja ver el patio, materialmente tapizado de flores. Los jardines ahí, a la   sola altura del piso, compónense generalmente de un fondo de luciente césped y una orla de flores; pero   en tan bella disposición y buen orden, que vistos desde las alturas del alcázar, se presentan a la vista   como deslumbrantes tapetes orientales de caprichosas y elegantes formas, cruzados por callejuelas que   dan hacia los cuatro vientos. Esta clase de jardines, que solo cubren al suelo de césped y de flores, son   los que están en primer término: un poco más allá se levantan á mayor altura otros, con sus   rosales, dalias, azucenas, rosa té o pajiza, condesas, reinas… y en los últimos términos del cuadro se     dejan ver   otros en forma de pequeñas selvas, con arbustos y plantas de otros climas. Por en medio de   estos   campos de flores se levantan sobre tazas de mármol ligeras columnas de agua, que derramadas  en menuda lluvia, acaban por dar al cuadro los más bellos y variados toques. Ahí los horticultores   limpian, cultivan y asisten constantemente aquella deliciosa mansión, que regada á tarde y á mañana con  las mangas de agua americanas, se deja ver llena de una vida y de una fecundidad que no se marchitan...

Así lució durante el breve segundo imperio mexicano y después quedó en el cruel olvido.

 

Amparo Gómez Tepexicuapan. Licenciada en historia por la UNAM. Responsable de la Curaduría de Documentos Históricos del Museo Nacional de Historia, Castillo de Chapultepec.

Gómez Tepexicuapan, Amparo, “Los jardines de Chapultepec en el siglo XIX”, Arqueología Mexicana, núm. 57, pp. 48-53.

Texto completo en la edición impresa. Si desea adquirir un ejemplar:

https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://raices.com.mx/tienda/revistas-antiguos-jardines-mexicanos-AM057

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Coronavirus doesn't stop Montana boy's Star Wars-themed adoption, complete with lightsaber duel   

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GREAT FALLS, Mont. — A pair of Darth Vaders strode up the aisle of the Cascade County District Courthouse on Friday to the opening drumbeats of the Imperial March.Where the prosecuting attorneys normally sit, twin lightsabers stood on the desk, ready for battle.On a television screen that usually displays criminal hearings and trial evidence, "Star Wars: Episode IV – [...]
          

Spelar Sverige rysk roulette med coronaviruset?   

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Detta lär bli ett kritiserat inlägg och jag önskar verkligen att jag inte behövde skriva det.

Runt om i världen frågar sig experter om Sverige spelar rysk roulette med vår tämligen unika corona-strategi. Riskerar vi en massdöd långt värre än i Italien?

Corona-epidemin leder nu till tusentals och snart tiotusentals döda i Italien och Spanien, med New York härnäst på listan över katastrofområden. Expertrapporter talar om risk för i längden tiotals miljoner dödsfall under 2020, om inte mycket starka åtgärder tas snarast möjligt.

Alla dessa regioner och alla våra grannländer – Danmark, Norge, Finland, Storbrittannien, Tyskland, Frankrike osv. – har valt att försvara sig på likande sätt. Stäng allt som kan stängas. Skydda liv först.

Storbritannien valde en tid att gå sin egen väg liksom Sverige, men valde under den senaste veckan att ändra sig, då det skulle kunna leda till hundratusentals döda att fortsätta följa en liknande linje. Nu är hela Storbritannien stängt, alla som kan vara hemma är hemma. Till och med hela Indien stänger nu ner för en miljard människor för att skydda liv.

Sverige har ännu valt en annan väg. Vi talar till nationen om stundens allvar och allas ansvar, men våra myndigheter verkar inte ta det ansvaret fullt ut. Istället tar vi en egen experimentell väg som har kallats “rysk roulette”. Internationella experter och tidskrifter ser oroat på:

 
Även i Sverige varnar oberoende experter för att situationen är oroande, att vi inte följer de rekommendationer som WHO gått ut med, och att det är högst oklart vad Folkhälsomyndigheten baserar sina förvånande råd på:

Landet annorlunda

I Sverige håller vi i stort sett allt öppet. När Tyskland och andra länder förbjuder möten mellan fler än två personer, så tillåter vi möten upp till 500. När andra stänger allt håller vi allt öppet. Restauranger, skolor, skidorter, i princip allt. På bussarna i Stockholm står folk och trängs värre än vanligt… perfekt för snabb smittspridning.

Gymkedjan SATS tog eget ansvar och stängde ner alla gym. I våra nordiska grannländer är SATS gym fortsatt stängda, men i Sverige öppnas nu gymmen upp igen, tydligen efter klartecken från Folkhälsomyndigheten.

Samma folkhälsomyndighet råder till synes föreningar – varav många tagit ansvar och ställt in träning och cuper – att fortsätta ordna gruppträning för barn i Sverige. Att till och med hela OS i Japan i sommar ställt in på grund av risk för coronasmitta verkar inte ha gjort intryck i Sverige. Här kör vi på som att ingenting särskilt farligt är på väg att hända.

Sverige, med Folkhälsomyndigheten i spetsen, går till synes en helt annan väg än resten av världen. Där andra länder ser katastrofala och oacceptabla dödssiffror – motsvarande många tiotusentals döda i Sverige – utan starka åtgärder så vandrar vi till synes lugnt vidare utan dessa åtgärder.

Brist på kunskap

Inte nog med att vi skyddar oss mindre, vi testar inte heller för att veta hur många smittade vi har. Vi testar inte ens sjukvårdspersonal med coronasymptom.

I Sverige har vi hittills gjort 24 000 coronatest. I Norge, som har hälften så stor befolkning, har man gjort 73 000 test. Det är sex gånger fler test, per invånare, i vårt grannland.

Med andra ord, vi vet inte hur många sjuka vi redan har i Sverige. Vi har knappt en aning.

Trots att så få test görs togs ändå ett rejält rekord igår, med 253 nya bekräftade fall. Det var första gången det var mer än 200 på en dag. Idag har det redan på eftermiddagen rapporterats om 227 nya fall. Det tar oss över 2 500 bekräftade fall trots att de allra flesta med symptom inte ens testas.

Denna snabba ökning trots få tester kallas på presskonferens idag av Folkhälsomyndigheten för en “stabil situation”. Är det?

Brist på förberedelser

I andra länder ökar nu trycket på intensivvården. En tsunami av patienter behöver en respirator för att leva. I Italien sägs nu coronasjuka personer över 60 tas ur respiratorer – en dödsdom – för att lämna plats åt yngre sjuka.

Är vi redo för detta? Det är tveksamt. Folkhälsomyndigheten beräknar på något sätt att vi bara kommer behöva en cirka tredjedel så många intensivvårdsplatser som Norge och Danmark beräknar med. Detta trots att Norge och Danmark gör mycket mer för att begränsa smittspridningen, de stänger ner hela sina länder.

Hur kommer Folkhälsomyndigheten fram till att Sverige behöver så mycket mindre intensivvård än andra länder, trots att vi gör mindre för att skydda oss? De använder Wuhan-området i Kina som ett “worst case”-scenario, och räknar med att vi inte kommer att behöva fler respiratorer än de. Detta trots att hela Wuhan-området stängde ner totalt tidigt i epidemin, långt tidigare än vi (som inte gör det alls).

Hur kan Folkhälsomyndigheten tro att det är det värsta som kan hända, när vi inte tar till samma skyddsåtgärder, inte ens i närheten? Det saknar logik.

Frågan man måste ställa sig är hur våra myndigheter kan komma till en så fullständigt annorlunda slutsats, jämfört med alla våra grannar? Vad vet Folkhälsomyndigheten som gör dem så till synes obekymrade? Jag ser inte förklaringen.

Rysk roulette?

För mig ser det ut som rysk roulette. Visst, vi vet ännu inte allt om sjukdomen. Det är möjligt att kammaren på revolvern är tom. Men det vet vi inte, och det finns gott om tecken (Italien, Spanien, New York osv.) på att det finns gott om patroner i revolvern. Hur som helst, nu håller vi mynningen mot vår äldre generations huvuden, och trycker in avtryckaren…

Resultatet kan bli katastrofalt, en tsunami av svenskar (dina och mina föräldrar och vänner) som totalt kan övermanna vår sjukvård. Det kan leda till krigsliknande omständigheter med svår brist på skyddsutrustning för sjukvårdspersonalen, som får riskera sina liv, och total brist på sängplatser och respiratorer till de sjuka.

Under sådana förhållanden – utan sjukvård som kan hjälpa de svårast drabbade – kan dödligheten hos coronavirus öka från under en procent till kanske så högt som fyra procent. Och halva vår befolkning eller mer kan få viruset i år.

I norra Italien lämnas nu sjuka 60-åringar att dö, trots att hela landet stängdes ner för två veckor sedan för att bromsa spridningen, trots att de tar coronaviruset på långt större allvar än vi.

Blir det ännu värre i Sverige kan vi behöva dra gränsen lägre. Är du över 55? Räkna då inte med att det finns en respirator till dig om du blir svårt coronasjuk om 3-4 veckor i Sverige. Och utan respirator i det läget är du antagligen död. Samma sak gäller dina föräldrar.

Om inte Sverige har rätt och alla andra länders experter har fel.

Ansvaret ligger på våra beslutande politiker, oavsett parti. De kan inte bara skylla ifrån sig på lokala experter. Våra politiker måste veta att andra experter runt om i världen gör en annan bedömning, att nästan alla länder i världen än Sverige går en helt annan väg.

När uppåt 100 000 svenska liv är i vågskålen är det våra politikers ansvar att ta in second opinions och sen göra ett informerat val.

Visst är det ett svårt val mellan människoliv och ekonomi. Men ekonomin kan återhämta sig, det kan inte de som förlorar sina liv. Det förefaller minst sagt rimligt att fokusera på att rädda liv först och främst.

Att hålla skidorter och gym öppna eller tillåta sammankomster på 400+ personer kan knappast vara viktigare än våra medmänniskors liv.

Vad kan vi göra?

Stanna hemma. Och ställ frågan offentligt: är våra myndigheter medvetna om vilka risker de tar med människors liv i Sverige?

För mer tips, se våra tidigare inlägg nedan.

/ Dr Andreas Eenfeldt

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Coronaviruset: Löper du högre risk för komplikationer?

Coronaviruset: Vad vi behöver göra idag (16 mars)

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Pandemic deaths could top 1.8 million even with tough response: study   

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The death toll from the coronavirus pandemic sweeping the globe could hit 1.8 million worldwide this year even with swift and stringent measures to stop it, according to a study from Britain's Imperial College published Thursday.The post Pandemic deaths could top 1.8 million even with tough response: study appeared first on The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News.
          

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Coronavirus podría matar a 1.8 millones de personas en el mundo   

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Un estudio hecho por el Imperial College de Londres reveló que la pandemia de coronavirus podría matar a casi 2 millones de personas en todo el mundo
          

Music and War: Imperial Propaganda and German Patriotism in Wartime Secular Vocal Works of Mozart, Beethoven, and Weber   

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Music and War: Imperial Propaganda and German Patriotism in Wartime Secular Vocal Works of Mozart, Beethoven, and Weber Johanning, Wolfgang Franz Wilhelm Music has always been influenced by politics. Political ideas become especially prominent in musical compositions during periods of turmoil, particularly in times of war. Around 1800, Central Europe suffered from extensive warfare, most importantly the Austro-Turkish War (1788–91) and the prolonged wars between Austria and revolutionary and imperial France (1792–1815), and these conflicts also produced large amounts of political music. These wars are sometimes viewed as the incentive for the emergence of modern political music and important political ideologies, especially nationalism. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Carl Maria von Weber created secular vocal works that reflect political events and ideologies of the time. The first chapter investigates how the Austrian Emperor Joseph II is depicted in Mozart’s vocal works “Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein” (“I would like to be the Emperor”), K. 539, and “Lied beim Auszug in das Feld” (“Song at the Departure for the Field”), K. 552. The second chapter analyzes Beethoven’s cantata Der glorreiche Augenblick (“The glorious Moment”), written for the Congress of Vienna in 1814, that incorporates ideas regarding the concept of unity, the figure of Emperor Francis, and God. The third chapter explores how Carl Maria von Weber’s cantata Kampf und Sieg (“Battle and Victory”) differs from Mozart’s and Beethoven’s works by incorporating pro-German elements. The fourth chapter shows how the pro-German patriotism in Weber’s work was perceived after its premiere and in the time before the unification of Germany in 1871.
          

Base Ball Basket Ball Foot Ball Cards   

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Various Vintage Collectible Toys Discount for All   

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Ask an expert on the fall of Rome: Are we f-cked?   

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A conversation with a medieval historian about plagues, pandemics, imperial decline — and whether the U.S. is too broken to be fixed.


          

Sanctions Are Inhumane—Now, and Always   

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In a world imperiled by global pandemic, it is long past time to put an end to sanctions—including new ones against Iran—and to reconstruct U.S. foreign policy around international solidarity.
March 26, 2020

Last week, just as the enormity of the coronavirus global pandemic seemed finally to dawn on the Trump administration, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was nonetheless using the crisis as an opportunity to further squeeze Iran and set the stage for military escalation. Successive new sanctions packages were imposed, even as evidence emerged that Iran may now be among the hardest hit countries outside of China. Iran has over 27,000 confirmed cases—the World Health Organization estimates that the real numbers are at least five times as high—with more than 1500 new cases being reported each day. Its outbreak has also impacted the whole of the Middle East, with one study reporting that 90 percent of all cases in the region are traceable to Iran.

Sanctions, whatever the conventional presentation, are not a humane alternative to war.

For many observers, including members of the U.S. foreign policy establishment, stepping up sanctions in this context is a “moral abomination” and a wantonly cruel act of collective punishment. Indeed, recent days have seen a steady increase in calls for the temporary suspension of sanctions and for the mobilization of international assistance. Such calls mostly treat events in Iran as a one-off natural disaster, akin to an earthquake, requiring U.S. largesse and moral sensitivity. But this presentation—while well meaning—is nonetheless flawed, and not only because it risks obscuring U.S. responsibility for generating mass immiseration and shortages in the first place.

Sanctions, whatever the conventional presentation, are not a humane alternative to war. In reality they routinely impose indiscriminate harms on civilian populations in ways that far exceed what would be permissible on the battlefield. Moreover, precisely because their costs are never borne domestically within the United States—as opposed to the costs of traditional armed conflict—there is a tremendous temptation for officials to turn to them as a tool of first, rather than last, resort.

The long post–Cold War experience highlights just this fact, underscoring how sanctions have increasingly entrenched a belligerent politics of us versus them, made only more severe under Trump. They are at root premised on a vision of the world in which one’s national security adversaries—including large swathes of the world’s population—must be impoverished while resources are hoarded at home and among select allies. What the COVID-19 pandemic calls for is a systematic rethinking of U.S. obligations across borders, including the appropriateness of economic sanctions at all as a basic tool of foreign policy. If today’s truly global health crisis suggests anything, it is the inherent failure not just of Trump’s xenophobic and narrow nationalism, but also of any humanitarian posture still grounded on a division of the world’s spoils between pax Americana and those on the outside looking in.  

• • •

At present, the United States has in place broad countrywide sanctions against Iran as well as North Korea, Syria, Sudan, Cuba, and Venezuela in addition to more narrowly framed sanctions that apply to individuals and entities in Afghanistan, Belarus, Burundi, the Central African Republic, China, Cote d’Ivoire, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Lebanon, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Liberia, Libya, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Palestinian Territories, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Somali, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. All in all, the Treasury Department, Commerce Department and State Department list sanctions against at least thirty countries or territories.

Because the costs of sanctions are never borne domestically, there is a tremendous temptation for officials to turn to them as a tool of first, rather than last, resort.

In some cases—as with the comprehensive sanctions against Iraq in the 1990s and the sanctions currently in force against Venezuela—the known consequences of these embargoes have been devastating for civilians. Over half a million preventable deaths of children were attributed to the Iraq sanctions in the 1990s. Multiple United Nations officials responsible for administering humanitarian programs in that country resigned in protest of the effects of multilateral sanctions put in place by the Security Council under U.S. leadership. More recently, reports suggest that as many as 40,000 civilian deaths in Venezuela in the last two years were a consequence of unilateral U.S. sanctions. Given the largely civilian toll, the claim that such measures are a humane way to impose costs on a regime rings hollow.

The humanitarian harms associated with broad economic embargoes of the kind imposed on Iraq and Venezuela are already apparent in ordinary times; the cruelty of these policies during the type of pandemic facing Iran are mind-boggling. The coronavirus spread to Iran at a time when sanctions had already created dire conditions in the country. The UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Iran reported in 2019 that sanctions were producing critical shortages of medicine and medical equipment as well as food insecurity across the country. Cancer patients were reportedly unable to access critical medicines, absolute poverty rose dramatically, and inflation affecting basic foodstuffs was skyrocketing well before the pandemic.

Allies and rivals of the United States, ranging from the UK to Russia and China, are now pressuring the Trump administration to lift or at least modify sanctions to enable an international response. Instead, recent reporting suggests that the Secretary of State and other powerful actors inside the Trump administration view the coronavirus as offering a window of opportunity for actual regime change, since shortages, social collapse, and even mass death can destabilize the state or provide a prelude to direct military strikes. In effect, the world is now held hostage to a U.S. policy of sanctions that also threatens foreign governments and companies if they were to break the embargo to provide much-needed aid. The real question is how we arrived at a situation in which the United States can unilaterally impose sanctions in a way that not only paralyzes the global response to a pandemic, but also forces the rest of the world to participate in the overthrow plans of a small coterie of U.S. officials.

• • •

Sanctions today are largely taken for granted as a ubiquitous and bipartisan tool of U.S. statecraft, but it is critical to note that their use has expanded dramatically in the last thirty years. With the end of the Cold War, the United States emerged unrivaled, able to advance its interests as the world’s largest economy through both positive financial inducements and punitive economic measures. Officials continued to justify U.S. primacy through claims that the United States was an essential backstop to a multilateral and inclusive global order, premised on collective security, shared deliberation, and joint rule-following. But what the proliferation of the U.S. sanctions approach highlighted was a different reality, marked instead by a systematic and bipartisan defection from just such multilateralism and mutual self-constraint. Beginning in the 1990s and expanding during the war on terror, the United States steadily implemented a model of unilateralism, with sanctions as a prized tool, precisely because it provided a diplomatic sheen to belligerent ends.

Sanctions today are largely taken for granted as a ubiquitous and bipartisan tool of U.S. statecraft, but their use has expanded dramatically in the last thirty years.

Certainly, during the Cold War, the United States imposed embargoes on communist bloc countries and used sanctions strategies for national security purposes. These ranged from stringent restrictions against the Soviet Union and Cuba to various trade limitations on China and North Korea to intermittent sanctions against Latin American countries whenever a socialist government came to power. And these policies no doubt had profound economic effects, especially on Western Hemisphere neighbors. Still, in an age of bipolarity measures by the United States were partially offset by Soviet subsidies and in any case did not block targeted countries from trading with other states, including U.S. allies in Europe.

But after the Cold War, the use and intensity of sanctions rose dramatically. The number of countries targeted by the United States in the 1990s nearly doubled. In the same period, the United States turned to the Security Council and—now with the absence of a Soviet veto—implemented, largely unopposed, multilateral sanctions on a range of matters. Sanctions against Iraq enacted both unilaterally by the United States and multilaterally through the UN established the most comprehensive economic embargo of a country since at least World War II. Narrower sanctions against a range of other actors—from Rwanda to Yugoslavia—multiplied during the 1990s, described as the “sanctions decade.” In the process, the United States was able to impose real consequences on resisting states for defying its preferences without making diplomatic concessions or incurring the traditional costs of military intervention.

And when even U.S. allies balked at backing measures in the Security Council, the United States increasingly turned to unilateralism. This approach, focused around the use of secondary sanctions, compelled other states to participate in embargoes whether or not they had agreed on the initial policy. Such sanctions allowed the United States to punish foreign companies operating abroad for failing to comply with embargoes enacted through domestic U.S. law. For example, beginning in the mid-1990s, the United States introduced measures to punish third parties that would invest in the Iranian oil and gas sector. Because this extraterritorial application of U.S. law against all comers amounted to coercively exporting U.S. foreign policy preferences, at first it occasioned pushback. Viewing secondary sanctions as a violation of their sovereignty, European countries enacted their own blocking measures in the 1990s to prevent their firms from complying with U.S. foreign policy dictates toward countries such as Cuba and Iran. Diplomatic efforts alleviated these tensions at that time, but secondary sanctions gained new traction after 2001.

U.S. officials have effectively conscripted the worldwide banking system to enforce a punitive foreign policy that is actively opposed by most of the world’s nations.

In the context of the war on terror, the United States again expanded its use of sanctions and asset freezes, applied now against states, companies, political organizations, and individuals through a designation system devoid of any procedural protections for those targeted. U.S. allies largely followed suit, adopting their own domestic counterterrorism frameworks complete with sanctions. Action in the same vein on the Security Council in the wake of 9/11 further normalized the use of sanctions and contributed to defusing previous sovereignty-based objections to their enforcement.

Meanwhile, revelations concerning Iran’s nuclear program in the early 2000s led to a renewed U.S. push to impose wide-ranging sanctions on the country, this time with European acquiescence. Under both the Bush and Obama administrations, tough new secondary sanctions were put in place as part of the Iran embargo (even if some waivers were granted to contain opposition from skeptical states like China and India). Then, with the conclusion of the Iran nuclear deal in 2015 multilateral sanctions were largely lifted. The Trump administration’s decision to withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal and reimpose sanctions effectively abandoned diplomacy in favor of a policy of pure coercion. But Trump’s bellicosity toward Iran did not require new coercive tools—successive administrations had worked with bipartisan Congressional support for nearly twenty years to craft the punitive economic regime now in place. All that was needed once Trump walked away from the nuclear deal was to snap sanctions back in place. 

• • •

The Iranian case provides a clear example of the damage wrought by the overarching framework, one that facilitates unilateral economic embargoes reinforced by secondary sanctions. By withdrawing from the Iranian nuclear deal, the United States broke an agreement that enjoyed near universal international support and imposed crippling sanctions against Iran despite that country’s compliance with its nuclear obligations. The remaining parties—Europe, Russia, and China—sought avenues to sustain the deal following the United States withdrawal but could not offer Iran meaningful sanctions relief or trade benefits due to the threat of secondary sanctions. Financial institutions around the world face the risk of losing their access to the U.S. financial system should they enter into transactions with Iran. U.S. officials have effectively conscripted the worldwide banking system to enforce a punitive foreign policy that is actively opposed by most of the world’s nations.

The classic and bipartisan defense of such conscription—going all the way back to the 1940s—has been that U.S. global primacy serves the world’s interests. But if anything, the results of these policies tell a different story. Rather than promoting shared global prosperity protected by U.S. financial and military might, sanctions under conditions of post–Cold War unipolarity have simply re-carved the world into rivalrous spheres of enriched friends and impoverished enemies. Populations in states opposed to—or even simply unaligned with—U.S. security objectives can now find themselves facing extreme economic strain. During the Cold War, embargoes (and their financial effects) were used as a propaganda tool against socialist states, a way of challenging the legitimacy of alternative economic models. In an echo of the past, U.S. officials today use sanctions to impose widespread financial distress on a population, all with the aim of telling foreign states that if they refuse U.S. directives they will be left unable to provide the basics for their citizens. This is a belligerent and extreme version of nationalism; it is pursued under the ostensible cover of U.S. global leadership, but actually generates an international order shaped by militarized confrontation.

Sanctions make fundamentally hollow any ideal of a global order premised on local self-government and autonomy.

As a mode of us versus them politics, such conscription also assaults any genuine account of democracy. Although broad sanctions may be tantamount to siege, one thing that clearly distinguishes them from traditional armed conflict is the lack of meaningful political deliberation. Such economic tools may often generate even more indiscriminate harm to local populations, but rarely face the same collective scrutiny associated with the choice to initiate direct military action—again, this is precisely why officials favor them. Trump, in a long line of U.S. presidents, has enjoyed unfettered discretion—at times facilitated by Democrats themselves—to use sanctions against foreign adversaries to foment internal social collapse. This is despite the fact that the public has almost no awareness of the implications of a sanctions regime, let alone has actively deliberated on what the human costs will be.

Abroad, the consequences for internal democratic norms and deliberative health are even more severe. Secondary sanctions compel other states to carry out the whims of U.S. officials, regardless of whether the citizens and leaders of those states actually oppose the policy. In the Iran context, some U.S. officials such as Pompeo may actually view rising infection rates and health care breakdown as the intended effect, something helpful in promoting regime change. But for countries in the Middle East and Europe, being forced against their wills to participate in such a scheme—even if it spreads illness to their communities and causes mass death everywhere—is not just inhumane. It makes fundamentally hollow any ideal of a global order premised on local self-government and autonomy, in which publics assert control over basic questions of life and death—their own as well as those of others abroad affected by their actions.

• • •

In a world imperiled by global pandemic, it is long past time to end these broad sanctions regimes and to reconstruct U.S. foreign policy on lines grounded instead in international solidarity. The latter is impossible without doing the former.

To begin with, this means stopping entirely the use of sanctions as a weapon of mass immiseration against American rivals and adversaries. Broad unilateral embargoes—including secondary sanctions—that weaponize U.S. primacy and cut countries off from the global financial system must be repudiated. They are expressions of an imperial conception of foreign policy, whether aimed at inducing regime change in Iran and Venezuela or at coercing compliance more generally with national security dictates. If the United States wants to make the case that certain far more limited sanctions—such as weapons embargoes of belligerent actors targeting civilians—serve important global ends, then it should do so only by engaging in the hard work of multilateral diplomacy, rather than leveraging its global financial primacy to force participation.

The opposite of a sanctions approach is not a politics of bare humanitarianism but rather an embrace of genuine internationalism and social democracy on a global scale.

But the opposite of a sanctions approach is not a politics of bare humanitarianism, what has largely been on offer to date from the United States and other global powers. This humanitarianism treats Iranians and other imperiled populations as victims and the United States as an enlightened benefactor, offering temporary sanctions freezes, minimal aid packages, and the glories of the free market as a salve for all problems. If nothing else, today’s crises show the profound failure of such thinking and the extent to which neither a petty nationalism, nor pax Americana’s classic market-based trading alliance, is remotely up to the challenges of the times. If all people are interconnected, facing the same rippling events, then in a deep sense we should treat the world’s shared wealth as a repository for all—regardless of citizenship or national security rivalry. Ending the sanctions mindset thus means nothing less than embracing genuine internationalism and social democracy on a global scale.

This entails viewing U.S. wealth as a collective instrument for alleviating poverty and insecurity at home and for generating equality abroad—through significant economic transfers, infrastructure investments, and ecological protections across the world. It amounts to a new worldwide New Deal or Marshall Plan—but, unlike the past, limited neither by domestic racial hierarchies or Cold War determinations of friends and enemies. Whatever the particular terms of such a plan, the political meaning is clear. This pandemic is hardly the last global test, and it requires dramatically rethinking the health and welfare obligations of states, not only to their members but beyond their borders. And the exhortation to do so is not empty utopianism. It is a forthright reckoning with the very minimum of what will be necessary to secure the world’s collective future.

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[Top 15] D&D Best Evil Characters   

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[Top 15] D&D Best Evil Characters

 

Big Baddies

Villains are what drive the plot of a great DnD game, whether you go homebrew or a legendary villain, your players will be in awe. Typically, the heroes don't drive the story but react to the Villain’s machinations. So, pick an amazing, memorable villain and decide how their plans affect the story as a whole.

Here is my list of the greatest Villains in Dungeons and Dragons history and maybe these baddies will motivate you in creating an awesome campaign or serve as an outline for your own, homebrew villain!

 

15. Manshoon the Manyfaced

Manshoon the Many Faced with his beard pants. I wish I was in on the design meeting that ended with one of the evilest DnD villains wearing beard pants.

Long ago this powerful Archmage was born to Zhentil keep but when he came of age, he joined with his brother Asmuth and his friend Chess to prove themselves. During their leave, Chess’ father poisoned Harlshoon, Manshoon’s father, but Harlshoon managed to throw Chess’ father from the tower with the ultimate result of both of them dying. Hearing the news, Manshoon and the others made their way back to the Zhentil Keep to assume their fathers’ positions.

Knowing Manshoon could not hold his father’s seat with his brother, he arranged for Asmuth to take a plunge off a bridge. Winner of the terrible brother award. When Manshoon and Chess arrived back at Zhentil Keep, they found the seat was being held by Lord Ulsan Baneservent. They convinced one of Baneservent’s priests to help them kill his Lord and once he was dispatched, Manshoon took his place as Lord of Zhentil Keep.

As Lord, he became extremely paranoid that one of the many other nobles would kill him to take his place, so he created the secret spy network known as the Zhentarim and created a spell that would allow him to avoid death, Clone. In his obsession with the new spell he created, he fashioned nearly 40 Clones of himself, which came in handy when the same priest that helped them take down Baneservent joined forces with Lord Orgauth and killed him.

Immediately following his death, all of his clones rose simultaneously while the Lord and his Priest were only expecting one. Much to their surprise, however, when the close awoke they immediately began killing each other to become the one true Manshoon creating what has become known as the Manshoon Wars. Or, The Clone Wars for my Star Wars fans *Imperial March starts playing*. In the end, and to this day, 3 Manshoon clones live.

The first Clone returned to Zhentil Keep and acts as the leader of the spy network he had created called the Zhentarim and is striving to perfect his old Clone spell to get rid of the insanity that comes with having multiple clones. 

The second Clone lives in the Undermountain below Waterdeep and became the pupil of Halaster the Mad Mage. He was seeking to overthrow Halaster but when the Spell Plague happened much of Undermountain was destroyed and the blue flames tore apart his mind. When Halaster found him he destroyed Manshoon’s arm in a magical standoff, it was later replaced with a mechanical arm. He is now working to overthrow the Masked Lords and become the Wizard King of Waterdeep.

The third Clone has claimed a new name, Orbakh. This hip, trendy clone was found by the Night King Orlak and was changed into a Vampire, but with his newfound Vampiric powers coupled with his Magical expertise, he easily destroyed Orlak and adopted his name as his own, eventually changing it to Orbakh instead. He took Orlak’s place as Night King and rules over the Night Masks of Westgate but rumors say he is currently working on a plan to return to Zhentil Keep to become the Lord again and take control of the Zhentarim.

What Makes Manshoon an Epic Big Bad?

  • The adventurers could become drawn into a plot to take down the Zhentarim, eventually leading them to its leader, the cloned Manshoon. 
  • They could become part of a political struggle at Zhentil keep, needing to convince another clone to assist them in taking down another and embrace the repercussions of one clone becoming more powerful than the others.
  • They could start up a Clone War of their own. Cue Obi-Wan!
  • Manshoon is a conniving genius and a powerful mage, if your party has a Wizard, Manshoon could be quite the mind to analyze to further magical prowess but perhaps they will need to perform some deeds for him that will move his plans further along.

 

14. The Xanathar

The Xanathar is the collector of all things and an all-powerful slaver but NO ONE touches his goldfish!

This Villain is not, necessarily, just one entity but a title held by a powerful Beholder. The first Beholder to hold the title of Xanathar was a creature known as The Eye, a slaver that came from a collapsed sect of a Beholder empire. He created a powerful Slave Ring called “The Eye” in Skullport but found that some of his business was being taken by a rival guild known as The Xanathar Guild. Upon further investigation, he found that this rival guild was also run by a Beholder.

The Eye convinced another Beholder, Uthh, to attack Xanathar (Beholder-ception) but Xanathar killed Uthh. The Eye stepped in after the battle was over and easily dispatched the weakened Xanathar. To avoid an uprising of Xanathar’s followers and to join their 2 guilds together, The Eye convinced Xanathar’s followers that “Xanathar” was only a title and that he has claimed the title now. That’s a Pro-tip to avoid gang retaliation if I’ve ever seen one!

Using his, now, doubled power, The Eye spread his influence throughout Undermountain but was eventually destroyed by a group of adventurers. A 3rd Xanathar took control of the guild then, for the next hundred years, the title was passed from Beholder to Beholder.

Now, the title is held by the Beholder named Zushaxx, he rules with his allies Kal’Dir the Drow, Suthool the Illithid, and Belva Bowmantle an Agent of Asmodeus. Rumor has it, they are silently supported by the Masked Lords of Waterdeep to drive the Zhentarim out. Woah! Manshoon vs. Xanathar episode crossover!

The Xanathar sees all humanoids as slaves for the taking.

What Makes The Xanathar an Epic Big Bad?

  • The heroes could begin as hirelings in investigating missing family members and eventually uncover the slavering of The Xanathar, working their way through their underlings then eventually taking on their commanders.
  • Beholder fights are terrifying.
  • You could even join this Villain up with Manshoon as you either use the Zhentarim to assist you in destroying The Xanathar or using The Xanathar to help in the destruction of the Zhentarim.
  • Face a baddie who has no sympathy for any humanoid races, a truly evil adversary that would rather torture than kill.

 

13. Lord Soth

Lord Soth in the rain is defintely the scariest version of Lord Soth. Don't look too deeply into those burning red eyes.

Lord Soth, once the Knight of The Rose, now turned Knight of the Black Rose has a tragic backstory. He served as Knight of the Rose which was the highest rank for a knight in Solamania. During a quest, he encountered a group of Ogres who were attacking Elven Priestess, when Soth saw this he jumped into action, killing the Ogres and, eventually, falling in love with one of the priestesses, Isolde Denissa. The only issue with this being that Soth was already married. 

He began an affair with Isolde while his wife waited to deliver their unborn child. When it was time, Soth took his wife to deliver their child but was warned that the child would be a representation of Soth’s soul. When the baby finally came, the child was a twisted abomination, driving Soth into madness as he thought his wife must have laid with a Demon. He, then, killed his wife and their newborn child.

Soth escaped with his mistress who was now pregnant with Soth’s bastard child but they were caught and brought to the High Justice of Palanthas. Soth lied and said his wife and child had both died during childbirth but Istvan the healer was compelled to tell the court the truth of what happened and Soth was sentenced to execution. However, before his execution was carried out, Soth escaped back to Dargaard Keep.

Chased down by his brother-knights, Soth’s soul slowly turned darker and darker even striking his new wife, Isolde, on occasion. When he realized what he had become, he prayed to his God while his new wife prayed to hers and they were shown the destruction that the Kingpriest was about to call upon their world. In the vision, they learned that only Soth could stop this Cataclysm, so he set off to redeem himself.

During his quest, however, he encountered 3 elf maids who whispered lies into Soth’s ears, poisoning his mind claiming his wife was cheating on him. So instead of stopping the Cataclysm, he turned back to confront his wife (super rational). During this confrontation, a chandelier fell on his wife and newborn son, Soth chose not to save his wife or his newborn child as they were set aflame. Just as her life was ending she cursed Soth, forcing him to live a lifetime for every soul that he had sent to the afterlife due to him abandoning his quest to stop the cataclysm. 

After this curse was uttered, the Keep was consumed in flame, killing Soth and his followers. Soth rose again as a Death Knight and his followers as Skeleton Warriors. He now travels the multiverse, serving evil Lords and consuming innocent souls.

What Makes Lord Soth an Epic Big Bad?

  • Lord Soth is emotionless and cares not for pleading or mercy. He only wants to serve his goals and ambitions with his immortal life. 
  • The players could find that people across the countryside are seeing a man clad head to toe in armor and riding a flaming black horse is killing people and they must investigate who this is and confront his skeleton generals.
  • Who has Lord Soth sworn fealty to? Could this be an even bigger issue or, possibly, Lord Soth is trying to destroy everything so that he may rest in peace one day?

 

12. Ashardalon

Ashardalon sits atop a keep that he has claimed among his scourge land. If I fits, I sits.

Ashardalon is considered to be THE Dragon, an Ancient Red Dragon with the heart of a Balor. Not the Balor’s heart, the ENTIRE BALOR. A WHOLE DEMON SLAVING AWAY IN HIS CHEST.

He once ruled over much of the Material Plane, turning his domains into barren wastelands as he methodically killed everything on his lands out of hunger or just a love to hunt. Eventually, he reached such a power that a Cult began to worship him as a God and swear to follow him through his endeavors.

Ashardalon took issue with a group of druids who built a circle of stones that would prevent scrying, taking offense to this, he descended from the skies and slaughtered their entire order, but one Druid remained.

Dydd the Wise, the last standing Druid of this order, confronted Ashardalon, mortally wounding him and forced Ashardalon to flee to another plane of existence as Dydd pulled his heart from his body. During this time, Ashardalon replaced his heart with, you guessed it, a Balor named Ammet. It is said that Ashardalon can only be destroyed by a descendant of Dydd.

What Makes Ashardalon an Epic Big Bad?

  • He is a God-like Ancient Red Dragon with the following of a cult and the drive to rain supreme over all territories. This could be an entire campaign!
  • Have your players face off against Ashardalon’s cult and when they find out they need a descendant of Dydd to defeat them have them chase down clues to find who that might be.
  • Either, have the players come across an NPC who can help them or even have one of your players be a descendent of Dydd in the epic final encounter. 
  • Breathing fire and flying around, wreaking havoc on the ground below will make for an epic campaign climax!

 

11. Zuggtmoy, The Demon Queen of Fungi

The Demon Lord of all things fungus, theres no way the health department would clear any restaurant opening in her domain.

Initially, Zuggtmoy was imprisoned in the Temple of Elemental Evil but, eventually, this Demon Lord was released back to her domain in the 222nd layer of the abyss. When she returned, however, she found that her domain had been taken over by the Demon Lord Jubilex, the Demon Lord of Slimes and now she, silently, wars with this Demon Lord in hopes that she may claim her layer of the abyss back for herself. 

She holds the aching desire to infect humanoids with her fungus (the fungus among us) and make them into her evil athlete’s foot slaves. Disgusting. However, she struggles to assemble a cult in her following because not many have the desire to pray to fungus, instead, she tricks druids, clerics, and sometimes wizards into praying to her as she manifests ideas that may fall into her domain.

Now, she sits upon her throne in her palace known as Shedaklah that consists of multiple mushroom towers connected by giant fungal bridges. The Health Department would be all over this one.

What Makes Zuggtmoy an Epic Big Bad?

  • Zuggtmoy serves as the Big Bad in the Out of the Abyss module, so a lot of inspiration can be drawn from there.
  • She uses her spores to corrupt the minds of creatures in the Underdark, so if the players find themselves there or near an entrance to the long tunnels, they might come across a guy with a terrible fungal infection that might just want to get them infected too.
  • The players could, possibly, find themselves in a crossfire between Jubilex and his slimes (possibly using intelligent slimes as well) and Zuggtmoy’s spore servants. Forcing them to either pledge allegiance to one, or to attempt to destroy them both.

 

10. Acererak, The Devourer

This Archlich collects all the souls he can to feed his phylactery, you get to live for all of time but you don't have time for skin care? That seems unreasonable.

Born a half-demon with the union of his mother to a Balor (not the same one in Ashardalon’s chest, that would be weird), Acererak faced many challenges in his childhood, after his mother could no longer hide her son’s lineage a lynch mob burned down their house killing everyone except Acererak. Rumors say this is the reason Acererak would begin studying necromancy to have his revenge against the entire human race.

Finding kinship among Tieflings, Acererak began studying Lichdom to acquire immortality. During these studies, he found The City that Waits formed by Orcus (The Demon Lord of Undeath) long ago and traveled here to enter the service of the Demon Lord. He used the power of Orcus to create large crypts, which would later become the Tomb of Horrors. Once Acererak was finally able to achieve Lichdom, however, he abandoned Orcus.

Over the next thousands of years, Acererak fed on thousands of souls but eventually he grew tired of this and began searching for new sources of power. He retreated deep into the Tomb of Horrors he had crafted and allowed his physical state to degrade to a pile of dust and become a Demilich, a single, floating gem-encrusted Skull.

He used this new form to project his spirit throughout the multiverse and acquired many artifacts. He used his dungeons and Tomb of Horrors to lure in brave adventurers to be killed and feed his phylactery with their souls.

What Makes Acererak an Epic Big Bad?

  • Acererak is a Legendary Lich who, purposefully, spreads the word of his dungeons to lure brave adventurers to their untimely demise. A campaign featuring this Lich could be a series of dungeons crawls with hints to a more devious purpose.
  • Acererak, as a Lich, can control leagues of Undead to confront heroes who are a bit too clever.
  • Tomb of Horrors is an actual adventure module you can use but beware, your players will die many times during this Dungeon, it is known for being the hardest dungeon in DnD history.
  • You can also take a look at Tomb of Annihilation as inspiration for an Acererak centered campaign.

 

9. Graz’zt, The Dark Prince

The Demon Frat Boy just likes to chill in his domain and make lots of booty calls. 

It is said that, once, Graz’zt was a prized Archdevil to Asmodeus and led an invasion of the Abyss. He was successful in this invasion as he conquered 3 layers of the Abyss but he, eventually, became corrupted by the chaos and left the service of Asmodeus and became the Demon Lord to the 3 layers he claimed. It is debated as to whether he truly cut all ties to Asmodeus or if he is secretly working to destroy the demons from within.

His passion is laying with many Witches and Sorceresses, populating the world with his half-fiend offspring. Some of his children even learn of their father and delve into the Abyss in hopes of overthrowing him. Some say he even created a race known as the Vasharans, a breed of dark humans, similar to how the Drow are the dark version of elves. 

It is said the Vasharans and their ancestors were destroyed but rumor has it they are still around, secretly working to destroy all Gods. 

What Makes Graz’zt an Epic Big Bad?

  • Graz’zt rivals many Gods and the other Demon Lords, namely Orcus and The Demogorgon. A possible campaign could unfold from the assassinations of clergy members, the destruction of churches, or certain followers being targeted. Maybe the players can uncover evidence of the long-thought-extinct race of Vasharans.
  • A player or an NPC close to the players could find they are the product of Graz’zt’s seed and search out their father for answers or perhaps to overthrow him.
  • If the players find themselves wrapped up in the Blood War (the war between the Devils and Demons) they could work for Graz’zt as double agents for the war, serving Demons and Devils to, ultimately, elevate Graz’zt to a higher status.
  • Graz’zt is known for his prowess in changing his appearance and could subvert himself into the world, serving as anoble, acting maliciously or tricking the party into doing his bidding.

 

8. Lolth, The Queen of Spiders

The Demon Queen of Spiders sits atop her throne. I wonder how often she has to rub spiderwebs out of her face.

The Spider Queen (what's up with being the queen of gross stuff?) was once the Goddess of Destiny, Araushnee, and the main Goddess of the Dark Elves. She had twins with Correllon Larethian, the God of all Elves. She began an ambitious plot to kill Correllon,enchanting his scabbard with a curse that would cause his sword to shatter during combat.

With the aid of Sehanine Moonbow, Correllon survived and she found that it was Araushnee that had plotted his demise. Then, the World’s worst wife tried getting Malar the Beastlord to attack and kill the already-wounded Corellon but the God of Elves was able to chase Malar away. She then assembled an army to overthrow Corellon but before the attack launched, she was confronted by Sehanine who knew she was trying to kill Corellon and Araushnee attacked, with the help from one of her twins she was able to imprison Sehanine.

During the battle, Araushnee imbued Correllon’s scabbard with another curse that would draw the arrows from his daughter’s bow toward him. This nearly succeeded, as his daughter began firing on an Orcish God and the arrows strayed from the target, striking Corellon in his chest. Araushnee attempted to finish him off with a dose of poison, passing it off as water with healing qualities but Sehanine had managed to break from her prison and intervened, saving Correllon’s life.

Later, a trial was called and Araushnee was made into a Tanar’ri to represent her wicked, spider-like nature and banished. She tried ONE MORE TIME to kill Correllon (man, marriage counseling would have been WAY better!) Correllon defeated her and found, despite everything, he still loved her and allowed her to escape. What an outstanding guy, I wonder why she wanted to kill him so bad!

What Makes Lolth an Epic Big Bad?

  • Lolth is now a Demon Lord who has conquered the 66th layer of the Abyss. She uses creepy crawlies and Drow to assault her enemies.
  • A sweet possible campaign or adventure could focus on Lolth and her search for revenge on the Elven Gods as 8-legged-freaks start coming from the ground and abducting elven clerics.
  • A Drow centric campaign can see the hints of the Dark Elves worshipping the Spider Queen and having the players become abducted, like at the beginning of Out of the Abyss.

 

7. Strahd von Zarovich

The evil Vampire Lord Soth practicing his card throwing skills.

Strahd was once the Prince and conquered the valley of Barovia. During his midlife crisis, he forged a pact with the Dark Powers of the Shadowfell to achieve immortality. You know, like anyone else would. As part of the pact, Strahd had to kill his brother but unbeknown to him, the side effect of this pact was his turn to Vampirism and Barovia was thrust into the Shadowfell becoming a prison that Strahd could never hope to escape.

Over time Strahd turned into the absolute Tyrant of Barovia, ruling over his imprisoned subjects, embracing his curse as a Vampire Lord.. From time to time, people are drawn into the mists and find themselves magically transported to Barovia, subjecting themselves to Strahd’s cruel rule.

What Makes Strahd an Epic Big Bad?

  • If your party wants some good old fashioned horror, Strahd is an excellent candidate with Barovia housing ghosts, ghouls, undead, vampire spawn, and werewolves.
  • Strahd is an uncaring dictator and seeing Barovia may drive the players to destroy Strahd and find a way out of the Shadowfell.
  • I would suggest some cool campaign ideas but Wizards of the Coast has already published Curse of Strahd which is the BEST adventure module in DnD 5th Edition!

 

6. Tharizdun, The Chained Oblivion

The Chained Oblivion in his domain, I bet that guy is so glad that Tharizdun is all chained up here.

Unlike Strahd or Lord Soth, Tharizdun is an entity of pure and primal Evil, which, to me, is refreshing. Sometimes the players just need a bad guy to hate! Tharizdun was driven to madness by the Obyrinths in their attempt to take Tharizdun’s domain as their own. They tried to fool Tharizdun into laying siege to the Astral Sea but he knew that his fellow Gods would destroy him in an instant if he were to attack, so, instead, he turned his gaze toward the Elemental Chaos where the Primordials lie and planned to take this domain as his own.

Eventually, this seed of evil grew into the Abyss and, despite his planning, his fellow Gods banded together to imprison him. He was overwhelmed and bound, screaming primordial curses,within his own creation, a sector of the Abyss called the Voidharrow. There, he worked as the entity of treachery, convincing the Primordials that he had created them and gained their allegiance.

What Makes Tharizdun an Epic Big Bad?

  • He is a Betrayer God of Primal Elemental Evil with the backing of multiple cults and ancient Primordials. I can’t think of a more devastating following than that for a bad guy. 
  • If you’re looking to use him in a campaign, you could have his followers attempt to break his chains, uncovering the ancient seals used by the Gods,  and allow him to ascend to the Astral Sea with the burning Vengeance in his soul to rip the Gods that imprisoned him from the Heavens.
  • Tharizdun is a Primal Entity of Hunger and Destruction, you could have the Abyss flow into the world as demons rise from the darkness, more desperate than they normally would be, driven to madness by Tharizdun’s influence.

 

5. Vecna, The Whispered One

Vecna, The God of Secrets yet another Lich who seems to forget about hygiene.

Vecna is considered to be the evilest, most conniving, powerful Lich of all time and one of the only mortals able to ascend  to Godhood as the God of Secrets. He had humble beginnings, however. When he was born, his mother began training him as a Wizard in the Arcane Arts. His mother was eventually burned as a witch and Vecna barely escaped with his life. Sound familiar Acererak? He then served directly under Mok’slyk, the personification of magic itself.

Vecna was able to quickly achieve Lichdom, claim an empire to himself, and became the most powerful wizard of all time. Vecna’s skeletal army of Undead began shambling throughout the realm to rip Rulers from their seats of power and crown himself in their absence, maiming and torturing his subjects. At the height of his power, however, he was betrayed by his Lieutenant, Kas.

The Vampire Kas turned on the Mighty Lich, surprising him and destroying him, leaving behind only Vecna’s left hand and left eye. These have become extremely powerful, evil magical artifacts that are heavily sought after by evil Mages, striving to achieve even a fraction of Vecna’s power.

The next time he rose, he had already been given Godhood. He turned on his fellow Gods, viciously sundering the lands to plunge  all the Gods from the pantheon and have the universe be his own to command.

What Makes Vecna an Epic Big Bad?

  • Vecna is a God-Lich able to command swaths of Undead, dark clerics, and even darker mages. The party may find themselves overwhelmed by the God of Secret’s followers before they even know what’s going on.
  • Vecna’s ultimate goal is to destroy the Pantheon leaving him as the only standing God, so, like Graz’zt, the party may find churches being attacked and followers of other gods being taken.
  • If you want inspiration on Vecna as a villain, look to Critical Role’s first campaign, where a cult of Vecna look to bring him back to the world.

 

4. Orcus, Lord of the Undead

The Demon Lord, Orcus, calls out to the sky, hopefully, conjuring a shirt.

Orcus, in life, was an evil spellcaster who wreaked havoc and death on the realm. After his death, he was thrust to the depths of The Abyss as a quivering larva demon. He began his slow climb through the ranks of demons over the next several thousand years, clawing tooth and nail through the brinestone, and eventually became a Demon Lord of the Abyss and the Prince of the Undead. He was not happy, however, as he wanted to be named Prince of Demons, a title held by the Demogorgon. In his obsession, he made it his mission to take the Demogorgon’s position creating a legendary rivalry between the two Demon Lords.

Many Wizards who look to master necromancy or become Liches look to Orcus for counsel and serve him as a result. Orcus, over the centuries, has commanded legions of undead to simply bring destruction to the material plane or turn others to his Worship. I’m guessing he’s never heard of delivering religious brochures door to door, just went straight for Army of the Dead.

What Makes Orcus an Epic Big Bad?

  • With his Rivalry to the Demogorgon and also bearing the hatred of Graz’zt, you can create a campaign wrought with the battlegrounds of the 3 Demon Lords as their followers tear apart the countryside to destroy one another.
  • Orcus, being the Prince of the Undead, could serve as a huge Quest objective to return a lost companion to life but they may need to strike a deal with the Demon Lord to do so.
  • Orcus is a Legendary Demon Lord, and, as such, has Demon subjects that may attack humans on the material plane, only to have their bodies rise again for Orcus’ secret revolt against the Gods.

 

3. Tiamat

Tiamat the Mother of Dragons shows off her multiple breath weapons amongst her followers just to make them jelly.

The Dragon Queen is a combination of all the terrifying things about Dragons, from her yearn for conquering the Lands, to her greed, to her call for destruction. She is revealed as the Queen and creator of Evil Dragons and is followed by the Cult of the Dragon who hopes to bring her into the Material Plane to rule an Empire of Dragonkind.

She is forever warring with the Dragon God Bahamut who is her opposite in that he is a Lawful Good Dragon God who tries to thwart Tiamat at every turn. 

Tiamat now serves as an Archfiend, given rulership of Avernus by Asmodeus himself but she did so poorly in this position that she was demoted but still lives in Avernus striving to get her position back.

What Makes Tiamat an Epic Big Bad?

  • When you think of Dungeons and Dragons, I’m sure you think of Dungeons and, well, Dragons. Tiamat and her cult represent both of these things for adventurers who search to find the classic meaning of the game.
  • Tiamat is the Evil God of Dragons and the party may find themselves confronted by dragons, dragonkin, or dragon cultists in their attempt to snuff out Tiamat’s reign.
  • The players may take on a holy mission from Bahamut himself to slow the spread of the cult of the Dragon and Tiamat’s influence.
  • Really the only option, when faced with 5 dragon heads, is to run.
  • If you’re looking for inspiration for an adventure centered on Tiamat look at the adventures Hoard of the Dragon Queen, The Rise of Tiamat, or Descent into Avernus.

 

2. Asmodeus

Asmodeus, the God of the Devils stands imposing, I bet he is actually a softie deep down in there, like really deep.

Just the Devil we’ve been talking about, Asmodeus. The Archdevil and Lord of the Nine Hells bends the cosmos to his will and serves to raise a Blood War to eradicate the Demons. Or does he?

His origins put him at the very dawn of time itself where it is said he and the first God created the Planes as they exist now. His origin story is heavily debated,  with many different theories as to how he fell into the Nine Hells and took control of Evil Incarnate but no matter how it began, Asmodeus is the puppet master of all things evil.

Rumor has it that he only plans to wage the Blood War as a distraction while he slowly works on a plan to destroy the Gods with no real intention to win his war. Asmodeus is the center of many Demonic or Devil Campaigns in DnD and for good reason.

What Makes Asmodeus an Epic Big Bad?

  • The mysterious Lord of the Nine Hells bears the full power of every Archdevil in existence. Think of all the full scaling campaigns that may come from facing even one Archdevil, yea, Asmodeus has all of them.
  • Asmodeus is a literal God, and, if the tales are true, he is one of the 2 deities that created the universe. Whatever Asmodeus is planning, the players will need to earn the favor of Gods to assist them in thwarting this center of evil.
  • The players may begin by being dragged into the Blood War, perhaps all their characters recently died and they were brought into the Nine Hells to serve as soldiers in Asmodeus’ army or as Demon Larva to fight against Asmodeus’ army. Ok, this sounds awesome, definitely saving this one for a future campaign!

 

1. Demogorgon, The Prince of Demons

The Demogorgon screams out from within his domain, the Gaping Maw, the echo must sound so cool.

The Demogorgon is my absolute favorite bad guy and my players’ absolute least favorite. I have, personally, run 2 campaigns in which the Demogorgon was the center of both. He is the classic Demon Lord, the Prince of Demons and when anyone finds out that I play Dungeons and Dragons their first question is if I have fought the Demogorgon.

He is known for experimenting in his realm and creating plagues and monsters like Ettins, Chimeras, and even the first Death Knight. Legend says he was the First Demon,originating from fear itself that lay within mortal souls. He rules over a portion of the Abyss called the Gaping Maw, a land of demonic creations like Demon Dinosaurs and Ancient Monsters twisted in other demonic ways, consuming his lair with strange amalgamations of terrifying creatures. The Prince of Demon’s sends his Hellspawn into the world to do one thing, rip all living things limb from limb and torture the souls of mortals.

The Prince of Demons is a heavily sought after title, by the likes of Orcus and Graz’zt but he holds it with good reason. When creatures think Demon, the Demogorgon is what they most fear. Between the cunning of Graz’zt and the meticulousnessof Orcus, they still cannot overthrow the pure power and crippling evil that the Demogorgon possesses.

What Makes The Demogorgon an Epic Big Bad?

  • The classic way to bring about a Demogorgon focused campaign is to have a cult trying to summon him to the material plane. If the players try to find out his ultimate plan, it’s simple, he just wants to destroy every square inch of everything that has ever existed. There’s no moral quandary there, just pure evil incarnate.
  • The Demogorgon is the creator of multiple malformed creatures and Demons, who may all serve him in his time of rising, the players could face off against his creations as holes to the Gaping Maw are formed, weakening the veil between the material plane and the Demogorgons layer of the Abyss.
  • If you're scared of monkeys, snakes, 2 headed things, or just terror then the Demogorgon is your guy!

 

That’s all my favorite legendary Villains from Dungeons and Dragons History! Many didn’t quite make my list like other Archdevils, Halaster the Mad Mage, or other Demon Lords like Jubilex or Yeenoghu but I LOVE VILLAINS, they are what makes the game fun! If you disagree with my list let me know who your favorites are!

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Demon Lords Orcus and the Demogorgon battle it out over the last Cheeto Puff
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