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在1984年(蔡英文女士得博士學位)時有沒有右邊切齊的打字機或軟體?    

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在1984年(蔡英文女士得博士學位)時有沒有右邊切齊的打字機或軟體? 冼鏡光 October11,2019上線 最近蔡英文女士的論文門鬧得沸沸揚揚、轟轟烈烈,我不是政治人物、也不愛談政治,然而一些名嘴和寫手的說法明顯偏離事實、但卻有不少粉絲推波助瀾把假的變成真的,實在令人擔憂。這是什麼問題?這些名嘴和寫手說,在蔡女士寫論文時這個世界沒有可以右邊切齊的打字機、左右切齊是在1990年代才「發明」的。老天爺啊!這些人有沒有一點科技知識,把有的說成不存在,如果不是沒不好好做功課就是無知、甚至兩者兼有。 下面是兩份網站的截圖,我把作者或說話者的名字蓋起來,您不妨仔細看看。有人(包含一位博士)認為在1984年時打字機無法右邊切齊(忘了打字機也可以接電腦),甚至於左右切齊是1990才被「發明」;我是不知道該作者從Wiki什麽地方找到的(當然Wiki也未必可靠),但這顯然是錯的。 正因為如此,這篇文章的主旨就在於回溯1980年代打字機和文書處理和軟體的發展,重要的是此地會加上當時的使用手冊、照片、書本等資料佐證,期望釐清一些史實。然後,再提供一本和蔡女士同期的劍橋大學、一本在1980年的耶魯大學的論文做例子,說明在1980年就有左右切齊的功能,甚至於論文中根本就沒有指導教授和口試委員簽名頁,但都是被認可的博士論文。最後,我們看看蔡英文女士在國家圖書館中版本的左右切齊問題,以一個用過當時的軟硬體並且寫過書的作者而言(FORTRAN程式語言與WATFIV),這些論調實在離譜,說的人沒有詳細查証、轉載或轉述的寫手和記者們似乎也只是沒有思考的傳聲筒。更奇怪的是,台灣學界或電腦界應該有不少經歴過1980年代初的人,但幾乎沒看到他們發聲、指証這項錯誤、而任由其蔓延。 好罷,我們就從打字機說起。 究竟1984年之前有沒有右邊切齊的打字機? 這幾乎是個很愚蠢的問題,答案是當然有,而且比1984年早很多! 出版品中左右切齊是十分常見的,下左是一本在1875年德國萊比錫出版的數學書首頁,下右是書中的第97頁,紅框中是我們要看的部份: 下面是紅框部位。這幾列中我們看到了單字和單字之間比較長的空間,也看到了折字的例子(Asymptoten拆成Asymp和toten、Brennpunkten拆成Brenn和punkten),這樣就左右切齊了。 既然那麼久之前排版就有此功能,只要有需要、當科技進展到某個程度自然就會放到一般工作和生活中。打字機的歷史源遠流長、從14世紀起就出現,然而第一台在市場上成功進入巿場的産品是在1867年由美國密瓦基市(Milwaukee)的ChristopherLathamSholes在他的朋友CarlosGlidden和SamuelW.Soule協助下完成的,這台打字機在1874年上市,經過不斷改良後到1880年代才在辦公室中普及成為事務用器材(見下面照片)。當時每一個英文字母的寛度都相同,也就是說1、I、O、M和W這些字母都佔相同(橫向)空間(看今天的CourierNew字型就是如此)。在這樣的打字機之下,右邊切齊是可能的。 方法很簡單,把單字和單字之間多加些空格就行了。就看下面莎士比亞戲劇中的名言(上方),如果第一列在;the結束,於是下一列就比較短,若要把第二列右邊切齊,就得加上些空格,這就是下面的第二部分。 簡單地說,如果打完一列時還剩三個空格,於是這三個多餘的空格可以往回加到三組單字之間、由原來的一個空格增加成兩個。所以一列得打兩次,第一次是打字員打、沒有切齊的,第二是調整過空間的。在一般打字機下,這當然不可能(因為一列要打兩次),但有些打字機有一個列緩衝區(linebuffer),打字員打字時是存在緩衝區中,按下Return/Enter鍵時才會把調整過空格的內容打出來。先別說這不可能,在1970年代IBM的打卡機就有這項功能,打字員的輸入會在鍵盤前方的一列小屏幕上顯示,使用人可以修改這一列,滿意後再按某個鍵把該列打在卡片上。打卡機可以,打字機當然也可以。另外,1969年IBM打字機可以用磁卡記錄打字結果,一張卡可以記錄一頁的資訊;IBM也同時把IBMMT/ST(MagneticTapeSelectricTyprewriter)昇級到IBMMC/ST(MagneticCardSelectricTypewriter),詳見下文。 另一個方法比較複雜,而且需要更好的硬體支援。有一些打字機有比例空間(proportionalspacing)的功能。換言之,這些打字機可能把一個字母所佔的空間分成若干段,如果分成10段的話,當需要比較小的空間時就可以用1/10、2/10、3/10等的距離移動。當然,當兩個單字之間需要比一個空格還多的空間時,打字機可以一個一個空格打下去,不足一個空格時就以1/10個空格遞增的方式處理。更重要的是,每個字母所佔的空間也不是常數。這樣,排版的效果就出來了! 那麼,究竟在1980年之前有沒有比例空間的打字機呢?有!第一台應該是IBM在1941年發表的Executive電動打字機,但因為支援二次大戰緣故而遲到1944年才上市。這個網頁是IBM打字機的里程碑,我還有一本1960年代的Executive使用手冊,下面三頁就是教使用人如何做到右邊切齊的功能: WilfredA.Beeching(英國打字機博物館主任)寫過一本很有意思的書CenturyoftheTypewriter(1974),其中談到IBMExecutive時有下面一段趣事,多少說明了在1940年代前半段Executive的品質: 這段大意是這樣的(見下面的裁切)。IBMExecutive的第一批(有比例空間)曾經給了(美國)小羅斯福總統,而小羅斯福的私人打字員用這型打字機作業,其中有一封寄給英國首相邱吉爾的信。在回函中,邱吉爾說他理解兩人的書信往返十分重要,但是絶對沒有用印刷的必要! 從1961年起,辦公室事務用的頂級打字機之一是IBMSelectric,我也有一台專打英文文件用,它使用一個上面鑄了字母和標點符號的球型打字頭(那時叫做滾球打字機),速度超快,但Selectric沒有比例空間的功能;換言之,所有英文字母和標點符號都使用相同寛度,要右邊切齊就只能在單字和單字之間增加空格數(前面說過了)。然而,1970年AndrewGabor博士發明菊輪打字(或印字)機,這型打字機把IBMSelectric的球型換成一個圓盤,其實就是把傳統打字機的「字桿」收集成一個圓型(見下面照片)、速度比IBMSelectric快兩到三倍,這一型印字機由DiabloDataSystem發售,通常叫做菊輪打(或印)字機或輪盤打字機。全錄公司(Xerox)在1970年代買下Diablo、推出了Diablo630印字機,它的溝通界面成為電腦和菊輪印字機的標準。為什麼要提Diablo630,因為它也有比例空間的功能;晚幾年後,全錄推出Diablo1620(1976年),它可以是單純的印字機(Diablo1610)、也可以是加上鍵盤的打字機(Diablo1620),事實上它是個電腦終端機(Diablo630也有帶鍵盤的終端機版)。正因為Diablo産品有比例空間的功能,右邊切齊就不會是問題了。 全錄打字輪盤(取自Wiki) Diablo630 Diablo1620 Diablo菊輪印(打)字機在1980年代是有舉足輕重的影響的,因為所有Diablo印(打)字機都能接受許多控制用的逸出序列(EscapeSequence,以ESC為首的一串字元),這些包含了控制單字(甚至字母)之間的空間等,於是給文書處理軟體非常大的處理彈性。Diablo的印(打)字機市場上比較少見,因為很多電腦公司(比如DEC,DigitalEquipmentCo.)會改掛自己牌子上市。 在1980年代中葉,不少日本廠商也加入菊輪印(打)字機生產行列,譬如Brother就生產過菊輪式打字機;我自己也有過一台NEC的印(不是打)字機,接在PC上打英文報告,右邊切齊完全沒有問題。另外,菊輪也有個變形,那些字桿並不成圓盤狀,而是折起來像是圓錐型。我的經驗是,固然菊輪和IBM滾球一樣可以隨時更換字體,但一些菊輪的字桿比較容易斷裂,所以會把常用的字體多買一個菊輪。 您或許會說,這也是用了電腦。未必,一位受過訓練的熟練打字員(多為女性)對處理右邊切齊是不會有什麼問題的(見IBMExecutive打字機的說明)。 寫到此地,覺得有一套系統不得不提,這是IBMMT/ST,IBM在1964年推出史上第一套文書處理(wordprocessing)系統,它不是電腦(個人電腦尚未出現)、而是用電子機械的方式完成。 前面提過,IBM在1961年推出滾球打字機Selectric,把一般文書處理作業加到Selectric中變成一套文書處理系統是很自然的想法,於是IBMMT/ST應運而生(1964),此地MT和ST分別表示MagneticTape和SelectricTypewriter。IBMMT/ST是一整套系統,包含固定在桌上的Selectric打字機、一台和Selectric相連的半吋寛磁帶機、磁帶機下方的桌櫃是整個系統的電路。使用人的輸入儲存在磁帶中,也可以修改磁帶中的文件,再用Selectric打字機印出來,於是在最終版印出來時右邊切齊就根本不是難事。下面第一張照片中,操作員前方的是Selectric打字機,她左方是磁帶、右方是IBMMT/ST的主控台(主機),第二張照片中主控台就更清楚了。 兩年之後(1966年)IBM推出新的Selectric打字機、叫做SelectricComposer,它仍然使用滾球、但是加入了比例空間功能,這就可以很漂亮地左右切齊了。IBM也同時推出IBMMT/SC(MagneticTapeSelectricComposer),這是一套更好的文書處理系統,當然可以左右切齊、中央對齊、折字、等等都可以在最後列印時完成、而且輸出速度是每秒14個字。這些都是後來文書處理軟體的基本功能,但是在1960年代這些系統連個顯示器都沒有!所以,這是以文字為主(text-based)的文書處理系統。 1960年代IBMSelectricComposer打字機 三年之後(1969年),IBM推出IBMMC/ST(MagneticCardSelectricTypewriter),把IBMMT/ST的磁帶換成磁卡,系統變得更小更靈活。然而IBM在文書處理的獨大局面也開始下降,因為王安的文書處理系統也逐漸蠶食了市場,而且不足十年後微電腦興起,CP/M加上WordStar實在不輸IBMMC/ST這些事務用系統而且更便宜。IBMPC以及稍後的AppleMacintosh出現後,文書處理幾乎就是微電腦的必備功能,這些專用系統就逐漸退出市場。IBMMC/ST的文獻不多,但這支當年的廣告片頗能說明在1960年代末和1970年代初的文書處理的困境和更好的系統的需求。 因此,蔡英文女士讀博士時(1980年代早期)當然有右邊切齊的打字機或(非電腦)文書處理系統可以用;我不知道她用的是什麼打(或印)字機,如果她的博士論文中有右邊切齊的部分,就應該有機會用到有此功能的打字機或系統的。所以,那些網路上說蔡女士讀博士時沒有右邊切齊打字機可用(或是1990年才發明右邊切齊)的寫手或名嘴根本就是胡扯。走筆至此,突然想到20世紀最了不起的數學家之一HermanWeyl,他在他的名著序中有感於當時年青數學家不怎麽知道前人的成果,於是在書中列舉了大量的古典文獻、並且說:「時下的年青人過份追求時新,而忘了新與舊之間的聯繫。」(這是意譯、而非直譯)。台灣是否也有這個現象不得而知?現在的科技是站在前人的肩膀上發展出來、而不是突然出現的。不知以前的發展而以今非古,除了無知(或大頭症)之外還會是什麽? WordStar文書處理軟體 如果從1980年代初就開始玩電腦(譬如國內山塞版的AppleII、宏碁或神通),不論用過還是沒用過,多半會聽過兩個軟體:WordStar和dBase。後者是個資料庫軟體、前者就是文書處理軟體。 在1970年代末最通用的作業系統是CP/M-80。系統是為Intel8080/8085這些8-bit的CPU寫的,作者是GaryKildall,在1977年上市。WordStar是在MicroPro公司的RobBarnaby在CP/M下發展出來、在1979年上市。 國內流行的AppleII在1977年6月10上市,用的是和CP/M不同的CPU、叫做6502,作業系統是AppleDOS,所以不能用CP/M下作業的WordStar。Microsoft在1979年4月2日推出了他們的第一項硬體産品:MicrosoftSoftCard;SoftCard是一片給AppleII用的介面卡,上頭有一顆和Intel8080相容的CPU:ZilogZ80和一些其它晶片,插到AppleII的介面槽中、再用Microsoft提供的CP/M系統磁片開機,AppleII就可以使用CP/M,當然就可以使用WordStar了。接著,IBM在1981年8月12日推出了IBMPC(PersonalComputer),它使用在結構上和CP/M非常相似(事實上是修改CP/M而來)的PC-DOS(非IBMPC用MS-DOS),RobBarnaby的助手JimFox在1981年把CP/M版的WordStar移植到MS/PCDOS上,所以國內的山塞PC恐怕都會附了免費的WordStar和dBase。 在1980年代初期到中期,WordStar在AppleII和IBMPC上可以說是一個必備的文書處理軟體,後來被WordPerfect取代、WordPerfect又被MicrosoftWord取代。因為右邊切齊在19世紀的出版品中就出現,1944年的IBMExecutive打字機、1966年的IBMSelectricComposer打字機、1970年代的Diablo菊輪打字機都有比例空間的功能(當然也能右邊切齊),因此1970年代末和1980年代初的文書處理軟體不太可能會忽略右邊切齊這一項。 WordStar在第一版就有右邊切齊功能,我已經找不到第一版的使用手冊,不過網上仍然可以找到1983年的3.3版手冊,下面是手冊中討論右邊切齊的操作(使用^OJ,^是鍵盤上的Ctrl控制鍵、J是Justification的第一個字母)。 下面是WordStar在80行顯示器上的情況。為了右邊切齊,第二列的WordStar和is之間、is和highly之間、very和visible之間、以及Watch和the之間有兩個空格(而不是一格)。 要注意的是,這是24列80行的終端機、而不是目前的bit-map顯示方式,每個字母的寛度是一定的,所以只能在單字和單字之間加上空間實現右邊切齊。後來的文書處理軟體支援比例空間的印字機,右邊切齊就做得更細膩了;再晚些點陣(matrix)和雷射印字機出現,單字以圖型方式顯示,比例空間就做得更好。 在1970年代末和1980年代初,不少打字機並非絶粹的打字機,而是通常有RS-232序列埠(或平行埠)的印字機,接上電腦後就成為輸出設備(譬如前面提過的Diablo機型)。當然,文書處理軟體就可以控制打字機輸出排版完成的文件。 TeX系統 TeX是DonaldKnuth在1978年推出的,但指令集到了1980年代中期才固定。TeX不是個文書處理系統、而是個排版系統,使用人把排版的指令夾在文字檔案中,TeX讀取這個文字檔、依排版指令處理檔案,輸出會儲存在一個DVI(DeViceIndependent)檔中。DVI檔案所儲存的是TeX處理過的資料,這些資料和使用的輸出設備無關,要輸出DVI的(TeX的排版)內容需要DVI檔到輸出設備的驅動程式,早期最常見的是Postscript(PS)驅動程式,因為Postscript在早期的圖形終端機(譬如X視窗系統)上很普遍、而且也能輸出到點陣印字機和雷射印字機,近來的輸出則是從DVI到PDF。換句話說,文字檔被TeX處理過後成為DVI檔,然後再用一個驅動程式把DVI檔轉成能夠列印或顯示的方式。這樣的處理方式有個極大好處,TeX根本可以不考慮輸出端的細節,而把輸出的工作交給從DVI到輸出設備的驅動程式。 然而,TeX的最大缺點(對習慣使用文書處理軟體的人而言)就是在輸入時無法看到輸出的結果,很多人是很難習慣的。反之,正因為TeX有更大的處理彈性,TeX的排版結果要比MicrosoftWord這些馬上可以看到結果的文書處理軟體來得漂亮(特別是處理數學符號和方程式),不過代價是得學會TeX的許多排版指令。我個人的看法是:因為這些指令固定,總是比MicrosoftWord中每一次改版都讓我找不到上一版中用熟的功能好很多。 前面提過,TeX最大也最好的功能就是處理數學符號和方程式,所以在數學和計算機科學以及若干工程領域中TeX是非常普遍的;更重要的是它免費,而且支援Linux,macOS和Windows。由於TeX不十分好用,LeslieLamport在1983年推出LaTeX,它有一組比TeX簡單而且比較好用的排版指令、但是使用TeX産生輸出。LaTeX是在學術界非常普及的排版軟體,許多期刊和會議都會規定使用LaTeX排版。 下面是LaTeX輸入檔的一段,兩個$號之間的是排在一列中的數學式、\[和\]之間的是另起一列的數學式;所有LaTeX的排列指令都是用反斜線開始,譬如\Huge(超大字體)、\bf(粗體字)、\noindent(不縮排)等等。此地一共有三段(都右邊切齊)、一道式子和若干以等號對齊的數學式。字型用的是標準ComputerModern,在LaTeX之下有很多種不同的字型、特殊符號(甚至化學符號和音符等等)。 這是處理過的結果,是不是很像印刷品? 要注意的是,在LaTeX下左右切齊是個約定的設定。有很多LaTeX字型是免費的,當然也有一些字型不便宜,這就端看該字型的複雜度。下面是換了一組字型的結果: 看看蔡英文女士的博士論文,很明顯的不是LaTex或TeX産生的,所以就不再做進一步討論了,雖然以時間而論蔡女士的確有機會用到TeX甚至LaTeX。或許,蔡女士所在單位沒有安裝這個系統(畢竟經濟和法學似乎沒有很多對數學方面的排版要求)、也或許沒有合適的印字機也不一定。 另外,Unix系統(1984年前Linux尚未出現)上在1980年代早期也有troff這個排版系統可用,但個人的經驗是它不如TeX/LaTeX好用。 如果您寫作時常用到數學符號和方程式、編目次、加腳註、編索引等等(譬如碩士或博士論文),建議您弄一套LaTeX試試,不過這是英文為主的,如果要用中文(Unicode字元)的話不妨考慮其它版本(譬如LuaTeX等等)。以往國內曾經有過CTeX,但好像並未成為風潮。用MicrosoftWord處理上面提過的數學式子會把人逼瘋,縱使裝了MathType這些軟體也一樣! 若干例子 接下來我們看看若干在1980年代早期的博士論文。第一本是劍橋大學達爾文學院(DarwinCollege)JohnJamesdePont的博士論文,下面是第一和第二頁(請注意頁碼),題目是EssaysontheCyclidePatch,出版時間是1984年8月,比蔡女士的晚幾個月。首先,這篇博士論文是用Essay,因為論文中有四項重要貢獻、每一項都自成一文,這是用Essay的意義。有人攻擊蔡女士的博士論文就是幾篇essay、不夠成論文的規格,這個觀點很難成立,dePont的博士論文就是一例。正確地說,要批評的是每一章中貢獻的內容和深度,而不是論文是否是若干篇essay。個人並不十分瞭解蔡女士的論文內容,所以就略過評論這一關。要提醒您的是,dePont這篇博士論文在1980年代下半還算是有點影響力的,但沒有人說這不是博士論文。 論文的第3頁和第4頁是abstract(見下面照片)、和關鍵字(keyword);第四頁是誌謝。 接下來是第5頁和第6頁。第5頁是有關原創性的說明和作者的簽字,到了第6頁(和第7頁)就是目次了,第8頁是正文的開始。陰謀論者馬上會說沒有指導教授和口試委員的簽名頁(蔡女士的博士論文也如此),造假的!然而這本論文是我在二十多年前花了點錢向劍橋大學圖書館買來的,依陰謀論者的直覺來看豈不也是有問題?我再查了手上若干博士論文(連我自己的),發現不少沒有指導教授和口試委員簽名頁,但有些卻有。這有點讓我毛骨悚然,這些人居然可以因為沒有指導教授和口試委員簽名頁而否定我論文的存在,真可怕。想了想成因可能十分單純,因為這些人大多數說他們的論文是有口試委員簽名頁的;然而蔡女士的論文是三十多年的事,那時的制度和今天的早就不知道改了多少次。其次,歐美不少國家的教育部是管不到大學的,所以大學有相當的自主權、自己訂定合宜的規範,不像我們的教育部一條鞭、什麽事都要插上一手。所以,以今非古通常是搞錯對象,紮個稻草人亂打,徒然亂了章法。 下面是dePont博士論文abstract(第2頁)最後一段的裁切。這一頁是左右切齊的,誰說1984年時沒有右邊切齊的打字機和軟體?在最後一段的裁切中,我標出了單字間多過一個空格的地方。坦白說,我不知道dePont是用什麽系統處理的,但蔡女士和dePont在同一時間在英國做研究、寫論文,兩人有可能使用類似系統,畢竟學術界使用的器材通常都大同小異。 下個例子的作者就非常有名了,他是1980年取得耶魯大學博士學位的BernardMarieChazelle。手上的這本論文是付錢向UMI(UniversityMicrofilmsInternational)從縮微影片印出來的,目前UMI已經演變成大多數做研究的人都知道的ProQuest。下面是該論文的第1和第3頁(第二頁是版權頁),第三頁的abstract是左右切齊的(別忘了這是1980的論文),abstract延伸到第4頁: 下一頁上是法文Amesparents,就是Tomyparents的意思,但該頁沒有編頁碼。第4頁到第6頁是誌謝,第7和第8頁是目次,接下來就是正文了。下面是第4頁和第7頁;換言之,Chazelle的論文也沒有指導教授和口試委員的簽名頁,難道也是假的? 下面是論文的第46頁(有些系統在排正文時用阿拉伯數字,序到目次等用羅馬數字),紅框部份在本頁下方,我用藍框表示因為右邊切齊而引入的空間。 回頭看蔡女士的博士論文 接着我們看看蔡女士在國家圖書館保存的博士論文。下面是該論文的abstract(左頁)和簡介(右頁),很明顯地abstract是右邊切齊、但簡介卻沒有,事實上大部份的論文都是左右切齊的,沒有左右切齊的頁數實在不多。 瀏覽整本論文,首先發現的是蔡女士使用的軟體右邊切齊功能不十分理想,有些列少了一兩格、另一些列可能多出一兩個字母,當然這也可能是蔡女士在輸入時沒有把軟體的設定弄好,不過這是很小的問題。整本論文中絶大多數的頁是左右切齊的,沒有右邊切齊的頁(除了簡介中的18頁)絶大多數在每一章的頭一兩頁或最後的一兩頁,比較多的是第356到第364頁,這也是一章的最後幾頁。有一位看過論文的人說這很奇怪,我倒並不覺得如此,因為曾經有過類似經驗,雖然未必和蔡女士當時的情況相同。首先,在1980年代前半輸出的速度很慢(矩陣和雷射印字機還沒出現),印完一本幾百頁的報告很費時,萬一在某頁上有問題時怎麽辦?視情況的嚴重性我通常會修改,然而修改後可能會改變已經完成的頁面和頁碼那就嚴重了,所以修改時一定得做到不會改變頁碼、也得讓重打的頁數降到最低,這不是很容易做到的。第二,這些頁可能重打過,印出來後再換掉原本的頁(而且頁碼和頁面不變),如果重打時為了某種原因而沒有啟動右邊切齊以便達到期望的結果時,出現那些沒有右邊切齊的頁就不稀奇了。坦白說,在以前出(中文)書時,打字小姐還可能會重打一兩段、剪下來貼到印刷稿上呢!所以,這些瑕疵根本就不是問題! 再看看博士論文中右邊切齊的結果。下面是蔡女士博士論文第一頁和該頁最後一段的裁切,裁切中的藍框就是大過一個空格的部分,兩條紅線大致上指出不同列上的同一個位置;換言之,蔡女士在這一頁上似乎沒有用到比例空間的印字機。 下表是一份我大致瀏覽蔡女士博士論文後得來(有關右邊切齊)的結果,雖然未必十分準確但八九不離十。 扣除簡介部分的18頁,正文共365頁、但有24頁沒有右邊切齊,約佔全文的6.5%。很有趣的是,這些沒有右邊切齊的頁幾乎都出現在章頭和章末,在表中記錄了11個沒有右邊切齊的所在,出現在一章最前方、中央、最後結論、和腳註部份的各有3、1、4和3項。我們寫長文時(至少本人就是如此),開頭的開宗明義和結尾的結論最難寫得好、反而是中央舖陳開展的部分比較容易寫,因此修改開頭和結尾部分在整章寫完後再修改的可能性較大,可別忘了每一章最後還有腳註(footnote)。因為改動後要維持原頁碼不變(不能加頁也不能減頁),而且還得顧到和未改動的下一頁的連貫,這不容易,有時在頁中加空格減空格甚至提前換列都有可能。 我們不能用今天的文書處理觀點看三十多年前的系統。舉例而言,在第230頁上有*105這個標記,它表示第105號腳註(見下面照片)。今天的習慣處理方式是把105寫成上標,而腳註則是放在該頁下方(或下一頁)並且用較小字體處理。MicrosoftWord中的做法則是用EndNote,這是蔡女士博士論文的方式。因為腳註的標記不是用上標,而是用*開始加上號碼,想來蔡女士用來處理博士論文的軟硬體不十分理想,一章中修改過後要維持原頁碼恐怕不容易;再者,這些腳註號碼或許也是人工處理的,重複或遺漏極有可能。本頁上還有一個手寫的更正,或許是論文已經完成後才發現問題,才硬着頭皮改的。 總之,個人覺得以右邊切齊的角度切入而言,這本論文實在沒多大問題,6.5%(24頁)未右邊切齊的頁數不能算多,要有什麽指責的話,充其量就是她不慎重其事而已。用1980年代沒有右邊切齊的軟硬體指責論文是假的,實在是無的放矢,吃飽撐了、閑著沒事雞蛋裡挑鋼筋水泥(這不是我發明的)而已。 結論 看完上面的討論後,相信您必定會同意「1984年時沒有右邊切齊的打字機和軟體」以及「左右切齊是1990才發明」的這類說法純屬無稽之談;當然,以此推論蔡女士的博士論文是假貨的說法也不成立。會這麼說和做如此推論大多是意識形態作祟,編織一個稻草人猛打、自求爽快而已。啊!突然想到一定會有人送我一頂1450大帽編入綠網軍吧?如果真的如此,行為就真的很齷齪,把就事論事這件事無限上綱到意識形態的鬥爭了。所以,有此想法的人,省了吧。 在寫這篇文章時,看到蔡女士畢業的倫敦政經學院(LSE)在10月8日發佈消息回應有關蔡女士學位和論文的課題,以下是該新聞的截圖: 這段大意是說蔡女士的確在1984年取得博士學位、而且校方圖書館也收到博士論文。事實上,在蔡女士當選後LSE就發表了賀詞,同樣指出他在1984取得博士學位: 聽說有名嘴還要到倫敦去告LSE,看來就更滑稽了。不少台灣人有一個壞習慣,就是幻想出很多陰謀論的線索入人於罪、要人自証清白,而不是一個民主法治國家應該有的無罪推定,指控人得舉証(而不是陰謀論)。這個1980年代早期沒有右邊切齊的打字機和軟體就是個典型的、自己幻想出來要入人於罪的好案例。 看完這篇文章後您有何感想我不知道,反正信者恆信、不信者恆不信,事實在眼前也如此,因為你說的不是事實。不論如何,我完成了身為知識份子的責任,至於名嘴、寫手、意識形態份子如何想我是無能為力的。總之,鑑古知今應該是我輩必須要有的能力,切斷古與今的臍帶不太可能有大成就,當然以今非古更是不可取。 參考文獻 IBMSelectricComposer的原始技術文章(1968):J.S.MorganandJ.R.Norwood,TheIBMSelectricComposer:JustificationMechanism,IBMJournalofResearchandDevelopment,Vol.12(1968),No.1(January),pp.68-75.PDF檔。 IBMSelectricComposer影片。這是介紹SelectricComposer打字機的簡介,請注意到輸出部份右邊切齊的現象 1975年文書處理影片。 IBM1967年拍攝有關IBMMT/ST(MagneticTypeSelectricTypewriter)的影片PaperworkExplosion。 IBM1969年拍攝有關IBMMC/ST(MagneticCardSelectricTypewriter)的影片。 TheComputerChronicles有關文書處理的影片:1983年(坐在右邊的主持人是GaryKildall,CP/M的設計人)。 未經本人同意,請勿轉載轉貼本文任何片段,請尊重智慧財產(著作)權 引用方式:冼鏡光,在1984年(蔡英文女士得博士學位)時有沒有右邊切齊的打字機或軟體?,DCView.com達人部落格(https://God.blue/forward.php?url=http://blog.dcview.com/article.php?a=VmpTNgFpCzRQOQ%3D%3D)
          

Roseanne Barr calls coronavirus a plot to ‘get rid of all my generation,’ considering lawsuit over Valerie Jarrett drama   

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Roseanne Barr is weighing in on the coronavirus crisis like only she can.

The disgraced comedienne is back in the digital zeitgeist — with some more of her trademark eye-opening commentary.

On Sunday’s episode of Norm Macdonald’s YouTube talk show, “Quarantined With Norm Macdonald,” the Emmy Award...


          

Sonic the Hedgehog (Digital Preview) (Blu-ray)   

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"Okay, okay. Everything is fine. You played some baseball, got a little upset, lightning shot out of your butt, and now they're coming for you."


The Movie

I know! And he had such a good streak going too. You see, back when Sonic (voiced by Ben Schwartz) was but a wee hoglet, all sorts of ninja warrior no-good-niks mounted an assault to seize hold of his boundless energy and hyper-speed. For his protection, Sonic was flung through a portal onto a backwater planet called Earth. Maybe you've heard of it. Anyway, Sonic would be safe there so long as he kept out of sight, and for ten whole years, that's exactly what he did. The good folks of Green Hills, Montana had no clue there was a cerulean speedster among them. (Well, no one but Carl, who'd pay him any mind?) Maybe they didn't know boo about Sonic, but he sure got to know a whole bunch about the couple hundred residents of this sleepy little town, watching 'em from a safe distance as they lived their lives. But Sonic wanted to be where the people are, walking on those – what do you call 'em? – oh, yeah, feet, but as hard as he wished, he could never be part of that world. And as the loneliness and isolation finally seized hold...wham! Sonic went fast enough to knock out the power grid for the entire Pacific Northwest. Oops.

Let's just say that raises a red flag or two. The military dispatches one of their most dastardly brilliant minds to investigate: Dr. Robotnik (Jim Carrey). And as a platoon of soldiers and the good doctor's legion of mecha-drones close in, Sonic seeks refuge in the only place left in Green Hills that seems safe: the home of Sheriff Tom (James Marsden) and his veterinarian wife Maddie (Tika Sumpter). In the chaos, Sonic's Get Out of Earth Free card winds up plummeting through a portal to San Francisco. This hedgehog may be fast, but he's still gonna need Tom's help to get all the way from Montana to Rice-a-Roni Central. Road trip! But there's no time for roadside pie stands or detours to the Biggest Ball of Something-Or-Another – not with Robotnik hot on their trail. And you know, I'm starting to think that being branded a domestic terrorist might not look too great on Tom's background check to sign on with the SFPD either.

I know it's hacky, but I'm going to say it anyway: Sonic the Hedgehog fires on all cylinders. Not only does this feature film adaptation do a brilliant job conveying Sonic's Mach-I-don't-even-know-what speed, but it screams ahead at a manic pace in its own right. The movie isn't weighed down by reams of unnecessary backstory, nor does it get distracted by an excess of supporting characters or subplots. Lean and exceptionally fast, its runtime clocks in at 98 minutes but feels closer to half that. It's such a welcomed change of pace to come across a comedy/action flick with this sort of focus and such a clear idea of what it sets out to accomplish, shrugging off anything resembling bloat along the way.

There's such a tendency to sneer at adaptations of video games as product, and I'm glad to find one that genuinely feels like a labor of love. I mean, there's a jab at the Mushroom Kingdom, an homage to the Gotta Go Fast meme, and even a loving recreation of the toe-tapping, watch-peeping idle animation from Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Everything I could ever hope to see in a Sonic movie – from chili dogs to a piano rendition of the Green Hill Zone theme – is in here somewhere, with more still lurking midway through the end credits.

While its first stab at CG Sonic may not have been all that well-received, the revised design showcased here absolutely looks like the character I've known and loved for so many decades. And Sonic is surrounded by an onslaught of equally spectacular visual effects, including a world-class recreation of the classic 1991 game's Green Hill Zone. There are a couple of speedster-in-a-world-stood-still sequences that are every bit as inventive, hysterical, and masterfully executed as Quicksilver's in the past few X-Men movies. If there's anything about Sonic himself that didn't quite work for me, it's Ben Schwartz' voice acting. I get that it's pitched high to evoke a child-like quality, but it's taken a bit too far. And maybe it's just the digital screener I'm watching – in plain-jane stereo rather than Atmos or even regular ol' 5.1 – but Sonic's voice almost sounds detached from the actual character. His digital lips are moving in perfect sync, yeah, and yet the words don't always seem to be coming from his mouth. I'm not really sure how to describe it any better than that.

The supporting cast is terrific across the board, including geek cred parts for Arrowverse and Marvel alum Neal McDonough as well as Battlestar Galactica's Michael Hogan. It's a tall order to stand toe to toe with a CGI hedgehog from another planet who can run eight hojillion miles an hour, but James Marsden pulls off that seemingly impossible feat just the same, proving to be every bit as charming and charismatic as he is ageless. While a fair number of the story beats and character arcs look to be pretty familiar stuff on paper, Marsden helps to elevate them into something more involving and special. As terrific as Marsden is and as marvelous as the visual effects may be, Jim Carrey eclipses every last bit of it. Carrey runs away and steals every scene of Sonic the Hedgehog that he's in, careening deliriously over the top as the love-to-hate-him Robotnik. His nefarious doctor doesn't just know he's the smartest guy in the room; Robotnik doesn't get why someone of his towering brilliance is bothering to be in the same room as you in the first place. It's the most infectiously fun performance of Carrey's I've seen on the big screen in...I don't even know how many years. His super-science montage dance number set to The Poppy Family's "Where Evil Grows" in particular is one for the ages.

Its sense of humor at times is clearly aimed at a audience way younger than my forty-something-year-old self, but it kept me cracking up just the same, from a turtle with PTSD all the way to a misunderstanding about a kid in a duffle bag. The emotional core of Sonic the Hedgehog – about community, about family – resonates more deeply than I would've expected. I felt genuinely invested when Sonic, on his way to leap to a planet where fun isn't on the menu, decides to make a bucket list for his last hours on Earth...and ticks off one box after another at breakneck speed. And the big action sequences are, well, big. They're played almost like a boss battle in a vintage video game. Just when you think this enormous confrontation has hit its crescendo, you realize that was just phase 1 of 4. Sonic the Hedgehog is executed with such a dementedly ingenious mind that it finds a way to keep wreaking havoc, whether it's a relentless robo-truck battle on the interstate or Robotnik's war saucer on the streets of San Francisco. Heck, there's a sequence that would've been the climax in any other movie, and it turns out that Sonic the Hedgehog wasn't even a little bit ready for its finalé.

While I do have to admit that I'd give Detective Pikachu the edge in a head-to-head battle, there's clearly quite a bit that I love about Sonic the Hedgehog: a funny, frenetic adrenaline rush of a love letter to the franchise that defined the 16-bit era more for me than any other. And, with Sonic having conquered so many other mediums, the groundwork this movie lays for a sequel has me genuinely excited about what the future may hold. Recommended, and I think I'd bump that up to Highly Recommended if you have a kid in your life to watch it with.

Video / Audio

When Sonic the Hedgehog darts onto Prime Video, FandangoNOW, VUDU, and iTunes on March 31st, it won't look or sound much of anything like the preliminary digital screener that I just watched. So if you were bracing yourself for all sorts of impenetrable technical minutiae about the presentation, that'll have to wait until I get my hands on the Ultra HD Blu-ray release when it comes out in May.

Bonus Features
  • Around the World in 80 Seconds (2 min.): Sketched in (virtual!) pen on a big ol' stack of (virtual!) notebook paper, Sonic races all across the globe from Montana to Australia and back again in – you guessed it! – 80 seconds. I don't know if this is supposed to be a crash course in world landmarks for kids or what, but a fair number of the jokes aren't exactly...jokes? "Ah, Par-ee! The City of Love, I hear. I would love to stay and visit the Louvre, but I have so much more to see." Like, that's it for France! Au revoir!
  • Deleted Scenes (14 min.): Following a brief introduction by director Jeff Fowler, this reel piles on five deleted scenes. Turns out that the opening stretch of Sonic the Hedgehog was pretty different originally. This includes a decidedly more earthbound prologue, with crazy ol' Carl rigging traps to try to catch the Blue Devil of Green Hills, a follow-up with Carl filling Tom in on these shenanigans, and more of a coming-of-age version of Sonic's arrival and early years in Montana. And he didn't make the journey alone this time around. Even though the introduction in the finished film is kinda messy in its own right – the swarm of villains doesn't evoke much menace, and Longclaw (voiced by Donna Jay Fulks) is introduced in a way that makes her seem more critical a character than she winds up being – it's swifter and more effective than what was originally conceived. It's still fascinating to see what could have been, and I'm very glad that these scenes have been included here.

    There's also a heart-to-heart between Tom and Sonic about the crazy lightning spike during the big road chase. The last of these scenes follows up with Tom's sister-in-law Rachel (scene-stealer Natasha Rothwell) and Deputy Wade (Adam Pally), with tales of a trashed SUV and Lasagna Wednesdays.
  • Bloopers (2 min.): A whole lotta mugging for the camera, Jim Carrey relentlessly cracking up James Marsden, and Carrey's Line-o-Ramas with a home address and clam chowder: yup, it's a blooper reel, alright.
  • Music Video (4 min.): Wiz Khalifa is joined by Lil' Yachty, Ty Dolla $ign, and Sueco The Child for the 16-bit-as-hail music video for "Speed Me Up".
  • For the Love of Sonic (4 min.): Actors James Marsden, Ben Schwartz, Jim Carrey, Tika Sumpter, executive producer Tim Miller, producer Toby Ascher, and director Jeff Fowler talk about their relationships to the Sonic the Hedgehog video games as well as the process of adapting that personality and manic speed to the big screen. And I'm trying not to feel my age after hearing Carrey talk about getting schooled in Sonic by his grandson. They also point out some of the Easter eggs that only longtime fans are likely to pick up on.
  • Building Robotnik (4 min.): Carrey, Marsden, Fowler, and Sumpter return for this second featurette, along with producer Neal H. Moritz and none other than Sonic the Hedgehog himself! As you could probably guess from the title, "Building Robotnik" is all about Jim Carrey's approach to realizing one of gaming's most notorious badniks. Along with insight into the Eggman's mental state and Carrey's collaborative, improvisational performance, we also get a peek at Robotnik's moustache peeling off in the middle of a take.
  • The Blue Blur: Origins of Sonic (6 min.): While Sonic the Hedgehog's other extras are focused more on how this feature film adaptation came together, "The Blue Blur" turns the clock back a few decades prior to any of that. Chief Brand Officer Ivo Gerscovich and video game designer Takashi Iizuka delve into how Sega was ready to have their own Mario equivalent take the spotlight. They talk about the search for a new icon among Sega staffers, Sonic's evolution from a blue rabbit, the role St. Nick played in Sonic's red shoes, how the needs of the game helped to inform the character, and what set this feisty blue hedgehog apart from most video game mascots from the early 1990s. Along with oodles of conceptual art and design sheets, there's even trivia lobbed out every couple minutes, such as Sonic's less than marketable original name and how long it took to design the first game's opening levels. Virtually everyone interviewed elsewhere on this disc pops up as well, along with writers Pat Casey and Josh Miller.
  • On the Set (3 min.): Rounding out the extras is Ben Schwartz getting tracking dots peppered all across his face to do the whole mo-cap thing. Schwartz speaks briefly about the vocal end of his performance, such as the childlike voice and energy he brings to Sonic. Far and away the highlight is James Marsden palling around with Schwartz in the makeup trailer, demonstrating how there can be so much chemistry between Tom and Sonic even though the actors bringing 'em to life were hardly ever in the same room.
The Final Word

Everyone keeps droning on and on about how this is the Golden Age of Television, but what about the Golden Age of Video Game Movies we're in right now? Between Detective Pikachu, Sonic the Hedgehog, and...okay, it's not a long list, but it's still a thrill to see two of the mediums that've defined so much my life at long last start to gel together. Whether you came of age with a Sega Genesis controller in your hand, or if you're just a sucker for family-friendly fish-outta-water buddy-cop action/comedy effect spectacles (and hey, who isn't?), Sonic the Hedgehog is a blast. Recommended.

          

El Mercado Concentrador de Posadas sigue con el protocolo que dicta la Emergencia Sanitaria   

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El presidente del Instituto de Fomento Agropecuario e Industrial (IFAI) Cdor Marcelo Rodríguez señaló que el Mercado Concentrador de Posadas abre sus puertas todas las semanas para que la población se abastezca de alimentos frescos de las chacras misioneras.

 

El objetivo es que las familias puedan comprar en esta cuarentena con todas las medidas preventivas que responsablemente se han tomado desde el IFAI a fin de cuidar la salud de los misioneros.

 

En ese marco, “abriremos las puertas del Mercado el Jueves Santo, en este tiempo tan particular para el sentir de la familia cristiana, ofreciendo los productos y comidas típicas que se preparan en estas fechas.

 

“En nuestro predio se han cumplimentado todas las medidas dispuestas en esta Emergencia Sanitaria y Epidemiológica para cuidar la salud de los misioneros: en el ingreso estamos tomando la temperatura porque hay una cuestión que es común al Dengue y al Coronavirus y es el síntoma febril”, explicó el Presidente.

Para añadir que, luego de tomar la temperatura, “también se invita a los compradores a extender las manos para recibir el alcohol en gel. Y a partir de allí irán haciendo las colas con una distancia de un metro y medio entre personas”.

 

El Cdor Rodríguez señaló también que “por cada sector de Mercado Concentrador: frutihortícola, de quesos, carnes, preelaborados, no ingresan más de 15 personas.

“Y el ingreso es rotativo: egresan 2 personas en un sector e ingresan otras dos. Siempre 15 personas como máximo en cada uno de los sectores”.

 

El Presidente del IFAI hizo notar que “la gente ha respetado siempre. Ha sido consciente que es para cuidar su salud. Y ha tenido la suficiente paciencia para realizar sus compras en orden y siguiendo todos los protocolos establecidos por esta pandemia mundial”.

 

Destacó que “si los indicadores son bajos es porque el doctor Oscar Herrera Ahuad actuó con el Gobierno de la Provincia de Misiones con rapidez. Y a través del Ministerio de Salud se han tomado todos los recaudos que hoy permiten exhibir una Provincia con índices muy bajos de contagio”.


          

No one knows when the coronavirus sports shutdown will end   

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Data: Morning Consult National Tracking Poll of 1,512 self-reported sports fans, April 3-5, 2020; MOE ± 3%; Chart: Axios Visuals

It's been 26 days since the sports world effectively shuttered, and fans are eager to start watching games again, but not quite as eager to attend them.

The state of play: According to a new Morning Consult poll, 51% of fans think live sports will return between June and September, while only 8% think the void will bleed into 2021.


  • Yes, but: Many of those same fans are wary of how long it will take for them to feel comfortable attending those games, with 35% saying they'd need until at least October — and 22% saying they'd need until next year.
Data: Morning Consult National Tracking Poll of 1,512 self-reported sports fans, April 3-5, 2020; MOE ± 3%; Chart: Axios Visuals

What the leagues are saying: Until testing increases and infection and death rates drastically decrease, leagues won't be working on much more than conjecture. Still, here's the latest:

Domestic:

  • MLB: Sources tell Axios that MLB is deliberating on the following dates: Spring Training restarts June 15, season begins without fans July 1, fans return Aug. 1. There's also another crazy plan where all 30 teams would isolate themselves in Arizona and play fan-less games starting in May.
  • PGA: Under a new proposed plan, the PGA Championship will be held in early August, the U.S. Open will be held in mid-September and the Masters — originally scheduled for this week — will be held Nov. 12–15.
  • NBA: Players like Danny Green remain optimistic ("We're for sure gonna have a season, so all the things you see on the news, don't believe it"), while insiders like Brian Windhorst sing a different tune ("The pessimism is really growing").
  • NHL: The league has reportedly tossed around the idea of finishing the season and postseason in North Dakota.
  • MLS: No official updates since March 19, when the suspension was extended to May 10 based on the CDC's ban of large gatherings.
  • UFC: President Dana White said that he's close to a deal to stage fights on a private island. Fighters would arrive via private plane, presumably with coronavirus tests before arriving.

Abroad:

  • Premier League: They hope to complete the season in a concentrated timeline across June and July by quarantining clubs and playing all matches on a handful of fields.
  • KBO: Korea's top baseball league is ahead of the pack, playing intrasquad scrimmages and targeting April 20 for a fan-less start to the regular season.
  • NPB: Japan's top baseball league was tracking towards the same timeline as the KBO, but pressed pause when three players tested positive in late-March.

The bottom line: Whether your favorite league is offering a pessimistic or optimistic update, I recommend taking everything with approximately 6,500 grains of salt. In the immortal words of Ygritte: "We know nothing, Jon Snow."


          

Wall Street. Акции на премаркете   

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(компания / тикер / цена / изменение ($/%) / проторгованый объем)


3M Co

MMM

148.5

7.80(5.54%)

52968

ALCOA INC.

AA

7.05

0.50(7.63%)

67134

ALTRIA GROUP INC.

MO

38.1

0.82(2.20%)

200838

Amazon.com Inc., NASDAQ

AMZN

2,018.00

20.41(1.02%)

70261

American Express Co

AXP

89.5

5.63(6.71%)

31945

AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP

AIG

22.99

1.47(6.83%)

17603

Apple Inc.

AAPL

269.8

7.33(2.79%)

769593

AT&T Inc

T

30.75

1.31(4.45%)

406832

Boeing Co

BA

163

14.23(9.57%)

1225073

Caterpillar Inc

CAT

123.5

3.07(2.55%)

14382

Chevron Corp

CVX

83

2.61(3.25%)

219335

Cisco Systems Inc

CSCO

42.35

0.92(2.22%)

76341

Citigroup Inc., NYSE

C

43.9

2.78(6.76%)

123445

Deere & Company, NYSE

DE

149.17

5.68(3.96%)

1135

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co

DD

36.79

1.40(3.96%)

3095

Exxon Mobil Corp

XOM

42.82

2.35(5.81%)

399090

Facebook, Inc.

FB

170

4.45(2.69%)

192925

FedEx Corporation, NYSE

FDX

123

3.98(3.34%)

3173

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc., NYSE

FCX

7.67

0.48(6.68%)

193424

Ford Motor Co.

F

4.85

0.32(7.06%)

1132680

General Electric Co

GE

7.63

0.40(5.53%)

688102

General Motors Company, NYSE

GM

20.78

1.23(6.29%)

163853

Goldman Sachs

GS

165.1

6.87(4.34%)

23313

Google Inc.

GOOG

1,218.12

31.20(2.63%)

22739

Hewlett-Packard Co.

HPQ

15.5

0.50(3.33%)

2511

Home Depot Inc

HD

197

5.67(2.96%)

19813

HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.

HON

137

3.00(2.24%)

5318

Intel Corp

INTC

59.93

1.50(2.57%)

267429

International Business Machines Co...

IBM

118.2

3.38(2.94%)

35314

International Paper Company

IP

32.5

0.97(3.08%)

716

Johnson & Johnson

JNJ

141.88

2.12(1.52%)

13962

JPMorgan Chase and Co

JPM

93.75

4.29(4.80%)

278400

McDonald's Corp

MCD

182.21

5.17(2.92%)

22843

Merck & Co Inc

MRK

80.9

0.59(0.73%)

8068

Microsoft Corp

MSFT

170.08

4.81(2.91%)

516712

Nike

NKE

87.02

2.39(2.82%)

130636

Pfizer Inc

PFE

35.02

0.45(1.30%)

30209

Procter & Gamble Co

PG

118.83

1.02(0.87%)

235933

Starbucks Corporation, NASDAQ

SBUX

70.7

2.91(4.29%)

107386

Tesla Motors, Inc., NASDAQ

TSLA

539.4

23.16(4.49%)

281445

The Coca-Cola Co

KO

48.25

1.58(3.39%)

416252

Travelers Companies Inc

TRV

101.18

2.20(2.22%)

2370

Twitter, Inc., NYSE

TWTR

25.7

0.77(3.09%)

193802

UnitedHealth Group Inc

UNH

255

6.66(2.68%)

6753

Verizon Communications Inc

VZ

57.36

0.66(1.16%)

36743

Visa

V

177.39

7.95(4.69%)

66049

Wal-Mart Stores Inc

WMT

126.1

0.03(0.02%)

165113

Walt Disney Co

DIS

103.36

3.78(3.80%)

101830

Yandex N.V., NASDAQ

YNDX

34.98

1.11(3.28%)

26505


          

Wall Street. Акции на премаркете   

Cache   

(компания / тикер / цена / изменение ($/%) / проторгованый объем)


3M Co

MMM

137.7

3.91(2.92%)

16751

ALCOA INC.

AA

6.22

0.25(4.19%)

48799

ALTRIA GROUP INC.

MO

38.69

1.28(3.42%)

12285

Amazon.com Inc., NASDAQ

AMZN

1,939.00

32.41(1.70%)

61928

American Express Co

AXP

77.29

3.69(5.01%)

19026

AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL GROUP

AIG

21.5

1.04(5.08%)

11815

Apple Inc.

AAPL

249.95

8.54(3.54%)

535865

AT&T Inc

T

28.2

0.74(2.69%)

302916

Boeing Co

BA

131.01

6.49(5.21%)

504187

Caterpillar Inc

CAT

117.57

2.90(2.53%)

6831

Chevron Corp

CVX

76.38

1.27(1.69%)

52187

Cisco Systems Inc

CSCO

40.66

1.60(4.10%)

201086

Citigroup Inc., NYSE

C

39.15

1.66(4.43%)

190011

Deere & Company, NYSE

DE

139.99

4.47(3.30%)

180

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co

DD

33

1.13(3.55%)

3063

Exxon Mobil Corp

XOM

40.22

1.01(2.58%)

190373

Facebook, Inc.

FB

159.95

5.77(3.74%)

155464

FedEx Corporation, NYSE

FDX

112

2.78(2.55%)

3030

Ford Motor Co.

F

4.43

0.19(4.48%)

544960

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc., NYSE

FCX

6.63

0.31(4.90%)

45288

General Electric Co

GE

7.02

0.29(4.31%)

813723

General Motors Company, NYSE

GM

18.85

0.81(4.49%)

68527

Goldman Sachs

GS

152.99

6.06(4.12%)

12613

Google Inc.

GOOG

1,138.22

40.34(3.67%)

15738

Hewlett-Packard Co.

HPQ

15

0.52(3.59%)

18588

Home Depot Inc

HD

185

6.30(3.53%)

12449

HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.

HON

131.5

4.05(3.18%)

2862

Intel Corp

INTC

56.49

2.36(4.36%)

148006

International Business Machines Co...

IBM

109.5

3.16(2.97%)

16855

International Paper Company

IP

30.25

0.88(3.00%)

250

Johnson & Johnson

JNJ

137.25

3.08(2.30%)

30028

JPMorgan Chase and Co

JPM

87.59

3.54(4.21%)

186047

McDonald's Corp

MCD

166.74

6.41(4.00%)

15276

Merck & Co Inc

MRK

79

2.75(3.61%)

13155

Microsoft Corp

MSFT

159.85

6.02(3.91%)

529188

Nike

NKE

81.6

2.74(3.47%)

129653

Pfizer Inc

PFE

34.56

0.92(2.73%)

42692

Procter & Gamble Co

PG

117.76

2.68(2.33%)

9593

Starbucks Corporation, NASDAQ

SBUX

64.77

1.72(2.73%)

136588

Tesla Motors, Inc., NASDAQ

TSLA

503.6

23.59(4.91%)

408966

The Coca-Cola Co

KO

45.4

1.57(3.58%)

40043

Twitter, Inc., NYSE

TWTR

23.95

0.86(3.72%)

171499

UnitedHealth Group Inc

UNH

236.3

6.81(2.97%)

5674

Verizon Communications Inc

VZ

55.79

1.09(1.99%)

31518

Visa

V

158.12

6.27(4.13%)

54359

Wal-Mart Stores Inc

WMT

120.36

0.88(0.74%)

21382

Walt Disney Co

DIS

97.65

3.77(4.02%)

103401

Yandex N.V., NASDAQ

YNDX

33.6

1.22(3.77%)

35214


          

Urban areas are thriving with more wildlife than ‘exploited and degraded’ national parks, expert claims   

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URBAN areas have more wildlife than some national parks, an expert claims. Open spaces, docklands and industrial estates in our cities can burst with life as they are left alone, according to TV nature producer and author Benedict Macdonald. They were found to have thriving populations of threatened bird species. These include lapwing and lesser […]
          

Las decisiones de Trump obligan a Canadá a aumentar su producción médica   

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Los problemas que el presidente de EE.UU., Donald Trump, está causando a Canadá al dificultar la importación de mascarillas médicas y la competición internacional para conseguir equipo médico han obligado a Ottawa a presentar este martes un plan para producir estos materiales.

El primer ministro canadiense, Justin Trudeau, aprovechó su rueda de prensa diaria para anunciar la producción local de 30.000 respiradores, mascarillas médicas y otro equipo protector necesario para combatir la epidemia del coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causante de la enfermedad del COVID-19.

El anuncio se produce horas después de que Trump impidiese que la compañía 3M enviara a Canadá medio millón de mascarillas N95 que habían sido adquiridas por el país norteamericano.

Aunque hoy Estados Unidos dio marcha atrás y aseguró que permitirá la exportación tras las protestas de 3M y las autoridades canadienses que incluso llegaron a sugerir represalias, Trudeau afirmó que su país "tiene que estar listo" para lo que sea dado el comportamiento errático de Trump desde su llegada a la presidencia.

Según anunció hoy Trudeau, 22 empresas locales, entre ellas Canada Goose, conocida por sus abrigos invernales de elevado precio, producirán batas médicas con materia prima canadiense para el personal médico.

Otras empresas producirán mascarillas médicas, respiradores N95, viseras de protección y otros equipos médicos cruciales.

Al mismo tiempo que el Gobierno canadiense ha encargado a varios fabricantes en Canadá la producción de 30.000 respiradores, Ottawa ha solicitado al premio Nobel Art McDonald que desarrolle un respirador de bajo costo y fácil construcción, dijo Trudeau.

El anuncio de la producción de mascarillas de forma local también se produce cuando las autoridades médicas de Canadá han cambiado su opinión sobre su uso por parte de personas sanas y ahora recomiendan su utilización a toda la población en supermercados o el transporte público.

Las autoridades sanitarias también dijeron este martes que el número de casos positivos del COVID-19 en el país aumentó en las pasadas 24 horas en 1.205 y el total se sitúa en 17.872. Un total de 337 personas han muerto a causa de la enfermedad en el país.

También hoy, Trudeau negó que las donaciones que la compañía china Huawei está realizando a Canadá de material médico influirán en la decisión de Ottawa sobre el uso de sus equipos de telecomunicaciones 5G, una decisión que se tenía que producir este año.

Trudeau igualmente negó que las donaciones de millones de mascarillas afecten el caso de Meng Wanzhou, la hija del fundador de Huawei y directora financiera de la compañía, y que está detenida en Canadá después de que Estados Unidos solicitase su extradición.

El primer ministro canadiense afirmó que las donaciones de Huawei "no afectarán nuestras decisiones o cualquier otro tema".


          

Turkey in Europe / 1856   

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Andrew Cuomo: Use of Hydroxychloroquine 'Anecdotally' Positive in New York Hospitals   

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The use of hydroxychloroquine has been "anecdotally" positive for patients with the coronavirus, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said during a press briefing Monday.
          

Podcast 553: Airway Management in the Hypoxic COVID-19 Patient (Recorded 4/3/20)   

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Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD

Educational pearls:

  • Clinical management of COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, relying on case reports and clinical experience
  • In just a month, the consensus around management of COVID patients with severe hypoxia has shifted from an early intubation strategy to other, non-invasive means
  • Intubating early can quickly consume ventilator resources, require increased intensive care monitoring, and likely leads to longer hospital stays and once COVID patients are intubated, extubation can take days to weeks.
  • In Italy, ventilator supplies were depleted leading to the use of helmet CPAP machines, which appeared to be effective in management of respiratory distress in COVID, though not available for use in the US
  • Non-invasive ventilation such as CPAP/BiPAP is thought to increase risk to staff for infection via aerosolization, and has often been avoided in COVID patients
  • High flow nasal cannulas appear to pose less of a risk of aerosolization of viral particles (especially when a surgical mask is placed over the patient’s nose, mouth and apparatus)
  • Anecdotal evidence from NYC has shown success allowing conscious patients to maintain hypoxia on HFN, where they will self prone to help with lung recruitment, and seemingly do well despite persistent saturations in the 80s or less
  • Hospitals around the country are moving away from the intubate early methodology in favor of high flow oxygen therapy as long as they are not having issues with work of breathing or other complications
  • The pathophysiology of respiratory distress and hypoxia in COVID patients is evolving as well, and some presentations appear similar to disease processes such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) rather than acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), in that patients are quite well appearing despite phenomenally low oximetry readings. 
    • These select patients appear to be excellent candidates for non-invasive means rather than an early intubation strategy

 

Editor’s note: do not take lightly that intubation is one of the highest risk aerosolization generating procedures, along with many peri-intubation procedures like suctioning, BVM, etc.

 

References

[1]. Sorbello, M. et al. The Italian coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: recommendations from clinical practice. Anaesthesia. 2020 Mar 27.

[2]. Giwa, AL. Desai A. Duca A. Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians. Emerg Med Pract. 2020 May 1;22(5):1-28. 

[3]. Ather B, Edemekong PF. Airborne Precautions. [Updated 2020 Feb 17]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan.

Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD 

Photo Credit: New England Journal of Medicine

https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2007589?query=RP


          

An Orthodox Case Against Utility Functions by abramdemski   

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This post has benefit­ted from dis­cus­sion with Sam Eisen­stat, Scott Garrabrant, Tsvi Ben­son-Tilsen, Daniel Dem­ski, Daniel Koko­ta­jlo, and Stu­art Arm­strong. It started out as a thought about Stu­art Arm­strong’s re­search agenda.

In this post, I hope to say some­thing about what it means for a ra­tio­nal agent to have prefer­ences. The view I am putting for­ward is rel­a­tively new to me, but it is not very rad­i­cal. It is, dare I say, a con­ser­va­tive view—I hold close to Bayesian ex­pected util­ity the­ory. How­ever, my im­pres­sion is that it differs greatly from com­mon im­pres­sions of Bayesian ex­pected util­ity the­ory.

I will ar­gue against a par­tic­u­lar view of ex­pected util­ity the­ory—a view which I’ll call re­duc­tive util­ity. I do not re­call see­ing this view ex­plic­itly laid out and defended (ex­cept in in-per­son con­ver­sa­tions). How­ever, I ex­pect at least a good chunk of the as­sump­tions are com­monly made.

Re­duc­tive Utility

The core ten­ants of re­duc­tive util­ity are as fol­lows:

  • The sam­ple space of a ra­tio­nal agent’s be­liefs is, more or less, the set of pos­si­ble ways the world could be—which is to say, the set of pos­si­ble phys­i­cal con­figu­ra­tions of the uni­verse. Hence, each world is one such con­figu­ra­tion.

  • The prefer­ences of a ra­tio­nal agent are rep­re­sented by a util­ity func­tion from wor­lds to real num­bers.

  • Fur­ther­more, the util­ity func­tion should be a com­putable func­tion of wor­lds.

Since I’m set­ting up the view which I’m knock­ing down, there is a risk I’m strik­ing at a straw man. How­ever, I think there are some good rea­sons to find the view ap­peal­ing. The fol­low­ing sub­sec­tions will ex­pand on the three ten­ants, and at­tempt to provide some mo­ti­va­tion for them.

If the three points seem ob­vi­ous to you, you might just skip to the next sec­tion.

Wor­lds Are Ba­si­cally Physical

What I mean here re­sem­bles the stan­dard phys­i­cal-re­duc­tion­ist view. How­ever, my em­pha­sis is on cer­tain fea­tures of this view:

  • There is some “ba­sic stuff”—like like quarks or vibrat­ing strings or what-have-you.

  • What there is to know about the world is some set of state­ments about this ba­sic stuff—par­ti­cle lo­ca­tions and mo­men­tums, or wave-form func­tion val­ues, or what-have-you.

  • Th­ese spe­cial atomic state­ments should be log­i­cally in­de­pen­dent from each other (though they may of course be prob­a­bil­is­ti­cally re­lated), and to­gether, fully de­ter­mine the world.

  • Th­ese should (more or less) be what be­liefs are about, such that we can (more or less) talk about be­liefs in terms of the sam­ple space as be­ing the set of wor­lds un­der­stood in this way.

This is the so-called “view from nowhere”, as Thomas Nagel puts it.

I don’t in­tend to con­strue this po­si­tion as rul­ing out cer­tain non-phys­i­cal facts which we may have be­liefs about. For ex­am­ple, we may be­lieve in­dex­i­cal facts on top of the phys­i­cal facts—there might be (1) be­liefs about the uni­verse, and (2) be­liefs about where we are in the uni­verse. Ex­cep­tions like this vi­o­late an ex­treme re­duc­tive view, but are still close enough to count as re­duc­tive think­ing for my pur­poses.

Utility Is a Func­tion of Worlds

So we’ve got the “ba­si­cally phys­i­cal” . Now we write down a util­ity func­tion . In other words, util­ity is a ran­dom vari­able on our event space.

What’s the big deal?

One thing this is say­ing is that prefer­ences are a func­tion of the world. Speci­fi­cally, prefer­ences need not only de­pend on what is ob­served. This is in­com­pat­i­ble with stan­dard RL in a way that mat­ters.

But, in ad­di­tion to say­ing that util­ity can de­pend on more than just ob­ser­va­tions, we are re­strict­ing util­ity to only de­pend on things that are in the world. After we con­sider all the in­for­ma­tion in , there can­not be any ex­tra un­cer­tainty about util­ity—no ex­tra “moral facts” which we may be un­cer­tain of. If there are such moral facts, they have to be pre­sent some­where in the uni­verse (at least, deriv­able from facts about the uni­verse).

One im­pli­ca­tion of this: if util­ity is about high-level en­tities, the util­ity func­tion is re­spon­si­ble for de­riv­ing them from low-level stuff. For ex­am­ple, if the uni­verse is made of quarks, but util­ity is a func­tion of beauty, con­scious­ness, and such, then needs to con­tain the beauty-de­tec­tor and con­scious­ness-de­tec­tor and so on—oth­er­wise how can it com­pute util­ity given all the in­for­ma­tion about the world?

Utility Is Computable

Fi­nally, and most crit­i­cally for the dis­cus­sion here, should be a com­putable func­tion.

To clar­ify what I mean by this: should have some sort of rep­re­sen­ta­tion which al­lows us to feed it into a Tur­ing ma­chine—let’s say it’s an in­finite bit-string which as­signs true or false to each of the “atomic sen­tences” which de­scribe the world. should be a com­putable func­tion; that is, there should be a Tur­ing ma­chine which takes a ra­tio­nal num­ber and takes , prints a ra­tio­nal num­ber within of , and halts. (In other words, we can com­pute to any de­sired de­gree of ap­prox­i­ma­tion.)

Why should be com­putable?

One ar­gu­ment is that should be com­putable be­cause the agent has to be able to use it in com­pu­ta­tions. This per­spec­tive is es­pe­cially ap­peal­ing if you think of as a black-box func­tion which you can only op­ti­mize through search. If you can’t eval­u­ate , how are you sup­posed to use it? If ex­ists as an ac­tual mod­ule some­where in the brain, how is it sup­posed to be im­ple­mented? (If you don’t think this sounds very con­vinc­ing, great!)

Re­quiring to be com­putable may also seem easy. What is there to lose? Are there prefer­ence struc­tures we re­ally care about be­ing able to rep­re­sent, which are fun­da­men­tally not com­putable?

And what would it even mean for a com­putable agent to have non-com­putable prefer­ences?

How­ever, the com­putabil­ity re­quire­ment is more re­stric­tive than it may seem.

There is a sort of con­ti­nu­ity im­plied by com­putabil­ity: must not de­pend too much on “small” differ­ences be­tween wor­lds. The com­pu­ta­tion only ac­cesses finitely many bits of be­fore it halts. All the rest of the bits in must not make more than differ­ence to the value of .

This means some seem­ingly sim­ple util­ity func­tions are not com­putable.

As an ex­am­ple, con­sider the pro­cras­ti­na­tion para­dox. Your task is to push a but­ton. You get 10 util­ity for push­ing the but­ton. You can push it any time you like. How­ever, if you never press the but­ton, you get −10. On any day, you are fine with putting the but­ton-press­ing off for one more day. Yet, if you put it off for­ever, you lose!

We can think of as a string like 000000100.., where the “1” is the day you push the but­ton. To com­pute the util­ity, we might look for the “1″, out­putting 10 if we find it.

But what about the all-zero uni­verse, 0000000...? The pro­gram must loop for­ever. We can’t tell we’re in the all-zero uni­verse by ex­am­in­ing any finite num­ber of bits. You don’t know whether you will even­tu­ally push the but­ton. (Even if the uni­verse also gives your source code, you can’t nec­es­sar­ily tell from that—the log­i­cal difficulty of de­ter­min­ing this about your­self is, of course, the origi­nal point of the pro­cras­ti­na­tion para­dox.)

Hence, a prefer­ence struc­ture like this is not com­putable, and is not al­lowed ac­cord­ing to the re­duc­tive util­ity doc­trine.

The ad­vo­cate of re­duc­tive util­ity might take this as a vic­tory. The pro­cras­ti­na­tion para­dox has been avoided, and other para­doxes with a similar struc­ture. (The St. Peters­burg Para­dox is an­other ex­am­ple.)

On the other hand, if you think this is a le­gi­t­i­mate prefer­ence struc­ture, deal­ing with such ‘prob­le­matic’ prefer­ences mo­ti­vates aban­don­ment of re­duc­tive util­ity.

Sub­jec­tive Utility: The Real Thing

We can strongly op­pose all three points with­out leav­ing or­tho­dox Bayesi­anism. Speci­fi­cally, I’ll sketch how the Jeffrey-Bolker ax­ioms en­able non-re­duc­tive util­ity. (The ti­tle of this sec­tion is a refer­ence to Jeffrey’s book Sub­jec­tive Prob­a­bil­ity: The Real Thing.)

How­ever, the real po­si­tion I’m ad­vo­cat­ing is more grounded in log­i­cal in­duc­tion rather than the Jeffrey-Bolker ax­ioms; I’ll sketch that ver­sion at the end.

The View From Somewhere

The re­duc­tive-util­ity view ap­proached things from the start­ing-point of the uni­verse. Beliefs are for what is real, and what is real is ba­si­cally phys­i­cal.

The non-re­duc­tive view starts from the stand­point of the agent. Beliefs are for things you can think about. This doesn’t rule out a phys­i­cal­ist ap­proach. What it does do is give high-level ob­jects like ta­bles and chairs an equal foot­ing with low-level ob­jects like quarks: both are in­ferred from sen­sory ex­pe­rience by the agent.

Rather than as­sum­ing an un­der­ly­ing set of wor­lds, Jeffrey-Bolker as­sume only a set of events. For two events and , the con­junc­tion ex­ists, and the dis­junc­tion , and the nega­tions and . How­ever, un­like in the Kol­mogorov ax­ioms, these are not as­sumed to be in­ter­sec­tion, union, and com­ple­ment of an un­der­ly­ing set of wor­lds.

Let me em­pha­size that: we need not as­sume there are “wor­lds” at all.

In philos­o­phy, this is called situ­a­tion se­man­tics—an al­ter­na­tive to the more com­mon pos­si­ble-world se­man­tics. In math­e­mat­ics, it brings to mind pointless topol­ogy.

In the Jeffrey-Bolker treat­ment, a world is just a max­i­mally spe­cific event: an event which de­scribes ev­ery­thing com­pletely. But there is no re­quire­ment that max­i­mally-spe­cific events ex­ist. Per­haps any event, no mat­ter how de­tailed, can be fur­ther ex­tended by spec­i­fy­ing some yet-un­men­tioned stuff. (In­deed, the Jeffrey-Bolker ax­ioms as­sume this! Although, Jeffrey does not seem philo­soph­i­cally com­mit­ted to that as­sump­tion, from what I have read.)

Thus, there need not be any “view from nowhere”—no se­man­tic van­tage point from which we see the whole uni­verse.

This, of course, de­prives us of the ob­jects which util­ity was a func­tion of, in the re­duc­tive view.

Utility Is a Func­tion of Events

The re­duc­tive-util­ity makes a dis­tinc­tion be­tween util­ity—the ran­dom vari­able it­self—and ex­pected util­ity, which is the sub­jec­tive es­ti­mate of the ran­dom vari­able which we use for mak­ing de­ci­sions.

The Jeffrey-Bolker frame­work does not make a dis­tinc­tion. Every­thing is a sub­jec­tive prefer­ence eval­u­a­tion.

A re­duc­tive-util­ity ad­vo­cate sees the ex­pected util­ity of an event as de­rived from the util­ity of the wor­lds within the event. They start by defin­ing ; then, we define the ex­pected util­ity of an event as -- or, more gen­er­ally, the cor­re­spond­ing in­te­gral.

In the Jeffrey-Bolker frame­work, we in­stead define di­rectly on events. Th­ese prefer­ences are re­quired to be co­her­ent with break­ing things up into sums, so = -- but we do not define one from the other.

We don’t have to know how to eval­u­ate en­tire wor­lds in or­der to eval­u­ate events. All we have to know is how to eval­u­ate events!

Up­dates Are Computable

Jeffrey-Bolker doesn’t say any­thing about com­putabil­ity. How­ever, if we do want to ad­dress this sort of is­sue, it leaves us in a differ­ent po­si­tion.

Be­cause sub­jec­tive ex­pec­ta­tion is pri­mary, it is now more nat­u­ral to re­quire that the agent can eval­u­ate events, with­out any re­quire­ment about a func­tion on wor­lds. (Of course, we could do that in the Kol­mogorov frame­work.)

Agents don’t need to be able to com­pute the util­ity of a whole world. All they need to know is how to up­date ex­pected util­ities as they go along.

Of course, the sub­jec­tive util­ity can’t be just any way of up­dat­ing as you go along. It needs to be co­her­ent, in the sense of the Jeffrey-Bolker ax­ioms. And, main­tain­ing co­her­ence can be very difficult. But it can be quite easy even in cases where the ran­dom-vari­able treat­ment of the util­ity func­tion is not com­putable.

Let’s go back to the pro­cras­ti­na­tion ex­am­ple. In this case, to eval­u­ate the ex­pected util­ity of each ac­tion at a given time-step, the agent does not need to figure out whether it ever pushes the but­ton. It just needs to have some prob­a­bil­ity, which it up­dates over time.

For ex­am­ple, an agent might ini­tially as­sign prob­a­bil­ity to press­ing the but­ton at time , and to never press­ing the but­ton. Its prob­a­bil­ity that it would ever press the but­ton, and thus its util­ity es­ti­mate, would de­crease with each ob­served time-step in which it didn’t press the but­ton. (Of course, such an agent would press the but­

          

The Pope don't work at McDonald's   

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The Forbidden World | The New Yorker
Time to recant...

Penance will not be reformed any time soon. I have this on good authority from a friend in the US of A. It just can't be done, apparently.

Likewise, Pope Francis will not be working in McDonald's out of humility (fake news); Cardinal Sin really existed (he's dead now, though, even if sin continues); and Coronavirus is not the Apocalypse (until it is).

What's my point?

I suppose the Church has attracted quite a lot of myths and legends. I don't mean the content of its teaching, of course (try Liberal Blog for sentiments along that line), but its reputation and history.

Another infamous one was Alfred Kinsey, the American sexologist, who declared forcefully that the Vatican had a vast catalogued pornography archive in its vaults. Of course, it was some sort of projection on his part (if not an attempt to destroy the Church) but this myth has been believed by millions, allegedly ratifying the sordid and hypocritical reputation of the Roman Church.

Before we are swept up into anger and hostility at our own Church, though, it's worth asking, what are the Church's official teachings? In the 1970 film The Last Valley (starring Michael Caine and Omar Sharif), for example, the director has the parish priest in some obscure Austrian village during the 30 Years War licensing village women as prostitutes for invading mercenaries on the basis of an indulgence. (What? Indulgences! Those evil Catholics! I bet they really did that!) Well no, I've not heard that one issuing from the Council of Trent...

The same goes with paedophilia and the priesthood, of course. That it has occurred cannot be doubted, nor should real instances be buried to avoid scandal. Justice must be done. At the same time, plenty of Catholics have used the phenomenon as an excuse to jack in the faith altogether. Yet the horrendous behaviour of some priests can't be representative of the behaviour of the vast majority. (Don't make the majority much cop, but that's another issue.) But those who have bad experiences of the Church don't always remain impartial about these matters. If you want to believe the Church is a nest of perverts, and go on to apostatise as a result, who can stop you?

People often prefer their own take on things to believing that there is an objective reality out there which the Church can teach about authoritatively. But that is the origin of haeres - heresy - when individuals decide to believe something else, rather than what is laid down authentically. In the end, if there is no real official teaching, and all is in the air, then neither can a random collection of doctrines projected from our own minds or wills be true, either. Heresy may bring a thrill, but it's ultimately the idiotic thrill of the man (or woman) special pleading for their aesthetic, sexual, psychological, or financial predilections (or failings). And a dollop of pride, of course.

It is often said that the existence and functioning of the Catholic Church is a miracle. Why has an institution of this kind not been destroyed by disunity, heresy, sin, and psychosis? What exempts the Church from decay and destruction (which didn't spare the empires Roman, Hitleric, and Soviet)? The answer has to be that by supernatural assistance, God has preserved the Church, throughout history. Individuals sin, but the Church is not overcome. By grace, God has allowed the faithful to continue believing in Jesus, in spite of scandals and bad experiences on the human level. Added to that, the Church's teaching is true, even if we can't grasp it, or don't particularly like or enjoy it. At least we can accept it: by another miracle, we realise the futility of leaving the Church to reinvent the wheel of Christian doctrine (just like all the others).

So, it is probably all to the good that Penance will not be reformed according to what I may want. It wouldn't solve anything, since those who don't want to repent, do not rush to do so in any form, while those who want to, will continue to go to confession. I could just become a Lutheran or Anglican to get confession changed/abolished/made voluntary. But then I'd be in a much tougher situation with regards to Christian unity and credibility, as well as feeling like a fool. This is why many Protestants have become Catholics; while few intellectual Catholics become Protestants.

The truth's the truth, after all.

Fair doos.

St. Joseph Syro Malabar Catholic Forane Church | Sacrament of ...



          

Following Orders, MRC Slavishly Pushed Trump's 'Chinese Virus' Narrative   

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Like its "news" division CNSNews.com, the Media Research Center proper latched on to President Trump's insistence (for about a week) on labeling the coronavirus the "Chinese virus." And like a local Trump apparatchik, the MRC declared Trump to be perfect in his assessment and attacked or mocking anyone who dared questioned dear leader -- and issued blanket denials that anyone was inspired to commit violence against Asian Americans because of it.

  • And faster than you can say “identity politics,” CNN abruptly began to toe the Chinese Communist party line. One CNNer after another began saying that, yes indeed, the phrase “Wuhan Virus” or “Chinese Virus” is….racist.- - Jeffrey Lord, March 14
  • [Mark Levin and Michael Pillsbury] discussed how China is intimidating American media outlets, using their loathing of President Trump to now insist that talk of a "Wuhan virus" or a "Chinese virus" is racist. American media outlets want access to China, but China won't allow critical reporters to enter China, or stay if they grow critical. -- Tim Graham, March 16
  • We've all witnessed the shocking scenes of racists attacking Asian-Americans, accusing them of responsibility for the coronavirus! Oh, wait: we've seen no such thing. But that didn't stop MSNBC political analyst Karine Jean-Pierre of MoveOn.org from spouting off late Monday afternoon that talking about the coronavirus as "Chinese virus" (as President Trump has) was not only racist, but places Asian-American "lives at risk" for having spoken as such. The horror! -- Mark Finkelstein, March 17
  • Trump’s insistence on calling the coronavirus a “Chinese virus” -- which again, it is -- triggered vast swaths of the lefty community, particularly in Hollywood. Remember, saying “Chinese virus” might rub Chinese folks the wrong way. It’s not politically correct and that’s what matters in a global emergency. -- Gabriel Hays, March 18
  • During Wednesday’s coronavirus press conference at the White House, ABC’s Cecilia Vega and PBS’s Yamiche Alcindor worked together to claim that President Trump’s use of the term “Chinese virus” was “racist” and “puts Asian Americans at risk.” -- Kyle Drennen, March 18
  • [Stephen Colbert] was again torching the President’s coronavirus response and press briefings, particularly blasting Trump for his use of the phrase “Chinese virus.” Colbert called Trump stating the obvious a “very racist term.” -- Gabriel Hays, March 18
  • Communist China knew about the coronavirus for months and wasted critical time trying to silence those who tried to warn the world. But broadcast networks ABC and NBC seemed intent to help the Chinese propaganda machine cover up those facts on Wednesday as they insisted President Trump was being “racist” by calling it the “Chinese Virus.” ABC senior White House correspondent Cecilia Vega even insinuated Trump was trying to unfairly shift blame onto the communists. -- Nicholas Fondacaro, March 18
  • Dr. Anthony Fauci and the rest of the coronavirus task force were busy dealing with the crisis and it wasn’t their job. They’re not the ones that need to tackle the geopolitical jockeying or play the international game of chess between the U.S. and China right now. That’s the President’s job. Calling it out as the “Chinese Virus” or “Wuhan Virus” cut through the propaganda campaign. -- Nicholas Fondaaro, March 18
  • On Thursday, the NBC and CBS morning shows kept pushing the narrative that President Trump’s use of the phrase “Chinese virus” was “racist” and endangering people. NBC even attempted to claim that China “helped” the rest of the world by “delaying” the spread of coronavirus. ... The reporter never bothered to mention the President’s explanation for using the term was about holding China’s authoritarian government accountable for its dishonesty about the initial spread of the virus – not a racial statement.-- Kyle Drennen, March 19
  • Thursday’s New York Times again showed the paper’s warped priorities during the global health emergency: “Trump Calls It the ‘Chinese Virus.' Critics Say That’s Racist and Provocative.” (Normal people would say it's factually accurate.)  -- Clay Waters, March 19
  • On Wednesday's Deadline: White House on MSNBC, fill-in host John Heilemann joined in on the pettiness of some journalists claiming that it is "racist" for President Donald Trump to accurately acknowledge that the coronavirus infections first appeared in China by calling it the "Chinese virus." -- Brad Wilmouth, March 19
  • The three instances of Chinese propaganda shown by Telemundo within an 18-hour period are, to wit: That addressing the pandemic by its geographical origin is now racist. ... Telemundo seems intent on mirroring the rest of the liberal media’s “Blame America” coverage of the Wuhan virus, and on asking its audience to accept Chinese propaganda at face value. -- Jorge Bonilla, March 19
  • While Americans are suffering as people lose their jobs due to the economic impact of the coronavirus, ABC journalists continue showcasing how they care more about President Trump using politically correct terms than anything else. Just one day after ABC’s White House correspondent Cecilia Vega badgered “racist” Trump during a press conference, Nightlinehost JuJu Chang tied Trump's use of the term “Chinese virus” to an alleged “rise in outbreaks of racism” and violence against Asian-Americans. -- Kristine Marsh, March 20
  • The Avengers star lectured the president for referring to the coronavirus as the “Chinese Virus.” Though the pandemic has interrupted life around the globe in part because the Chinese failed to be honest about the outbreak, AND though it’s from CHINA, referring to it as “Chinese virus” is “xenophobic” and makes Trump supporters act “violently and “exclusionary.” ... Second: again, most of the reason that the virus is being referred to as the Chinese virus is because of expediency. The damn thing came from there and most normal folks will colloquially refer to it as so without flipping through the PC handbook to the lengthy chapter on “How to Politely Greet Foreign Viruses Who Knock On Your Door.” -- Gabriel Hays, March 20
  • On Joy Reid's MSNBC show today, Asian-American ex-Republican Kurt Bardella claimed that because President Trump uses the—accurate—term "Chinese virus": "People who look like me can't ride the subway without being attacked. They can't go to school without being attacked." ... But there is no evidence that this is widespread, or that many Asians are not riding the subway or going to school out of fear. Moreover, there is no evidence of any attacks being caused by Pres. Trump's use of "Chinese virus." Guess what? Without any help from Pres. Trump, most people know where the disease came from! -- Mark Finkelstein, March 22
  • After blaming regrettable (if anecdotal) confrontations with Asian-Americans on a factually accurate label (“Asian-Americans also say the “Chinese virus” label has led to incidents of racial slurs and physical attacks.”), the story ended with a quote from (naturally) an Obama official, Ryan Hass.- - Clay Waters, March 23
  • TV journalists have yet to go a day without crying “racist” in the nearly two weeks since President Trump accurately stated that the current coronavirus outbreak originated in China. But although the President’s continued assertions that the virus is “Chinese” or “foreign” have so thoroughly upset the media, most of them are unable to explain what exactly has them so upset about it.-- Bill D'Agostino, March 24
  • Hollywood loves using the Coronavirus pandemic as an opportunity to bash the Trump administration's priorities. But what about Hollywood’s priorities? Is it a good time to drag out a bunch of Asian and Asian American actors to continue a petty squabble about the President’s usage of the phrase “Chinese virus,” something he has even dropped in the past week? -- Gabriel Hays, March 25

And just as Hays was seemingly disappointed that Trump backed off on the "Chinese virus" narrative, so did the MRC after that. They're slavishly in lockstep with the president, after all, and they no longer had a narrative to push.

The MRC follows orders well, doesn't it?


          

Nawet do 500 tys. zł na modernizację gospodarstw rolnych   

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A Study in Colossians: Part 11 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Pt 10   

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Preacher Lucas Macdonald continues in our study of Colossians, now moving into chapter 3 where Paul takes the doctrine he has taught in chapters 1 & 2 and makes practical applications. Lucas explores the paradox of being “in the world, but not of the world”.  We are to have a preoccupation with the divine, a continual […]

The post A Study in Colossians: Pt 10 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Part 9   

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Continuing in our study through the book of Colossians, preacher Lucas Macdonald explores in detail each of the four strands of false teaching which were permeating the church in Colossae – philosophy (Christ plus knowledge) , legalism (Christ plus works of righteousness), mysticism (Christ plus higher subjective spiritual experience), and asceticism (Christ plus rigorous self-denial).  Lucas closed […]

The post A Study in Colossians: Part 9 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

The Five Solas of the Reformation: Sola Fide   

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Justification by faith alone is the substance and the heart of true Christianity.  In this third of our sermon series on the Reformation, Lucas Macdonald preaches on the topic of “Sola Fide” (by faith alone).  A solid definition was given of salvation by means of justification by faith, and it was noted that this is solely a […]

The post The Five Solas of the Reformation: Sola Fide appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Part 8   

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In this sermon, preacher Lucas Macdonald continues for us his journey through the book of Colossians. Looking firstly at the divine nature present bodily in Christ, this message then touched on the foolishness of the world’s philosophies, the representation of baptism, our salvation as a powerful work of God, and our inability to please God […]

The post A Study in Colossians: Part 8 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Part 7   

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Preacher Lucas Macdonald continues his study through the book of Colossians, continuing in Chapter 2. Touching on the danger of deception through subtle worldly reasoning and philosophies, Lucas also examines the internal condition of the church and the Christian character, the need for our faith to be deeply rooted in faith in Christ, and the offering […]

The post A Study in Colossians: Part 7 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Part 6   

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Preacher Lucas Macdonald continues his study in the book of Colossians. 

The post A Study in Colossians: Part 6 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

Responses to Remembering Jesus   

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Communion Sunday is always a wonderful time to specifically remember Jesus and what was accomplished for us on the cross.  In this sermon, preacher Lucas Macdonald asks the question “How do you react when you remember Jesus?” We all think of Jesus from varying perspectives, and these produce varying reactions.  Reviewing several of these emotions brought about by […]

The post Responses to Remembering Jesus appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

A Study in Colossians: Part 4   

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Once hostile enemies of God, now totally reconciled to God. Our preacher Lucas Macdonald continues his series in the book of Colossians, bringing us Part 4 from chapter 1 verses 21-23. Beginning with a review of the previous 3 instalments in the series, Lucas then draws out some incredible truths relating to our reconciliation with […]

The post A Study in Colossians: Part 4 appeared first on Mount Cathedral Baptist Church.


          

Avec le coronavirus, McDo écarte les jambes   

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Toujours sur le coup le clown Ronald. Dans le monde réel sur des panneaux canadiens, virtuellement sur les réseaux sociaux, le grand M stylisé qui sert de logo à Mac Donald’s a changé de look. Les jambes de son M majuscule sont écartées en clin d’oeil à la distanciation sociale qu’impose le covid-19. C’est l’agence […]

L’article Avec le coronavirus, McDo écarte les jambes est apparu en premier sur Charlie Hebdo.


          

Coronation Street spoilers: Leanne Battersby furious as Steve McDonald seeks legal advice over custody of Oliver   

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LEANNE Battersby fights with Steve McDonald in a furious showdown next week in Coronation Street when she realises he wants custody of their son Oliver Battersby. Viewers of the ITV soap have noticed that the youngster has been looking tired and peaky a lot recently. And things are only set to worsen for Steve and […]
          

¡Belinda se reconcilió con Maluma! y cantaron juntos "Hoy tengo ganas de ti"   

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El interprete de 'Mala Mia' llamó “ratoncita” a la mexicana y ambos compartieron anécdotas familiares en la cuarentena. [VIDEO].

          

Russia confirms biggest one-day spike in new Covid-19 cases, almost 1,000 reported on Monday as virus hits 80 of 85 regions   

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  April 06, 2020   A municipal worker spraying disinfectant in central Moscow, on April 5, 2020 © AFP / Yuri Kadobnov   By Bryan MacDonald | RT News   A week after most of the country went into a strict partial lockdown, Russia reported 954 new Covid-19 infections on Monday. A sharp increase on ...
          

Fundația pentru Copii Ronald McDonald susține lupta împotriva Covid-19   

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Fundația pentru Copii Ronald McDonald se alătură luptei împotriva Covid-19 și donează 60.000 de euro pentru a susține lucrările de amenajare a secției ATI de la Institutul Național de Geriatrie și Gerontologie Ana Aslan. Secția va deservi noul spital temporar ROL 2, care a fost ridicat pentru a asigura asistență medicală specializată pentru pacienții infectați cu noul coronavirus. Prin această donație, Fundația susține o parte importantă din lucrările de amenajare a secției nou înființate, cu o suprafață de 650 mp, care va oferi cele mai bune condiții de siguranță, ajutând astfel la determinarea unui prognostic mai bun pentru pacienții internați. Conform estimărilor oficialilor Institutului Național de Geriatrie și Gerontologie Ana Aslan, în fiecare lună, secția va putea permite tratarea a cel puțin 50 de pacienți în stare gravă.   Pentru noua secție ATI au fost create trei linii noi de gardă, astfel încât medicii să fie alături de cei internați la orice oră din zi și din noapte. În plus, această secție va fi echipată cu panouri de comandă și control, care permit personalului medical să supravegheze și să asiste pacienții, la cele mai înalte standarde de siguranță. Noua secție va fi dată în folosință în cursul lunii aprilie. „Fundația Ronald McDonald este prima organizație care a decis să ne susțină financiar demersul nostru de amenajare a unei noi secții de anestezie-terapie intensivă în cadrul Clinicii „Ana Aslan” din Otopeni. Proiectul pe care îl creăm împreună, dă de fapt românilor   o șansă în plus de reușită   în lupta cu COVID-19. Vă mulțumim, așadar, pentru tot sprijinul și promptitudinea cu care ați răspuns cererii noastre de ajutor, mai ales că timpul este un factor-cheie în misiunea noastră de a asigura în timp record condiții de tratament pentru cazurile grave de COVID-19 care ajung la spitalul ROL 2, găzduit de INGG Ana Aslan în clinica din Otopeni.” a declarat Dr. Anca Ștefan, Managerul Institutului Național de Geriatrie și Gerontologie Ana Aslan „În aceste vremuri dificile pentru noi toți, continuăm să fim alături de comunitate și să facem bine alături de Fundația Ronald McDonald pentru a susține activitatea spitalelor publice din România. De această dată, pentru a sprijini lupta împotriva răspândirii COVID-19 ne îndreptăm eforturile spre susținerea amenajării secției ATI de la Institutul Ana Aslan, dar și fiind aproape de cadrele medicale care fac eforturi extraordinare în această perioadă. Este mai important ca oricând să fim solidari și să încercăm să oferim ajutor tuturor celor care au nevoie”, a declarat Daniel Boaje, membru fondator al Fundației pentru Copii Ronald McDonald România și director general Premier Restaurants România. Pentru a oferi mai mult sprijin în lupta cu Covid-19, începând cu luna aprilie, Fundația Ronald McDonald oferă cazare gratuită personalului medical din Spitalul Clinic de Urgență pentru Copii Grigore Alexandrescu,   în Casa Ronald McDonald aflată în incinta Spitalului. Din 2003, Casa Ronald McDonald servește drept casă departe de casă pentru părinții ai căror copii sunt internați în spital pentru tratamente îndelungate, familii care vin din afara Bucureștiului și care au posibilități materiale reduse. Pe perioada epidemiei, însă, medicii și asistentele din Spitalul Grigore Alexandrescu vor locui în cele 14 camere din Casă, pentru a putea fi cât mai aproape de pacienții lor. „ În această perioadă fără precedent în istoria omenirii, fiecare organizație non-profit este pusă să regândească felul în care își poate adapta misiunea în așa fel încât să poată ajută cât mai mult și mai eficient. Împreună cu echipa noastră de la Fundația pentru Copii Ronald McDonald am găsit cele mai bune soluții în care să putem da și noi o mână de ajutor pentru cei care sunt în linia întâi a acestui nemilos război, infecția cu noul coronavirus. Ne înclinăm în fața medicilor și a personalului sanitar din toate spitalele care luptă pentru sănătate ”, a declarat Amalia Năstase, Președinte al Fundației pentru Copii Ronald McDonald România. De asemenea, toate fondurile colectate de Fundație în lunile martie și aprilie sunt redirecționate pentru susținerea spitalelor Grigore Alexandrescu și Marie Curie din București, Louis Țurcanu din Timișoara și Sf. Maria din Iași cu echipamente de protecție, materiale și consumabile. Până acum, au fost distribuite 22.000 de mănuși, 12.000 de măști chirurgicale, 500 de kituri complete de protecție pentru personalul medical din cele patru spitale pentru copii.
          

Comment on ‘The beck is blocked.’ by jwebster2    

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In reply to <a href="https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://jandbvwebster.wordpress.com/2020/04/05/the-beck-is-blocked/comment-page-1/#comment-34702">Doug Jacquier</a>. Based anecdotally local butchers doing quite well. Apparently corner shops and similar getting a boost because people are avoiding supermarkets (The queues to get in because of 'social distancing' are often phenomenal ) (as an aside somebody told me supermarket wasn't as cheap as it had been because no two for 1 offers or similar but I'm not been in one for over a week so cannot comment) Those farms offering veg boxes or delivery seem to be doing well.
          

Detroit Gallery Packages Meals with Artist-Designed Coloring Book for Kids   

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(photo by Zach Elwart)

Detroit hustles harder. So it’s not surprising that the citizens of this city are turning despair and fear into opportunities during the coronavirus health crisis.

For one Detroit gallery owner and restaurateur, that means spearheading a project that feeds out-of-school students’ bellies with food and their spirits with art.

“The current pandemic has created an unprecedented situation where not only are students left without the academic, social and creative stimulation provided in a school environment, many are at risk of missing the only meal they receive each day,” says Anthony Curis, co-founder of Library Street Collective, a contemporary fine art gallery.

Library Street Collective, located in downtown Detroit’s Grand Circus Park district, is offering free weekday dinners to 200 Detroit Public Schools students each day for two weeks. In each meal package provided, students receive a limited-edition sketchbook filled with colorable drawings and graphics by 29 emerging and established artists, and a set of colored pencils.

“This initiative allows us to provide a basic need for these students, but also a source of creativity and inspiration,” says Curis.

Contributing artists include Shepard Fairey, Nick Cave, Haroshi and Detroit artists Dabls, Conrad Egyir, Beverly Fishman, Carole Harris, Tiff Massey, Charles McGee, Allie McGhee and Jason REVOK.

Several artists have roots in the city. One such is McArthur Binion, an abstract minimalist, who was raised in Detroit. As one of 11 children, he attended Detroit Public Schools, including MacDowell Elementary School and Mumford High School.

Curis says that the sketchbook is using art as a catalyst to inspire and empower youth who are facing tough times with the COVID-19 crisis. Detroit has been particularly hard hit by the virus, with more than 2,000 confirmed cases and 75 deaths (as of April 1). The U.S. Surgeon General has called Detroit a “hotbed” and warned that things could get worse in the Motor City.

The sketchbook’s title, WE ALL RISE,was inspired by Detroit Public Schools’ new campaign: “Students Rise. We All Rise.” The book’s pages not only showcase the artists’ efforts, but also provide blank pages for students to create their own art.

Curis says that he was overwhelmed by the reaction from the artists who he asked to participate, and that they’ve been generous with their time and resources. “The artists involved are a mix of collaborators and artists that we highly respect,” says Curis. “Our goal was to pull together a sketchbook with varying influences, ideas and styles.”

One of those artists is Jason REVOK, who, although born in Riverside, California, considers Detroit his adopted home. As father to a seven-year-old child, he hopes the sketchbook allows kids to “use their imagination and have fun.”

Curis says that REVOK has been examining capabilities and limitations of his own custom tools to create studio work, public projects and walls. “His work involved in WE ALL RISE is an extension of this thought process,” says Curis.

REVOK created a new piece of work for the project. “I’ve been doodling a lot on the iPad lately, and some of the drawings I’ve been doing felt easily translatable for a kid to have fun coloring in.”

Gallery: Images from WE ALL RISE

While the sketchbook is a large-scale project unto itself, the meals, too, are no small endeavor.

Dinners are being prepared at the acclaimed Detroit restaurant Standby, with the added perk of providing work for the employees during the restaurant’s forced closure. Standby is paying for the restaurant staff working on the project. Every day, the restaurant designs a new menu and prepares and packages the meals. One meal was roasted chicken, brussels sprouts, mushrooms and polenta. On another day, students received vegan curry with roasted snap peas, cauliflower, celery root, and seasonings.

Curis is a partner at Standby, which has been nominated for two James Beard Awards, as well as two other nearby establishments: Deluxx Fluxx, a bar, music venue and arcade and The Skip, a casual tiki-inspired cocktail bar and restaurant. Staff from these two venues are also part of the cooking and packaging crew for the student meals.

Other partners in the project include the Downtown Boxing Gym, a Detroit youth development program, and Forgotten Harvest, a food rescue and delivery organization. They are managing the distribution of the meals and sketchbooks to around 200 children a day.

Forgotten Harvest has a well-oiled distribution system focused on mobile deliveries, while Downtown Boxing Gym is delivering meals to students along a drop-off route. The two nonprofits have existing routes in place for food delivery to Detroit Public Schools students during the COVID-19 school closures.

Making sure disadvantaged children have access to food is key for major cities dealing with the pandemic, and that includes Detroit. Detroit Public Schools is part of the USDA’s Community Eligibility Program, a universal meal program where all students in high-poverty areas receive free breakfast and lunch at school, without needing to qualify. Many families count on these meals to keep children healthy; now that children are home and many parents are out of work, resources for food are scarce for many families.

That knowledge is close at heart for Curis. “As the father of a six-year old son, there is nothing more upsetting than the thought of a child going hungry,” he says. “This initiative provides a basic need to DPSCD students while also empowering them to imagine and create alongside a list of groundbreaking artists.”

Response from families and students has been positive, says Curis. He hopes to scale the project to reach even more people in need.

For those who want to take their own crack at coloring the designs, Library Street Collective is making the sketchbook available for purchase. All proceeds from sales of the physical book ($12 + $8 shipping) will benefit the food distribution program. Proceeds (by donation) from the e-book will benefit Living Arts Detroit, a nonprofit that brings performing, visual and media arts to Detroit young people.

Other artists not mentioned above that contributed to the book are: Virgil Abloh, Nina Chanel Abney, Doug Aitken, Daniel Arsham, Amoako Boafo, Torkwase Dyson, Sam Friedman, FriendsWithYou, KAWS, Eddie Martinez, Simphiwe Ndzube, Jordan Nickel, Jose Parla, Julia Wachtel, Austyn Weiner, Wendy White, and Tyrrell Winston.


          

"RESTRIKTIVNE MERE SU BOLJI KONCEPT" Šeranić poručio da je dobrodošla svaka pomoć i koordinacija | Blic   

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Blic - 22:20 06/04
Ministar zdravlja i socijalne zaštite Republike Srpske Alen Šeranić rekao je da je i Srpska, kao i sve zemlje koje se bore protiv virusa korona, u procesu nabavki, pre svega najpotrebnije lične zaštitne opreme, ali i dijagnostičke i terapijske za zbrinjavanje pacijenata čije je ...
B92: Nove dve žrtve koronavirusa u Republici Srpskoj
RTV: Korona odnela još dva života u Republici Srpskoj
Blic: U Srpskoj dvoje novoobolelih od virusa, do sad 304 osobe pozitivne
19 povezane vesti »

          

"BIĆE VREMENA ZA POLITIČKE OBRAČUNE" Cvijanovićeva poručuje da su sada prioritet ljudski životi | Blic   

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Blic - 21:50 06/04
Predsednik Republike Srpske Željka Cvijanović istakla je da je u vreme epidemije virusa korona neprimereno i besmisleno govoriti o tome da li će ili neće u oktobru biti održani lokalni izbori u BiH zbog korona ...
Avaz: Cvijanović: Vidjet ćemo hoće li biti lokalnih izbora

          

[neolib] When did I ever say full migration is OK? The virus came in through immigration...   

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When did I ever say full migration is OK?

The virus came in through immigration control. It will continue to spread inside the USA just fine because of this, which BTW, has zero to do with illegal immigration. Are you bright enough to understand that?

          

[TGPTNDR] Neo, Re: >I'm sure you will retroactively have some explanation for why this d...   

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Neo,

Re: >I'm sure you will retroactively have some explanation for why this didn't contribute to more deaths. Lets see some predictions from you instead of bullshitting after the fact.

Re: lol! Both Fox and Trump are why it will keep spreading, while you think it was all China's fault.>

What ever happened to your claims that borders don't matter. Full Migration is OK. We did it in Florida and now Miami and Daytona are screwed. My local(county park) shooting range remains open. (Every other lane closed, about 12 foot actual separation between shooters, outdoors.)

Are you an agent for China? Seems so, sometimes.

Have you yet registered as foreign agent?



Just curious,

Both Fox and Trump are why it will keep spreading, while you think it was all China's fault. lol.
-tgp

          

Цветя за българския дом   

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Благоприятни цветя за българският дом, кои са те? Здравец, мушкато, индрише ...

Ето какво разказва Д-р Надежда Пенева в книгата си “Аптека в саксия”.

“Здравец, мушкато, индрише - имат силна и хубава енергия, която пречиства, оздравява и предпазва. В нашия фолклор те често се възпяват. Например с китка здравец дарявали момите своите любими, с нея закичвали оброчното агне на Гергьовден, със здравец разпръсква чудодейната светена вода свещеника по венчавки, кръщенета и на големи църковни празници.

Индришето в нашата стая оказва благоприятно въздействие върху нервната система – освежава, ободрява, снема умората и напрежението. Наред с приятния аромат, който излъчва, то отделя и фитонциди, осъществяващи естествена дезинфекция на помещението. Тези вещества в сравнително кратки срокове убиват микробите и вирусите във въздуха.

Свежото ухание на здравеца го прави символ на бодрост, здраве и дълголетие. В България е разпространено поверието, че саксия здравец в стаятапомага за дълъг и щастлив живот, непомрачаван от болести и страдания. Съвременната наука доказва, че вдишването на въздух с аромата на здравец осигурява дезинфекция на белите дробове, има противовъзпалително и противоалергично действие.

Здравецът има силна енергия, която неутрализира излъчвания и прогонва кошмари при неспокоен сън. За здрав и спокоен сън е хубаво да имате здравец в спалнята си. Добре ще пази дома ви здравец и в стаята, в която влизат най-много чужди хора. Ако имате неспокоен сън, слагайте вечер под възглавничката си листенце здравец 7 дни, а сутрин пускайте листото в течаща вода.

Мушкатото притежава чудодейната способност да поема летливите токсични вещества в състава на органичните разтворители, бои, лакове, дървообработващи и почистващи препарати и да ги разгражда до безвредни продукти. То отделя фитонциди. Те са в състояние за кратко време да намалят съдържанието на болестотворни бактерии в околния въздух с 43 на сто. Фитонцидите, вдишвани от човека спомагат за дезинфекция на белите дробове, имат противовъзпалително и противоалергично действие. Съществуват данни, че вдишваният свеж аромат на мушкато тонизира нервната система, стимулира сърдечносъдовата и дихателната дейност. Ако някой от близките ви е болен от грип или друго простудно заболяване, проветрете добре стаята му и внесете саксията със мушкато. Така ще дезинфектирате въздуха, ще ускорите оздравяването на заболелия и ще предпазите околните от заразяване. “Ако детето ви страда от алергична кашлица, поставете в стаята му саксия с мушкато.”

Ако по време на ремонт въпреки продължителното проветряване в дома ви се носи неприятната, дразнеща миризма на боя и лакове, не се отчайвайте. Извикайте на помощ добрия приятел мушкатото. “

Растения, които ни даряват енергия са и: бегонии, живораждащо каланхое, мирта, мурая, дафинов лист, лимоново дръвче, розмарин, босилек, хлорофитум.

Тези растения създават положително торсионно поле, полезно за хората.

живораждащо каланхое

Особено внимание отделям на живораждащото каланхое. Това е малко известно цвете, дори не може да се намери по цветарските магазини. Но може да го откриете в приятели Новите растения се захващат не чрез познатите ни чепки или чрез семена, а растението “ги ражда” само. Те порастват по краищата на растението-майка, падат и се вкоренява сами. Това е особено силно цвете. Руски радиестезисти доказват благоприятното му въздействие върху вредни вълни от геопатология. Разбира се, добре е да се измери радиестезично колко цветя и къде трябва да се сложат. Както и да се комбинира с други методи за трансформиране на геопатология, за което имаме отделна статия:
https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.fengshuibg.com/articles/articles/241-geopatology-xekca

Филандендронът, фикусът, драцената и китайската роза имат негативно за човека излъчване и с тях трябва да се внимава. Не бързайте да ги изхвърляте, просто ги поставете далече от мястото, на което седите дълго време. Друг начин е близо до тях да сложите полезни цветя.

Още за цветята: https://God.blue/forward.php?url=https://www.fengshuibg.com/articles/articles/246-tcvetia-1

Целта на фън шуй е да внесе повече и по-хармонична енергия в пространството, което от своя страна дава на хората възможност за повече благополучие, здраве, щастие и изобилие. От многото методи за това, растения са живо средство за активиране, освежаване и хармонизиране на дома и офиса. Да ги използваме, те оправдават грижите за тях.

инж. Фън шуй експерт
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Авторските права върху публикациите принадлежат на сайта www.fengshuibg.com. Материали или части от тях могат да се ползват при условие че е цитиран автора, има линк към източника и имате разрешение от нас за това. Благодарим предварително!

 


          

Фън Шуй за растенията   

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Какво е един дом без растения и дневна светлина?! А кое внася най-много уют в дома?!

цветя според фън шуй

И ако на първия въпрос имате веднага отговор, вероятно над втория се замислихте. Поне за мен уютът се създава от тъканите, растенията, светлината и уханието. Разбира се след порядъка и чистотата, които са задължителни и във Фън Шуй са на първо място.

В тези статии ще споделя личното си мнение за това, кои цветя и растения са благоприятни за нашите домове в България и кои не са. Информацията е на база лекции по физика на торсионните полета, където се говори и за това, което е полезно за човека, от опита на колеги – радиестезисти и ароматерапевти, както и на база личния ми опит и усещане.

Всъщност като се замисля, никъде в професионалните курсове по фън шуй не се говори за това, кои цветя и растения са благоприятни примерно за Китай, за Малайзия, още повече за Русия. Споменавам тези страни, защото там е имало или има силни Фън Шуй школи.

Ето някои общи препоръки относно растенията в дома и офиса:

- Добре би било да не използваме растения с дълги остри листа или поне да ги слагаме по-далече от нас.

- Растенията може да се използват за стимулиране на Ци в ъглите на стаите, както и за “оживяване” на неизползвани пространства

The official logo of the McDonald's All American game.

The official logo of the McDonald's All American game.


          

Ни одна ресторанная сеть из РФ не получила статуса системообразующей компании   

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Правительство расширило перечень системообразующих компаний до 646. В него вошли ресторанная сеть KFC, букмекерская контора «Фонбет», сеть McDonald's и др.
          

Cath Lab Tech Per Diem Days at West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

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Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2003.
          

Environmental Service Tech Per Diem Night Shift West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

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Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2003
          

Med Tech Per Diem Rotating Shift West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

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Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2003
          

Respiratory Therapist Full Time Days West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

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Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2003.
          

Patient Care Associate Per Diem Night Shift West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

Cache   
Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136 th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2
          

RN Operating Room Clinical Coordinator Full Time Days West Campus | Abrazo West Campus   

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Goodyear, Arizona, Abrazo West Campus (located at 136th Avenue and McDowell Road in Goodyear) is a 188-bed acute care hospital serving the healthcare needs of the residents of the southwest Valley since September 2003
          

'How TF Am I An Essential Worker' Memes Have Taken Over Twitter   

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Remember that 'Let's Get This Bread' meme? Well, it's back. Kinda. As people commend the essential workers toiling away in the face of  the pandemic, people on Twitter have started a meme featuring mascots and other costumed workers wondering why the hell they're going in. While the premise of a weary Chuck E. Cheese lamenting essential worker status is funny, there really are some integral laborers who should be receiving a hell of a lot of respect. So while we laugh at Ronald McDonald and the rest of these jokey tweets, let's hear it for the people on the front lines. 


          

Podtalk: Director/Lead Actor Chris Roberti of ‘Same Boat,’ Releasing on VOD April 7, 2020   

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CHICAGO – Time travel “what ifs” and cruise ships has never been so close our current reality, and is present in the unique film “Same Boat,” directed by Chris Roberti and co-written by Roberti with Josh Itzkowitz. The VOD release for the film is Tuesday, April 7th.

The very funny, warm and philosophical film presupposes a future in which time traveler assassins come back to save their world – which has been devastated through bad decisions in the past – by killing the people who will affect that devastation. James (Roberti, also the lead actor) and his “intern” Mot (Julie Schonberg) are assigned the hit on Lilly (Tonya Glanz), who is vacationing on a cruise ship, but complications arise when James begins to have feelings for the target. The whip-sharp comedy is full of authentic laughs derived from the plot and situations, plus the always weird vibe of a cruise ship. Roberti and Itzkowitz have fashioned a true romantic farce without the stickiness that often brings them down.

SBoat
The Traveler: Actor/Director Chris Roberti in ‘Same Boat’
Photo credit: Dark Star Pictures

Chris Roberti has been an actor, director and producer for over a decade, and is known for his role on the HBO series “High Maintenance’ (2016-present) as Chad. He has written and directed short films and TV series, with “Same Boat” his feature film directorial debut. The film was shot on a cruise ship unbeknownst to the crew and passengers, for an added layer of technical achievement.

In Part One of a Podtalk with Patrick McDonald of HollywoodChicago.com, Chris Roberti of “Same Boat” reflects on the cruise ship metaphor, and his theories on temporal paradoxes.

In Part Two, Roberti describes the mechanics of secretly shooting a film on a cruise ship and the philosophies of the film in relationship to our current times.

CLICK HERE for an interview with co-writer and producer Josh Itzkowitz of “Same Boat” with Patrick McDonald of HollywoodChicago.com.

”Same Boat” is available through Video-On-Demand starting April 7th, 2020. See VOD platforms for availability. Featuring Chris Roberti, Tonya Glanz, Evan Kaufman, Julia Schonberg and Jeff Seal. Written by Chris Roberti and Josh Itzkowitz. Directed by Chris Roberti. Not Rated.

HollywoodChicago.com senior staff writer Patrick McDonald

By PATRICK McDONALD
Editor and Film Writer
HollywoodChicago.com
pat@hollywoodchicago.com

© 2020 Patrick McDonald, HollywoodChicago.com


          

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