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Plans for arena in Filton given final go ahead   


Work on building Bristol’s new arena can begin after the Government decided not to call in the application submitted by developers YTL. The Secretary of State was happy with the decision made by Bristol City Council and South Gloucestershire Council to approve the plans, and saw no reason to further examine the application to build the 17,080-capacity arena in the Brabazon Hangars on Filton Airfield. On March 4, Bristol City Council’s planning committee voted to approve the application before South …

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Bristol head teacher pleads for Stoke Lodge vandalism to stop   


Image caption Cotham School says fencing has been vandalised in recent days A head teacher has pleaded for the vandalism of her school’s playing fields to stop. A long-running row over Cotham School’s use of Stoke Lodge in Bristol, which is leased to the school by the city council, has flared up again due to coronavirus restrictions. The school had been unlocking the gates to allow locals to use the green space when lessons were not taking place. The site …

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Updates: More than 350 buildings in Lawrence Weston hit by power cut   


Around 308 buildings in Lawrence Weston have been thrown into darkness this evening following a power cut. And one woman at the scene, who wished not to be named, said the incident has caused people to flout social distancing rules and meet in the streets. She said: “Complete power cut in Lawrence Weston Read More Related Articles Read More Related Articles “Causing problems with social distancing as everyone’s gathering outside etc.” The BS11 and BS10 blackout was first reported at …

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Transparency News, 4/8/20   



April 8, 2020


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state & local news stories
"The final stages of the process -- including presentations, public hearings and the vote ... will occur at an undetermined time when the public can once again be engaged."
The Virginia Department of Health -- citing patient privacy concerns -- is withholding the locality of persons who have died from COVID-19. But VPAP has pieced together a map from press releases from VDH district offices and news reports. Meanwhile, VPAP is using VDH numbers to update a timeline of confirmed cases and a map showing the number of cases by locality. Updated each morning shortly after 9:00 a.m.
Nearly half of people confirmed COVID-19 are under the age of 50, but nearly every fatal Virginia case among patients whose age could be determined has been 60 or older. Nearly half of people who have died are 80 or older. These statistics were compiled by the Virginia Public Access Project from Virginia Department of Health press releases and newspaper articles.

Henrico County public schools will postpone a final decision on redistricting because of meeting restrictions during the coronavirus pandemic. The School Board had planned to vote May 28 to adopt a final redistricting plan for the start of the 2021-2022 school year. A new date for the vote has not been scheduled. "The final stages of the process -- including presentations, public hearings and the vote ... will occur at an undetermined time when the public can once again be engaged," the School Board said in a joint statement.
Richmond Times-Dispatch

In response to the coronavirus outbreak, the Washington County Board of Supervisors passed an emergency ordinance on Tuesday that could allow public meetings to be held without a quorum. This 60-day ordinance declares an emergency that would adopt rules important for the continuity of government, said County Attorney Lucy Phillips. As passed, this ordinance could apply to meetings of the Board of Supervisors as well as other boards, commissions and authorities in Washington County, Phillips said.
Bristol Herald Courier

Some Strasburg Town Council members objected to the idea that COVID-19 has brought “disaster” to the town and voted against an ordinance that allows members to meet virtually rather than in person. Although most council members and Mayor Richard Orndorff Jr. said they were unhappy with the official language, Orndorff said it reflected the language in the state code and the governor’s state of emergency declaration. Council members approved the ordinance with five members, Emily Reyonlds, John Massoud, Barbara Plitt, Jocelyn Vena and Scott Terndrup voting yes, two members, Kim Bishop and Ken Cherrixvoting no, and one member – Taralyn Nicholson – who was present but could not vote because her audio was not working at the time. The town will continue to hold all meetings online until June 5. Pearson said he is looking into a way to allow residents to comment in real-time during the public comment section of meetings but for now comments must be submitted via email beforehand.
The Northern Virginia Daily


stories of national interest
"Meetings tend to be scheduled right on the hour, so allowing about five minutes to pass is a good way to avoid technical issues."
With social distancing being one of the keys to slowing down the COVID-19 outbreak, local governments face the fundamental question of what to do about public meetings. Some states, such as Tennessee and Nebraska, had to issue executive orders to allow virtual public meetings to occur. Assuming a government body is authorized to hold a virtual public meeting, how should it be done? “There’s no one right answer to this, and the best solution for your municipality or governing body is something that you’re already familiar with, if possible,” said Brian Platt, business administrator for Jersey City, N.J. “Don’t try to copy a city that you think did it right.” Louisville, Kentucky, IT Director Chris Said said making sure people stay muted might be the single most important tip to keep in mind, which means that walking everyone through functionalities or sending tips and tricks beforehand is a must.  Seidt also suggests starting virtual public meetings a few minutes late. Meetings tend to be scheduled right on the hour, so allowing about five minutes to pass is a good way to avoid technical issues that may result from numerous organizations using a digital platform at the same time. Keeping the public connected is another challenge. 

States and cities across the country are cutting off access to open records and canceling in-person meetings, starving the public — not to mention lobbyists and other influence-brokers — of information as the coronavirus outbreak reaches into all corners of civic life. The public access shutdown comes just as local officials make unprecedented decisions about health care and how to disburse billions of dollars in federal aid. And it could undermine years of hard-won victories on access to information, some transparency advocates say, with now-temporary restrictions enduring even after this crisis has receded.

A Saginaw County attorney is suing Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, arguing she violated her authority in issuing an executive order regarding Freedom of Information Act requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Whitmer on the night of Sunday, April 5, signed executive order 2020-38, relaxing requirements for government workers responding in person to FOIA requests during the coronavirus outbreak. The order applies to records requests submitted by mail, fax, or in person. Public bodies are now allowed to defer parts of the responses that would require workers to report to government offices in-person, the order states. The next day, Hemlock-based attorney Philip L. Ellison sent a lawsuit naming Whitmer and the state of Michigan as defendants to the Michigan Court of Claims in Lansing via FedEx. The suit was officially filed Tuesday, April 7. Ellison is representing two clients in the suit, Eric Ostergren of Midland County and Jason Gillman Jr. of Ingham County, both of whom had planned to file FOIA requests and have filed some in the past.
editorials & columns
"We give credit where credit is due for the legislature’s ability to be flexible in meeting this challenge — as long as that flexibility includes good options for public access."
With the House likely meeting out of doors and the Senate potentially convening in the museum’s glass-sided Dewey Gottwald Center, the General Assembly is adding a whole new meaning to the term “government transparency.” We give credit where credit is due for the legislature’s ability to be flexible in meeting this challenge — as long as that flexibility includes good options for public access.
The Daily Progress

The early data suggest that the covid-19 pandemic is hitting black communities particularly hard. As of Monday, African Americans made up 27 percent of the population in Milwaukee County, Wis., but 70 percent of its covid-19 deaths. In Chicago: 30 percent of the population but 69 percent of deaths. And in Louisiana, the disparity is 32 percent and 70 percent. A similar divide can be seen in Michigan, where African Americans make up 14 percent of the population and, as of last Friday, accounted for 40 percent of covid-19 deaths. The handful of examples above raises an urgent question: Does the effect hold true for African Americans throughout the country? Unfortunately, there’s no way for the public to know. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is not providing nationwide data about covid-19’s impact on African Americans, Latinos or other racial and ethnic groups. The CDC customarily reports such data, but it has not done so with covid-19. Many states and counties are also not publishing the information. As of Tuesday, the CDC had not responded to inquiries about whether it has the demographic data and isn’t releasing it, or simply isn’t tracking the information. In this critical moment, the federal government must collect and disclose racial data on covid-19 testing, cases and deaths. States and local governments should do the same. This demographic data could help save lives. 
Spencer Overton, The Washington Post




Transparency News, 4/7/20   



April 7, 2020
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state & local news stories
"The new dashboard from the Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association provides more details connected to the status of Virginia's health care providers, including bed availability and ventilator usage."
An alliance of hospitals and health delivery systems across Virginia has partnered to create a new online dashboard of statistics related to COVID-19 hospitalizations across the commonwealth. While the Virginia Department of Health coronavirus website shows the number of cases confirmed each day, along with the number of people tested, total hospitalizations, and total deaths, the new dashboard from the Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association provides more details connected to the status of Virginia's health care providers, including bed availability and ventilator usage. The Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association (VHHA) launched the new dashboard on Monday to provide up-to-date statistics on the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations across the Commonwealth, ventilator usage, current hospital bed availability, and metrics on the number of hospitals experiencing challenges obtaining or replenishing critical inventories of personal protective equipment (PPE) and other needed medical supplies.

To help protect members and staff from COVID-19, the Virginia Senate will trade its clubby confines at the state Capitol for the state science museum when the legislature returns to Richmond for its spring session April 22. Unlike the House of Delegates, which announced last week it would convene outdoors, possibly on the Capitol grounds, the Senate will meet indoors at the Science Museum of Virginia.  Susan Clarke Schaar, Senate clerk, alerted the state’s 40 senators in an email Monday that the museum – about 4 miles west of the state Capitol in a former train station – would be the venue for their meeting later this month. Because the House and Senate would not be meeting in the same building, they will use “technology,” Schaar said, to communicate with each other. That apparently will include email.
The Free Lance-Star

Stafford County supervisors have decided not to let residents offer on-site comments at a public hearing Tuesday on the proposed fiscal 2021 budget because of concerns about the coronavirus. Instead, residents can submit comments by completing an online form, which will remain open until April 21. All submissions received will be read into the public record. The county had planned for supervisors to attend in person and for residents to communicate with them via camera and microphone outside, near the main entrance of the facility.
The Free Lance-Star

Fredericksburg’s City Council will hold a special virtual meeting at 4 p.m. Tuesday to vote on several issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It will be broadcast on Cox Channel 84 and Verizon Channel 42, and can also be viewed on or Facebook Live at Public comments can be posted on Facebook Live during the meeting, but won’t be answered until the following day. Council members will vote on holding meetings electronically, how the government will operate during the pandemic, tax relief policies and whether to give $50,000 to the Fredericksburg Economic Development Authority for a business relief grant program.
The Free Lance-Star

For the first time in history, the Rockingham County Board of Supervisors will hold its annual public hearing on the proposed fiscal year 2021 budget, set for Wednesday, electronically. The hearing will take place at 6 p.m. and will be broadcast through Zoom.
Daily News Record

Waynesboro City Council members received a glimpse at the city’s more than $53 million budget for 2021 on Monday night during a special called work session held remotely via Zoom. The proposed budget is a $1.38 million, or 2.6%, increase from the previous year.
The News Virginian
stories of national interest
The city of Bristol, Tennessee was billed nearly $12,000 for an incomplete tax incentive study after a Bristol developer abandoned his plans to redevelop the former Kmart building. At its teleconference meeting tonight, Bristol Tennessee City Council is set to vote on a resolution authorizing an $11,727.02 payment to MuniCap, a Maryland-based consulting firm, for work it did on an uncompleted study. The study would have determined if a $1.7 million tax increment financing (TIF) package was necessary for developer Steve Johnson’s proposed project to redevelop the former Kmart, had Johnson not abandoned those plans during fall of last year. Danielle Smith, the city’s attorney, told the Bristol Herald Courier in November that a draft of the study was prepared, but the report was never finalized. The city denied the Bristol Herald Courier’s Freedom of Information Act request for the draft on the grounds it is confidential under Tennessee law.
Bristol Herald Courier

editorials & columns
"This isn't to intrude on patient privacy, but to help keep those of us who aren't patients safe and to know where the help is needed. We think that's fair and necessary."
One of the most frustrating parts of the coronavirus crisis is the uncertainty surrounding so much of what’s happening. The general public — to say nothing of local officials trying to make informed decisions — would be better served by a more robust commitment to making more information available about the disease’s spread through the commonwealth. Begin with the Virginia Department of Health, which each morning updates its online data dashboard, giving residents are quantifiable view of positive COVID-19 cases, the number of tests conducted, patients who have been hospitalized, and the death toll. All of that is incredibly helpful, and VDH officials have been responsive to requests that the data be updated every day rather than weekdays only (as it was when the dashboard first launched) and for figures to be posted each morning rather than midday. However, the VDH can and should do better to collect, compile and make publicly available the invaluable data about how Virginia is faring in the fight against coronavirus. And that is clear when one peruses the data dashboards updated by other states. The trickle of data coming out of the VDH may be why one organization has stepped up to provide more information to the public. On Monday, the Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association launched its own dashboard about the COVID-19 crisis, expanding the information now available from the VDH. It provides the public with a more thorough view of the situation as seen from the hospitals across the commonwealth.
The Virginian-Pilot

THUMBS-DOWN: The Virginia Department of Health's reporting of COVID-19 cases leaves much to be desired. True, we understand how HIPPA laws can muddy the information waters, but when it comes to a global pandemic reaching our shores and eventually our backyards, it's time for the state to do a better job of keeping us more informed where the cases are happening. As of right now, the state website is updated each day at 9 a.m. with reported cases in health districts (we're in the Central Shenandoah) broken down into counties and cities. That's where it ends. That's not enough. Granted, we do appreciate the demographic breakdown the Virginia Department of Health provides. But to keep the numbers impactful, and helpful, is to let us know where, if any, local hot spots are. This isn't to intrude on patient privacy, but to help keep those of us who aren't patients safe and to know where the help is needed. We think that's fair and necessary.
Daily News Record


Classic hot cross buns   


The perfect Easter recipe comes from a lovely book called A Good Egg by Bristol-based cookery writer Genevieve Taylor who describes herself as an 'urban henkeeper'.


Fall River reports 74 coronavirus cases; Mass. still on 'uphill slope' of curve    

FALL RIVER — The city reported four new cases of COVID-19 Thursday, bringing the total to 74.In the biggest one-day jump so far, 1,588 new cases were reported, raising the number of people confirmed to have the coronavirus in Massachusetts to 16,790. Bristol County has 835 of those cases. As of Wednesday, 1,583 patients have been hospitalized, 4,717 did not require hospitalization and the status of the remaining 10,490 remains unknown.The state Department of [...]

Two Bristol County security staffers test positive for COVID-19   

DARTMOUTH -- A correctional officer and a K9 officer from the Bristol County Sheriff’s Office have tested positive for COVID-19, according to a press release from the sheriff's office.“Both are feeling well,” Bristol County Sheriff Thomas M. Hodgson said in the release. “They have some minor symptoms but both said, overall, that they’re feeling okay. That’s very encouraging.”The correctional officer’s last shift was March [...]

Byron wins virtual Bristol; Bubba 'rage quits' early in race   


CHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) - William Byron led the most laps in NASCAR's first two virtual races and had nothing to show for his gaming skills. The third time out, he got the win.

Byron easily won the iRacing event Sunday at virtual Bristol Motor Speedway, where NASCAR would have been ...


Does Time Really Flow? New Clues Come From a Century-Old Approach to Math.   


If numbers cannot have infinite strings of digits, then the future can never be perfectly preordained.

Dave Whyte for Quanta Magazine

Strangely, although we feel as if we sweep through time on the knife-edge between the fixed past and the open future, that edge — the present — appears nowhere in the existing laws of physics.

In Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, for example, time is woven together with the three dimensions of space, forming a bendy, four-dimensional space-time continuum — a “block universe” encompassing the entire past, present and future. Einstein’s equations portray everything in the block universe as decided from the beginning; the initial conditions of the cosmos determine what comes later, and surprises do not occur — they only seem to. “For us believing physicists,” Einstein wrote in 1955, weeks before his death, “the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.”

The timeless, pre-determined view of reality held by Einstein remains popular today. “The majority of physicists believe in the block-universe view, because it is predicted by general relativity,” said Marina Cortês, a cosmologist at the University of Lisbon.

However, she said, “if somebody is called on to reflect a bit more deeply about what the block universe means, they start to question and waver on the implications.”

Physicists who think carefully about time point to troubles posed by quantum mechanics, the laws describing the probabilistic behavior of particles. At the quantum scale, irreversible changes occur that distinguish the past from the future: A particle maintains simultaneous quantum states until you measure it, at which point the particle adopts one of the states. Mysteriously, individual measurement outcomes are random and unpredictable, even as particle behavior collectively follows statistical patterns. This apparent inconsistency between the nature of time in quantum mechanics and the way it functions in relativity has created uncertainty and confusion.

Over the past year, the Swiss physicist Nicolas Gisin has published four papers that attempt to dispel the fog surrounding time in physics. As Gisin sees it, the problem all along has been mathematical. Gisin argues that time in general and the time we call the present are easily expressed in a century-old mathematical language called intuitionist mathematics, which rejects the existence of numbers with infinitely many digits. When intuitionist math is used to describe the evolution of physical systems, it makes clear, according to Gisin, that “time really passes and new information is created.” Moreover, with this formalism, the strict determinism implied by Einstein’s equations gives way to a quantum-like unpredictability. If numbers are finite and limited in their precision, then nature itself is inherently imprecise, and thus unpredictable.

Physicists are still digesting Gisin’s work — it’s not often that someone tries to reformulate the laws of physics in a new mathematical language — but many of those who have engaged with his arguments think they could potentially bridge the conceptual divide between the determinism of general relativity and the inherent randomness at the quantum scale.

“I found it intriguing,” said Nicole Yunger Halpern, a quantum information scientist at Harvard University, responding to Gisin’s recent article in Nature Physics. “I’m open to giving intuitionist mathematics a shot.”

Cortês called Gisin’s approach “extremely interesting” and “shocking and provocative” in its implications. “It’s really a very interesting formalism that is addressing this problem of finite precision in nature,” she said.

Gisin said it’s important to formulate laws of physics that cast the future as open and the present as very real, because that’s what we experience. “I am a physicist who has my feet on the ground,” he said. “Time passes; we all know that.”

Information and Time

Gisin, 67, is primarily an experimenter. He runs a lab at the University of Geneva that has performed groundbreaking experiments in quantum communication and quantum cryptography. But he is also the rare crossover physicist who is known for important theoretical insights, especially ones involving quantum chance and nonlocality.

On Sunday mornings, in lieu of church, Gisin makes a habit of sitting quietly in his chair at home with a mug of oolong tea and contemplating deep conceptual puzzles. It was on a Sunday about two and a half years ago that he realized that the deterministic picture of time in Einstein’s theory and the rest of “classical” physics implicitly assumes the existence of infinite information.

Nicolas Gisin in his home office overlooking the garden.

Consider the weather. Because it’s chaotic, or highly sensitive to small differences, we can’t predict exactly what the weather will be a week from now. But because it’s a classical system, textbooks tell us that we could, in principle, predict the weather a week on, if only we could measure every cloud, gust of wind and butterfly’s wing precisely enough. It’s our own fault we can’t gauge conditions with enough decimal digits of detail to extrapolate forward and make perfectly accurate forecasts, because the actual physics of weather unfolds like clockwork.

Now expand this idea to the entire universe. In a predetermined world in which time only seems to unfold, exactly what will happen for all time actually had to be set from the start, with the initial state of every single particle encoded with infinitely many digits of precision. Otherwise there would be a time in the far future when the clockwork universe itself would break down.

But information is physical. Modern research shows it requires energy and occupies space. Any volume of space is known to have a finite information capacity (with the densest possible information storage happening inside black holes). The universe’s initial conditions would, Gisin realized, require far too much information crammed into too little space. “A real number with infinite digits can’t be physically relevant,” he said. The block universe, which implicitly assumes the existence of infinite information, must fall apart.

He sought a new way of describing time in physics that didn’t presume infinitely precise knowledge of the initial conditions.

The Logic of Time

The modern acceptance that there exists a continuum of real numbers, most with infinitely many digits after the decimal point, carries little trace of the vitriolic debate over the question in the first decades of the 20th century. David Hilbert, the great German mathematician, espoused the now-standard view that real numbers exist and can be manipulated as completed entities. Opposed to this notion were mathematical “intuitionists” led by the acclaimed Dutch topologist L.E.J. Brouwer, who saw mathematics as a construct. Brouwer insisted that numbers must be constructible, their digits calculated or chosen or randomly determined one at a time. Numbers are finite, said Brouwer, and they’re also processes: They can become ever more exact as more digits reveal themselves in what he called a choice sequence, a function for producing values with greater and greater precision.

By grounding mathematics in what can be constructed, intuitionism has far-reaching consequences for the practice of math, and for determining which statements can be deemed true. The most radical departure from standard math is that the law of excluded middle, a vaunted principle since the time of Aristotle, doesn’t hold. The law of excluded middle says that either a proposition is true, or its negation is true — a clear set of alternatives that offers a powerful mode of inference. But in Brouwer’s framework, statements about numbers might be neither true nor false at a given time, since the number’s exact value hasn’t yet revealed itself.

The Unfolding of Time

Gisin first encountered intuitionist math at a meeting last May attended by Posy. When the two got to talking, Gisin quickly saw a connection between the unspooling decimal digits of numbers in this mathematical framework and the physical notion of time in the universe. Materializing digits seemed to naturally correspond to the sequence of moments defining the present, when the uncertain future becomes concrete reality. The lack of the law of excluded middle is akin to indeterministic propositions about the future.

In work published last December in Physical Review A, Gisin and his collaborator Flavio Del Santo used intuitionist math to formulate an alternative version of classical mechanics, one that makes the same predictions as the standard equations but casts events as indeterministic — creating a picture of a universe where the unexpected happens and time unfolds.

Quantum Uncertainty and Time

If physicists are going to solve the mystery of time, they have to grapple not just with the space-time continuum of Einstein, but also with the knowledge that the universe is fundamentally quantum, ruled by chance and uncertainty. Quantum theory paints a very different picture of time than Einstein’s theory. “Our two big theories on physics, quantum theory and general relativity, make different statements,” said Renner. He and several other physicists said this inconsistency underlies the struggle to find a quantum theory of gravity — a description of the quantum origin of space-time — and to understand why the Big Bang happened. “If I look at where we have paradoxes and what problems we have, in the end they always boil down to this notion of time.”

Time in quantum mechanics is rigid, not bendy and intertwined with the dimensions of space as in relativity. Furthermore, measurements of quantum systems “make time in quantum mechanics irreversible, whereas otherwise the theory is completely reversible,” said Renner. “So time plays a role in this thing that we still don’t really understand.”

Many physicists interpret quantum physics as telling us that the universe is indeterministic. “For Chrissakes, you have two uranium atoms: One of them decays after 500 years, and the other one decays after 1,000 years, and yet they’re completely identical in every way,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. “In every meaningful sense, the universe is not deterministic.”

Still, other popular interpretations of quantum mechanics, including the many-worlds interpretation, manage to keep the classical, deterministic notion of time alive. These theories cast quantum events as playing out a predetermined reality. Many-worlds, for instance, says each quantum measurement splits the world into multiple branches that realize every possible outcome, all of which were set in advance.

The Future of Time

Gisin’s ideas have prompted a range of responses from other theorists, all with their own thought experiments and intuitions about time to go on.

Several experts agreed that real numbers don’t seem to be physically real, and that physicists need a new formalism that doesn’t rely on them. Ahmed Almheiri, a theoretical physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study who studies black holes and quantum gravity, said quantum mechanics “precludes the existence of the continuum.” Quantum math bundles energy and other quantities into packets, which are more like whole numbers rather than a continuum. And infinite numbers get truncated inside black holes. “A black hole may seem to have a continuously infinite number of internal states, but [these get] cut off,” he said, due to quantum gravitational effects. “Real numbers can’t exist, because you can’t hide them inside black holes. Otherwise they’d be able to hide an infinite amount of information.”

Sandu Popescu, a physicist at the University of Bristol who corresponds often with Gisin, agreed with the latter’s indeterministic worldview but said he is not convinced that intuitionist math is necessary. Popescu objects to the idea that digits of real numbers count as information.

Arkani-Hamed found Gisin’s use of intuitionist math interesting and potentially relevant to cases such as black holes and the Big Bang where gravity and quantum mechanics come into apparent conflict. “These questions — of numbers as finite, or fundamentally things that exist, or whether there’s infinitely many digits, or the digits are made as you go on,” he said, “might be related to how we should ultimately think about cosmology in situations where we don’t know how to apply quantum mechanics.” He too sees the need for a new mathematical language that could “liberate” physicists from infinite precision and allow them to “talk about things that are a little bit fuzzy all the time.”

Gisin’s ideas resonate in many corners but still need to be fleshed out. Going forward, he hopes to find a way of reformulating relativity and quantum mechanics in terms of finite, fuzzy intuitionist mathematics, as he did with classical mechanics, potentially bringing the theories closer. He has some ideas about how to approach the quantum side.

One way that infinity rears its head in quantum mechanics is in the “tail problem”: Try to localize a quantum system, like an electron on the moon, and “if you do that with standard mathematics, you have to admit that an electron on the moon has a super small probability of being also detected on Earth,” Gisin said. The “tail” of the mathematical function representing the particle’s position “becomes exponentially small but nonzero.”

But Gisin wonders, “What reality should we attribute to a super small number? Most experimentalists would say, ‘Put it to zero and stop questioning.’ But maybe the more theoretically oriented would say, ‘OK, but there is something there according to the math.’

“But it depends, now, which math,” he continued. “Classical math, there is something. In intuitionist math, no. There is nothing.” The electron is on the moon, and its chance of turning up on Earth is well and truly zero.

Since Gisin first published his work, the future has grown only more uncertain. Now every day is a kind of Sunday for him, as crisis grips the world. Away from the lab, and unable to see his granddaughters except on a screen, he plans to keep thinking, at home with his mug of tea and garden view.


Hospital Porters - NHS - Bristol   

Randstad is currently looking for Hospital Porters on a temporary basis for ongoing going contracts. Hospital porters are key members of staff and move patients and goods around ...

Hospital Porters - NHS - Bristol   

Randstad is currently looking for Hospital Porters on a temporary basis for ongoing going contracts. Hospital porters are key members of staff and move patients and goods around ...

Large pot hole by traffic light outside tesco express, 9th April   

It's a very large hole and someone could injure themselves
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 244 Greystoke Avenue, Bristol
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Street lights not working x 2, 8th April   

Outside 24/26 light not working tonight and on the opposite side of road another light outside approx no 34 but opp side of road but out
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 28 Thicket Road, Bristol
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Bright light, 8th April   

The new street light shines into my bedroom which backs onto Samuel Street from Gilbert Rd. Can it have some sort of cover fitted?
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 10 Samuel Street, Redfield
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10-12 inch pothole, 3-4 inches deep, 8th April   

I drove over this pothole today, and was unable to avoid it due to oncoming traffic. Although I braked to ensure I didn’t hit it at too much speed, it burst my tyre. I do not know how long the issue has been present as this is the first time I’ve been in this area recently.

Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 36 Sussex Place, St Agnes
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Sinkhole in middle of carriageway on Glenburn road after fourway junction. Approx. outside No 60., 8th April   

Sink hole in the middle of the road on Glenburn Road. Approx. 2 feet deep and about a square metre in area. Cracking around the area as well so potentially more to collapse.
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 60 Glenburn Road, Bristol
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The sign PARK Street has been stolen from the railings mounted to Freemasons Hall 17-31 Park Street, 8th April   

Stolen road name signage
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 31 Park Street, St Augustines
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Overflowing drain outside 18 Friezewood road, 8th April   

For several months now, the drain outside 18 Friezewood road seems blocked and doesn’t evacuate water quickly enough when it rains.
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 18 Friezewood Road, Bedminster
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Existing report 1853964, 8th April   

This was part of ongoing works a year ago and still nothing has been done? There is now a large pothole at the junction traffic lights causing yet more noise from the 40 ton lorries that pass over it. I live in yeomanside close and my bedroom radiator shakes sometimes with the vibration from these lorries. You classed this as not urgent? if I could upload a video of these lorries you would see the noise they make! A pothole issue a mile up the road in banes was reported and is due to be dealt with in 30 days?? I look forward to your excuses....again

Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 22 Gilda Parade, Bristol
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1262787 reference number this post has been closed today but the issue is still there, it was rectified then the road was resurfaced and it's back to how it was before. Anytime it pains it pools and flows onto the pavement., 8th April   

Please see above reference number issue is still ongoing.
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 17 Warrington Road, Brislington
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Bad parking limited access to road, 8th April   

Due to the road not having any double yellow lines on the road there is limited / No assess to the road for larger vehicles (i.e. Delivery trucks). on occasion due to the parking it is impossible for my car to fit down the road. If a saloon is struggling to fit how will any of the emergency service vehicles fit (i.e. Fire Engines or Ambulances)? i have seen commercial vans decided not to drive down the road due to how narrow it is.
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 10 Russell Road, Bristol
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Pothole outside of house entrance., 8th April   

Contractors are working along the Bowring Close and are putting tarmac on the pavement. The new layer has been damaged outside of no 7 by someone driving over it. This has created a pothole approx 1-2 inches.
Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 7 Bowring Close, Bristol
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Pot hole, 8th April   

2 small potholes in bus lane on Redcliffe Bridge. Pot hole has been highlighted. This is urgent as it can not be avoided as it is in the tyre tracks of buses in the lane.

Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): Redcliffe Way, Redcliffe
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Massive pothole, 8th April   

Large pothole in road outside Mud Dock on The Grove. Pot hole has been highlighted. This is urgent as it huge and could damage vehicles.

Nearest road to the pin placed on the map (automatically generated by Bing Maps): 40 The Grove, Bristol
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These Two Keys Won the Battle for Britain in World War II   


Warfare History Network

History, Europe


Their finest hour.

Key point: The RAF held their own despite the odds. Here's how good leadership and logistics carried the day.

It was a battle fought without armies. No rifles, no tanks, no barbed wire. In the summer of 1940, the skies above Britain served as the battlefield for the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe. The Nazis had conquered most of Western Europe, and Britain stood alone. The Luftwaffe represented the first arm of the German military juggernaut to take a swing at the British Isles. Its mission was simple: repeat the performances in Poland and France and eliminate the enemy air force. This would facilitate an invasion, which the Germans had no reason to believe would fail. The Luftwaffe’s crack pilots, many of them experienced since 1936 in the Spanish Civil War, included men like the dashing and headstrong Adolf Galland and deadly tactical genius Werner Mölders. The RAF stood grossly outnumbered, outgunned, and outmanned. Therein lies the importance of the Battle of Britain. The RAF, subsequently nicknamed “The Few” by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, held the responsibility of not only defending Britain from the Luftwaffe but also defeating the German pilots and thwarting Hitler’s plan for invasion. Despite German numerical and tactical superiority, higher echelons of leadership in the RAF proved more strategically flexible and adapted to the situations and parameters of the battle better than their Luftwaffe counterparts.

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“The Battle of Britain is About to Begin”

By the spring of 1940, World War II had begun only months earlier but looked to possibly end within the year. The French defense against the Germans ranged from abysmal to nonexistent, and the British Expeditionary Force evacuated Dunkirk in mid-June, as French Marshal Philippe Pétain sought an armistice with Germany. Resiliently, Churchill declared to Parliament on June 18, “The Battle of France is over. I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin.”

With France removed from the picture, Germany looked to attack Britain, the last bastion of resistance. In preparation for a decisive victory, Hitler issued Directive Number 16, which charged Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring with the task of softening up Britain. Arrogant and pompous, Göring guaranteed the destruction of the RAF. Göring fully expected the RAF to flounder and fall from the sky.

Göring had little reason to assume the RAF could withstand a full-force assault. During the battles over France and Norway, the RAF lost 1,020 planes, 509 of which were fighters. According to the battle order of the RAF on July 1, 1940, this left 900 fighters in 10, 11, 12, and 13 Groups, responsible for the defense of England. Of these, 151 (17 percent) were Bristol Blenheims and Boulton Paul Defiants, although the majority of the squadrons were equipped with Hawker Hurricanes, and to a lesser extent, the Supermarine Spitfire. To add to these numbers, fighter production in June of 1940 was 446. The count of Hurricanes and Spitfires would increase to 972 in July and August.

Pilots of the RAF

In terms of pilots, the RAF faced a bleak situation. Planes were available, but pilots were not. Since 1939, the British had produced only 200 new pilots every month. Those men were not likely to be considered veterans, since the only combat they had encountered was over France and Norway. In all, Fighter Command could muster 591 serviceable (combat ready) fighters and 1,200 pilots. As optimistic as these figures were, one must remember that several squadrons would be rotated out for rest if the head of Fighter Command, Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, could spare them. This was not often, as the pressure from the Germans forced all available aircraft to remain at the ready.

It was more likely that individual pilots were sent for rest when they reached the limits of their nerves, suffering from exhaustion. This was done on an individual basis since the stress of combat affected each man differently.

RAF pilots came from a few different strands before they manned a squadron. Pilots were schooled at Cranwell, which was the pinnacle of British flight schools. Also, Halton trained those who were of a social position that was not high enough for Cranwell. Halton specialized in ground crew rather than pilots. Short service commissions were another option, with the promise of an officer’s rank for six years followed by four in the reserve, with all the accoutrements such a position carried. This method proved very popular, offering instant social advancement in the stratified English society.

The final method of induction into an RAF squadron was through the Auxiliary Air Force. The AAF began in the mid-1920s as a grouping of clubs for amateur flyers, intended to create a local identity in a social class. As the 1920s and 1930s progressed, these grew in number and were funded by the Air Ministry. By 1940, AAF squadrons made up one-quarter of Fighter Command’s frontline strength, while those pilots with public school educations accounted for only 200 of the 3,000 pilots who would fly for the RAF in the Battle of Britain. The working class men accepting short-service commissions, which bypassed training at Cranwell, made up the majority of the pilots in 1940.

The RAF’s Many Fighters

The pilots coming into the RAF looking to find themselves in the romantic role of a fighter pilot in 1940 flew a mixed bag of fighter planes. The oldest type was the Bristol Blenheim. A prewar design, the Blenheim was a twin-engine craft converted from reconnaissance to a night fighter/fighter-bomber. The plane had a top speed of 260 mph and carried either two or four machine guns, depending on design variant and role, and up to 1,000 pounds of bombs.

The Boulton Paul Defiant first appeared in May 1940. Its top speed was 303 mph, and its four machine guns were located in a manned turret immediately aft of the cockpit. This arrangement made it impossible to attack a target in front of the aircraft, as it had no fixed forward firing armament. The turret had been placed in a defensive position.

The most numerous fighter on the RAF airfields was the Hawker Hurricane Mk. I. The Hurricane was a fast fighter at 320 mph. It climbed beautifully (2,520 ft/min) and was a stable gun platform for the eight .303-caliber Browning machine guns in the wings. However, the most modern fighter in the British arsenal was the Supermarine Spitfire Mk. I. The beautifully aerodynamic “Spit” could reach 355 mph and held eight .303 Brownings, four in each wing. It could climb slightly faster than the Hurricane, ascending at 2,530 ft/min. Climb was of massive importance to the RAF, as the British had mere minutes to meet each incoming threat. Time was a crucial factor in the battle. The ability to get to fighting altitude (10,000 to 15,000 feet, usually) proved critical, and the aid of radar early warning would prove to be one of the vital British advantages in the battle.

Despite the large number of guns, which had a sustained firing time of 14 seconds for both the Hurricane and the Spitfire and dropped 13 pounds of ordinance in a three-second burst (as opposed to the Bf-109’s 18 pounds), both planes were very maneuverable, with the Spitfire having a slight edge. The Spit was trickier to fly because of a high rate of roll due to its aerodynamics and powerful engine. This gave the plane incredible maneuverability, which would put it on par with the German fighters. This fact determined how the Spitfire was to be deployed during the battle. In July 1940, aircraft available to Fighter Command consisted of 463 Hurricanes, 286 Spitfires, 37 Defiants, and 114 Blenheims.

The Inadequate .303 Round

Across the English Channel from the RAF, the Luftwaffe boasted 2,909 aircraft in Luftflotten 2, 3, and 5. This included 1,260 twin-engine bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 280 twin-engine fighters, 809 single-engine fighters, and 244 various reconnaissance planes. The twin-engine bombers were the Heinkel He-111, the Dornier Do-17, and the Junkers Ju-88. Top speeds of these bombers were 252, 255, and 280 mph, respectively. They were light to medium-sized craft with medium payloads and poor defensive armament, but they proved tricky to shoot down. As for dive-bombers, the Germans employed their notorious Junkers Ju-87 Stuka. Despite success in France and Poland, the Stuka had a top speed of only 238 mph and proved extremely vulnerable to attack if unescorted.

The difficulty in shooting down a German bomber owed to the inadequacy of the .303 round and to the self-sealing fuel tanks found in German aircraft. The self-sealing tanks worked by employing two layers of metal divided by a special rubber compound. When the tank was punctured, the fuel reacted with the rubber, causing the compound to swell and close the hole. This was only a temporary fix, which would allow the plane to return to base without losing appreciable fuel or bursting into flames.

In addition, the .303 round was not heavy, large, or powerful enough when it came to shooting at metal-skinned fighters. It was the same caliber that was used in World War I against planes made of wood and doped linen. During the interwar years, armor was installed in the cockpit, protecting the pilot, and planes were constructed more often of sturdier materials. The small caliber of the bullets decreased the amount of structural damage inflicted on metal skin.

The Germans encountered this same problem with their 7.92mm rounds, and both sides eventually switched to a .50-caliber (German 13mm) machine gun and 20mm or 30mm cannon to inflict greater damage.

Germany’s Messerschmitt Fighters

The Luftwaffe possessed two frontline fighters, the Messerschmitt Bf-109 and Bf-110. On the eve of the Battle of Britain, a mystical aura surrounded the Bf-110. The RAF had yet to see one in combat and had only heard reports of the fast, heavy fighter with massive armament and two engines. Designed by Willy Messerschmitt, the Zerstörer could reach speeds of 336 mph. In the nose, it carried four 7.92mm (.311 caliber) machine guns and two 20mm cannon, with an additional machine gun in the rear of the cockpit to defend the tail.

Destined to become the most produced fighter of all time, the Bf-109’s E variant topped out at 342 mph and carried two 7.92mm machine guns in the nose. In the wings it held two 20mm cannon. These inflicted massive structural damage on metal-skinned fighters and bombers. The 109 was small, maneuverable, and fast. Most importantly, its Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine had fuel injection, which meant the aircraft would not stall in a negative-G maneuver such as a dive or a split-S. This enabled it to outdive any British plane in the sky.

The 109 did not have sufficient range (410 miles) to operate over England for much more than 15 minutes—especially at full throttle as would be the case in combat—so this trait enabled it to retreat effectively in the event a fight would last more than the usual few minutes.

The thin wings of the 109 did not provide as much area for lift, thereby limiting its performance at extremely low altitude, and narrow landing gear resulted in inherently unstable ground characteristics. Many novice pilots would wreck their 109s while landing too fast or unevenly. In fact, Messerschmitt’s prototype crashed in a ground loop during trials in 1936. The pilot, World War I ace Ernst Udet, was unharmed. By 1940, Germany was producing 6,618 aircraft per year, 25 percent of them fighters.

Flying the abundance of planes in the Luftwaffe arsenal were some of the most experienced pilots in the world. In 1936, when men who would fly for the RAF in the Battle of Britain did not even entertain the thought of joining the service, Luftwaffe pilots were dogfighting in Spanish skies. Later, many of these men would be commanders over Poland, France, and Britain, exponentially increasing the skill of the German pilots.

A Battle Determined by Tactics and Leadership

On paper in June 1940, the Battle of Britain looked one-sided. The only advantage apparent to the RAF was the fact that its pilots were defending their homeland. In addition to the motivational aspects of this, it held an advantage in regard to personnel. Pilots in World War II were more likely to survive an encounter than their fathers had been in World War I. Parachutes were now standard equipment as opposed to contraband during the Great War. When RAF pilots bailed out during the Battle of Britain, they could be back at their squadron within a few hours. Luftwaffe pilots, however, became spectators if they “hit the silk” over England, consigned to a POW camp or a long swim back to their airfield.

The Battle of Britain would be decided by tactics and leadership if the British hoped to survive. The men of the RAF knew the Luftwaffe was good. They had proven it over Spain, Poland, and France. Messerschmitt’s fighters carried a daunting reputation, and the Stuka was feared around the world. In contrast, the Luftwaffe viewed the RAF pilots as nascent weekend warriors who lacked the skills to compete with the deadly German aces. This is not to say the Germans did not have any respect for the RAF, as Luftwaffe pilots were intimately familiar with the Spitfire, and held it in the same regard that the RAF held the 109.

“Stuffy” Dowding vs Hermann Göring

Affectionately known as “Stuffy” for his personality and terse demeanor, Dowding was the senior serving officer of the RAF. The outbreak of war postponed his retirement, and the 58-year-old understood technical and logistical matters exceptionally well, which would be illustrated in the upcoming battle. Dowding had led Fighter Command since its inception in 1936. Under his direct command were the group commanders. Air Vice Marshals Richard Saul, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Keith Park, and Sir Christopher Quintin Brand commanded 13, 12, 11, and 10 Groups, respectively. Of these, 12 Group was responsible for central England while 11 Group covered London and southeastern England. Leigh-Mallory, the senior group commander, was expecting to command 11 Group. Dowding’s appointment of Park to the position was based on the fact that Park was a World War I ace with 20 kills and an expert in fighter tactics and organization. Nevertheless, the slight alienated Leigh-Mallory, who saw himself as relegated to a secondary role.

From the outset Trafford Leigh-Mallory and Keith Park did not see eye to eye. Park, who flew his personal Hurricane to check up on his pilots in combat, commanded 22 fighter squadrons over the most important area of the country. Leigh-Mallory was assigned to support Park, and his 14 squadrons would cover 11 Group’s bases when they went up after the German raiders. Because 11 Group’s area was closer to the French coast and held the priority targets, logistics made it more reasonable for Park’s fighters to be the first wave of attackers. Nevertheless, this created animosity among Leigh-Mallory, Park, and Dowding. The approaches each man took to thwart the Luftwaffe would directly affect the outcome of the battle.

Göring, a World War I ace, had become Hitler’s most dedicated sycophant, declaring “If the Führer wants it, two and two make five!” In the early years of the Nazi party, Göring had held several political offices and exhibited great energy and skill in these duties. By the end of the 1930s, he had become addicted to painkillers. He had also become a corpulent Nazi robot, whose ambition led him to greed, complacency, and lavish excess and created a schism between him and his pilots. Once war broke out, Göring was extremely powerful, second only to Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. But his power and arrogance clouded his judgment.

Göring’s Luftwaffe fielded three air fleets, two in France and one in Norway, in preparation for the attack on Britain. Col. Gen. Hans-Jurgen Stumpff was an old staff officer in command of Luftflotte 5 in Norway. His forces took heavy losses in their only day of fighting during the Battle of Britain on August 15, losing 75 planes out of 258, mostly 110s and bombers—nearly a 30 percent loss rate. As a result, the remainder of Luftflotte 5 would serve as replacements for the men of Luftflotten 2 and 3.

In command of Luftflotte 3 was Field Marshal Hugo Sperrle. He was the most experienced air officer in the Luftwaffe having seen action in World War I and commanded the Condor Legion in Spain. The most influential Luftflotte commander was Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, a former army officer who led Luftflotte 2, which was located in the Dunkirk area and included much of the Luftwaffe fighter strength.

155 Luftwaffe Planes Shot Down in the First Month

As these forces prepared for the coming showdown, it became apparent that the Battle of Britain was going to be unlike any fought before. It was a rarity not only because of the nature of the fighting—air to air—but also in the respect that it had no exact dates. The battle was fought daily (weather permitting), in raid after raid, over several months.

It began in earnest on the afternoon of July 10, 1940, when 20 Do-17s, 30 Bf-110s, and 20 Bf-109s attacked a westbound convoy in the Channel. Thirty British fighters attempted to intercept them. Peter Townsend, commander of 85 Squadron, described this engagement. “Our job was defense. German fighters could do no harm to Britain. German bombers with their deadly loads were the menace. Our orders were to seek them out and destroy them. Only when their Me. 109 [sic] escort interfered did it become a fleeting battle between fighter and fighter. But we tried to avoid them, not to challenge them … Three Hurricanes and four 109s were lost that day … In four patrols I flew for nearly six hours.”

During the remainder of July and into the first two weeks of August, German Do-17s, He-111s, and Ju-87s assaulted shipping and coastal regions of England. Bf-109s ravaged British Hurricanes, while Spitfires fared slightly better. The weaknesses of the Stuka, slow speed and virtual paralysis when coming out of a dive, were taken advantage of by swarms of RAF fighters looking to pounce. As a consolation to the Luftwaffe, Bf-109s exploited the weaknesses of the Defiants, which made easy prey for the nimble and powerful 109.

Two formations of German fighters jumped a flight of nine Defiants on July 19, shooting six down and crippling another before a squadron of Hurricanes interceded. It also became apparent quickly that the Bf-110 could not compete with single-engine fighters. The 110 proved highly vulnerable to Hurricanes and Spitfires, which could easily outmaneuver them. The twin-engine craft simply could not outturn or outrun the Spitfire.

By the end of the month, the RAF had shot down 155 Luftwaffe planes to a loss of 69 fighters. The reason for this disparity is simple. There were more German planes in the air, which gave the RAF more targets to shoot down. Also, the Germans had bombers in the air, and the RAF did not. Bombers were slower, less maneuverable, and did not have adequate defensive armament. The Germans also sank approximately 20 coastal merchant ships and a destroyer.

Finger Four Formation

A need for a change in the British fighter tactics was apparent. According to Pilot Officer Harold “Birdy” Bird-Wilson, “Our standard formation was an extremely tight one, which would have been ideal for prewar air shows. Very compact. Very close together. The pilots in formation were looking at each other so as not to collide. We were not looking around as we should have. The Germans, who had learned many flying lessons during the Spanish Civil War, knew better. They flew in much looser formations and were able to pick us off.”

The lessons during the Spanish Civil War were advocated by Mölders, who had shot down 14 planes in Spain. Mölders created, pioneered, and taught the Finger Four formation. This was the “looser formation” described by Bird-Wilson. Finger Four worked by using pairs as the operative tactical groups. There were two pairs (Rotten) to a Schwarm, three or four Schwarmen to a Staffel, three or four Staffeln to a Gruppe, and three or four Gruppen to a Geschwader. Pairs were chosen because of their inherent versatility. Only one other plane needed to be tracked, and it simplified mutual defense. It also made it easier to know where one’s wingman was during combat, as pilots now only had to track one plane instead of two. Finger Four allowed great flexibility in combat, mutual defense capabilities, and the wide spacing of 200 feet between planes made spotting a flight more difficult than seeing a tightly bunched British formation.

Führer Directive Number 17

On August 1, 1940, Hitler issued Führer Directive Number 17, which dramatically altered the course of the battle. The directive ordered the complete destruction of the RAF, with attacks against “flying units, their ground installations, and their supply organization, also against the aircraft industry including that manufacturing anti-aircraft equipment.”

This was effectively an intensification and restatement of the aims of the original plan. It expanded the scope of the raids to include supply and production channels as well. The directive ordered the Luftwaffe not to destroy ports, as they would be important to forthcoming operations. The date for the intensification of the aerial campaign was August 5.

Göring also called his commanders to The Hague in an effort to organize the Luftwaffe for the large-scale attack. Göring dismissed claims that the Spitfire was a worthy craft and did not believe Sperrle and Kesselring when they estimated the Luftwaffe had 700 bombers remaining. Up to this point, Göring had been convinced that the Luftwaffe had the RAF beaten. In fact, Göring stated that the RAF was down to its last 50 Spitfires, a belief he held through September. He underestimated the quality of the RAF and was too aloof to realize that the Luftwaffe had taken large losses in the first month of battle.

The British Radar Advantage

The reason for the effectiveness of RAF interceptions of German bombers was quite simple. The British radar system worked incredibly well. Beginning in the early 1930s, Britain had experimented with radar, and by 1938 the system was so advanced that it could report size, speed, altitude, heading, and whether or not the plane was friendly. The Germans knew about the British radar but chose to ignore it. The towers at Dover could be seen from the French coast. This proximity gave the Germans the false hope that the bombers, even though they showed up on radar, would be able to attack their targets before the information could be passed through the proper channels.

Radar operators sent reports to Observer Corps, which forwarded them to the Filter Room at Fighter Command headquarters. There, the group operation room and group commander (Park) notified individual sections, whose local commanders vectored in the nearest available fighters.

The German commanders, most notably Göring, refused to believe this sophisticated system existed despite the insistence of his pilots that the RAF was always waiting in the right places. This was a massive blunder on his part, costing him precious aircrews and aircraft. Consequently, attacks on radar stations were few during the opening phase of the Battle of Britain, and no effort was made to avoid detection. In reality, the system worked so well that the time from a blip on the radar to a squadron in the air to meet it was six minutes, and the aforementioned climb rates of the Hurricanes and Spitfires put the fighters at 15,000 feet within six minutes of leaving the ground. In effect, it took between 10 and 15 minutes after first spotting the Germans to put together a proper intercept at the point of attack.

On August 8, the Luftwaffe finally attacked coastal radar installations. The attack aroused no suspicions in Fighter Command, however, as it was the only major activity of the month so far. The weather, which had been clear and perfect for flying since May, had been terrible for the first week of August. Had the weather remained conducive for flying, the Luftwaffe would have launched more raids on the radar stations and airfields in southern England. Instead, it granted both sides a much-needed respite, and the British noticed no change in German strategy.

That changed abruptly on August 12, when the weather cleared long enough for a large-scale German attack on radar installations and airfields. Low-level attacks would be used, converting some Bf-110s into fighter-bombers to achieve greater speed. These planes, along with hundreds of level bombers, began their raids at 9 am. The goal of this operation was to knock out the eyes of the British.

The German attacks lasted all day, smashing radar stations in Ventnor, dropping 148 bombs on Manston, and damaging everything in between. Losses for the day totaled 31 German planes shot down to 22 RAF fighters, the latter figure resulting in the loss of 11 pilots. Göring and the leadership of the Luftwaffe believed that the British had been blinded and prepared to launch follow-up raids. Unknown to the Germans, the British worked through the night and repaired the majority of the damage from the day’s raids by the next morning.

Eagle Day

August 13, 1940, known as Adlertag, or Eagle Day, began with a message from Göring to commence a major bombing offensive. Unfortunately, the weather turned sour in the early morning and Göring postponed the attack. However, the postponement order never reached Oberst Johannes Fink, commander of Kampfgeschwader 2, who led his 74 Do-17s to England and attacked Sheerness and Eastchurch just after 7 am, losing five bombers with five more suffering heavy damage.

In the afternoon, the weather broke, and Göring ordered the assault to proceed. By now, Fink’s raid had alerted the British to the aims of the Luftwaffe. As German raiders bombed their targets and clashed with RAF fighters, it became apparent that this was a different tactic than the previous effort against shipping and other targets in the Channel, known as Kanalkampf. When the air action ended on the 13th, a total of 34 German planes and 13 RAF fighters had been shot down.

The attacks resumed with ferocity on August 14. RAF fighters shot down 71 German planes with the loss of 29 fighters. Of the 71, only eight were Bf-109s. Such results reflect British tactical doctrine adopted during the early days of the battle, the targeting of German bombers discussed by Peter Townsend. In an effort to codify this, Dowding allowed Hurricanes to assault the bombers, while Spitfires were tasked with handling the 109s.

This came about from necessity. The Hurricane was a stable gun platform and a ruggedly built fighter, but it was no match for the much faster, nimble 109. The Spitfire, incredibly maneuverable, was to deal with them. Although the 109 could outturn it, the Spitfire had a better chance against the German fighter, creating a rivalry that lasted the duration of the war.

“Harmonizing” the RAF Fighters

In fighter against fighter combat, the Bf-109 was the best in the world in 1940. Its massive advantage lay in its armament. At the time, it was the only single-engine plane to carry cannon, and the E variant prevalent in the Battle of Britain carried one in each wing. These cannon fired exploding shells that could take down a metal-skinned fighter in one or two hits. Of equal importance was the mounting of twin machine guns above the engine, directly in front of the pilot. This meant the guns held an advantage of not needing “harmonization,” the aiming of wing-mounted guns to a convergence point at a certain distance.

Initially, the RAF set harmonization at 600 yards for Hurricanes and Spitfires. At this distance, and because both the shooter and the target were traveling at over 300 mph, planes were incredibly difficult to hit. Also, one must consider the drop of the bullets as they travel that distance and the spread as they begin to lose accuracy. In light of this, many British pilots worked to get close (200-300 yards) before opening fire. The result was many missed opportunities.

A 600-yard harmonization meant that the pilots willing to work in close did not have their guns sighted to fire at this range, and the most destructive point of fire, the convergence or harmonization point, was 400 yards in front of the plane they had worked so hard to line up. Pilots began unofficially realigning their guns to harmonize at 250 yards, which increased the accuracy and effectiveness of RAF fighters.

The Luftwaffe’s Strategic Shift

The attacks on RAF airfields and radar installations continued throughout August and into September. Enraged that the RAF was still operational, Göring cleaned up his units. He fired his older wing commanders in fighter, attack, and bombing Geschwadern, replacing them with young, rising stars. Adolf Galland resisted his appointment as commander of JG 26, while Mölders readily took charge of JG 51. To Göring, the prolonging of the conflict, as it neared two full months, was the result of old men in command who lacked the energy and drive of younger men. It did not change German fortunes, as the RAF shot down more planes than it lost every day from August 26 to September 6.

On the night of August 24, a German bomber lost touch with its formation and dropped its payload on a residential area in the city of London. The following night, Churchill sent 80 bombers to attack Berlin. Indignant, Hitler ordered Göring to avenge this personal insult against German pride. Göring also believed that this would entice the remainder of Fighter Command into the skies for a great climactic battle, which would thoroughly destroy the RAF and completely demoralize the British people. The strategic shift took place on September 7.

Up to this point in the battle, Fighter Command was inflicting heavy losses on the Germans but was also sustaining losses it could not withstand. By August 24, Dowding had lost 80 percent of his squadron commanders. By September 6, Fighter Command had lost 295 Hurricanes and Spitfires with 171 more damaged, and 103 pilots were killed or missing with a further 128 wounded. The RAF could not sustain operations much longer as the German plan to win a battle of attrition began to succeed. It was the loss of the pilots that was most worrisome as British fighter production offset the battle losses. Due to a combination of poor intelligence, arrogance, and ignorance, Göring believed that the true number of British fighters was about 300 when he launched Adlertag.

On September 7, 1940, the Luftwaffe began attacking London at night. The initial “Blitz” would last for 10 days. Due to lack of onboard radar, RAF fighters were ineffective at night, which cut Luftwaffe losses. Without individual radar systems, the fighters had to be vectored in from the ground. Even then, it was up to a pilot’s ability to see in the dark to spot the enemy planes. The Luftwaffe employment of night bombing in September was undertaken in part to terrorize British citizens and break morale.

The RAF used the week to recover from massive losses and regroup. Weekly losses dropped from nearly 300 planes to less than 150, and the suddenly resurgent RAF quickly began exacting revenge on the Luftwaffe.

“Big Wing”

Coinciding with the German shift in targets was the British switch in tactics. Wing Commander Douglas Bader of 242 Squadron had overcome the loss of both legs to become one of the most famous British aces of the battle. An outspoken, brash man, Bader advocated a strategy he called “Big Wing.” This involved taking at least three squadrons into attacks simultaneously, similar to the German strategy. Dowding and Park both instantly rejected the theory, claiming the wing took too long to assemble into proper formation once airborne. Thus, Leigh-Mallory came to Bader’s aid and chided his peer and superior for their failure to utilize the tactics that held so much potential. Leigh-Mallory gave Bader three squadrons—19, 310, and Bader’s own 242—which became known as the Duxford Wing.

The culmination of the battle came on September 15. Kesselring sent 400 fighters and 100 bombers to London. They had found 300 RAF fighters over southern England, when 200 fighters of the now five-squadron strong Duxford Wing arrived from the north. Although 60 German planes were shot down to the RAF loss of 26, the importance of the clash went beyond the material aspect. German pilots had been told that the RAF was ready for the knockout punch, with Göring restating his belief that England had merely 50 Spitfires remaining. However, Luftwaffe fliers had encountered 500 fighters simultaneously. They did not know that it was a gamble by the RAF, which had scrambled every fighter it could.

Replacing the Masterful Hugh Dowding

The fighting did not end on September 15, although it soon became recognized as the day the Luftwaffe lost the Battle of Britain. As for Operation Sea Lion, the proposed invasion of Britain, Hitler postponed it indefinitely. London would suffer from the Blitz as bombing raids continued throughout October. Historians often cite October 31 as the date on which the actual Battle of Britain concluded. RAF losses were 1,017 planes and 537 pilots in Fighter Command and 248 planes and nearly 1,000 men from Bomber and Coastal Commands. The Luftwaffe lost 1,733 planes and nearly 3,000 crewmen.

After the battle, Hugh Dowding was promptly fired, retiring shortly thereafter. Keith Park was also sacked. They were replaced by Sholto Douglas and Leigh-Mallory, respectively. This represented the shift in British tactics to Big Wing. Dowding was seen as part of the old guard. Bader and Leigh-Mallory had harped on Dowding and Park enough to taint their performances. Leigh-Mallory and Sholto Douglas were seen as more forward thinking. After his retirement, Dowding was made Lord Dowding of Bentley Priory. It was a small token for a man who orchestrated a phenomenally improbable victory during a crucial moment of the war.

Despite his opposition to Big Wing, Dowding had performed marvelously. His obsessively thorough delegation of orders and control of command and communication channels resulted in the RAF working with precision. The radar system, impeccably organized, worked with clocklike efficiency that even the Germans refused to believe. Dowding also proved masterful with his use of aircraft and pilots. He knew he had limited resources, and he appropriated them wisely. He never let the Germans know exactly how many planes he had, refusing to send up an all-out attack until the Germans did the same on September 15. The result of that action, his greatest bluff, was a decimation of German morale.

Dowding, as a commander, was coolheaded and stoic. He did not panic and commit too much too early, which surely would have cost the British dearly. Dowding’s patience and excellent management of resources, a reflection of his “Stuffy” personality, gave Britain and the RAF every opportunity to triumph. His major mistake was his refusal to accept Big Wing, and to Parliament (thanks to Leigh-Mallory and Bader) it appeared that Big Wing had dealt the decisive blow. While the tactic certainly played a major role in increasing German losses, Dowding’s contributions seem easily forgotten. The reality is that without Hugh Dowding the outcome of the Battle of Britain might well have been dramatically different.

The Luftwaffe’s Strategic Failures

In the Nazi system, Hermann Göring was incapable of accepting blame. Göring failed his subordinates and pilots with a lack of concern and ineffective direction of the battle. He knew about British radar, as he could stand at Calais and see the towers at Dover with his naked eye. Despite being told otherwise by his pilots, he was convinced that his planes could still reach operational areas ahead of the RAF fighters. Failure to properly deal with radar cost Göring the element of surprise and many aircraft.

Göring hopelessly clung to his admiration of the Bf-110, despite the obvious fact that single-engine fighters were vastly superior. Eventually, Bf-110s were escorted by Bf-109s, fighters escorting fighters. This illustrates just how far removed Göring was from the fighting, compared with Keith Park who was flying sorties in his personal Hurricane.

Another mistake the Luftwaffe made was the switch to London as a top-priority target. The Luftwaffe bombing of the British capital and other major cities caused the civilian population to suffer greatly, but it also provided a much needed respite for the rejuvenation of the RAF. It was an impetuous move that allowed the RAF some breathing room.

Innovation and Adaptability Won the Battle of Britain

Meanwhile, the British made tactical judgments that benefited their situation. On the squadron level, RAF pilots began to copy the Finger Four formation used by the Luftwaffe. Pilots, by changing the harmonization points of their machine guns, worked to level the playing field. Catching an enemy plane with a burst at the harmonization point allowed maximum damage with a minimal amount of ammunition expended.

Strategically, the British advantage of radar, conveniently scoffed at by Göring, allowed Dowding to organize an effective response to German incursions. Dowding scrambled appropriate numbers of fighters to deal with each threat, and this enabled him to keep fighters on the ground at the ready for the next wave of German bombers. Radar completely demolished the German element of surprise and gave it to the RAF.

The advantage of radar combined with the excellent climbing characteristics of the Hurricane and Spitfire allowed the British the comfort of being not only in the right spot to intercept, but also at the proper altitude or, if they were lucky, higher. British response tactics were modified by Douglas Bader and Trafford Leigh-Mallory to accommodate the Big Wing theory, which inflicted heavy casualties on the Luftwaffe. Eventually this tactic was adopted as official doctrine.

The Battle of Britain illustrated flaws in the German system and strengths in that of the British, who adapted when they had to. The RAF’s tactical rigidity, which was eventually corrected, was helped by its tremendous strategic pliability. The British were able to adjust on the fly to the conditions presented by each German raid.

The greatest British deficiency was tactical inadequacy, which was overcome with the adoption of Finger Four and Big Wing by the RAF. For the Germans, initial tactical superiority gave the Luftwaffe an edge early in the battle, but strategic flexibility allowed the RAF to survive—its very existence thwarting the German plan.

This article by Grant Matla originally appeared on Warfare History Network.

Image: Reuters


167833-2020: Spojené kráľovstvo-Bristol: Vzdelávacie a školiace (výcvikové) služby   

Dátum uverejnenia: 08/04/2020 | Konečný termín: | Dokument: Oznámenia o zadaní zákazky

Dayton’s Obi Toppin wins Wooden Award as top hoops player   

BRISTOL, Conn. (AP) — Obi Toppin of Dayton won the John R. Wooden Award as the nation’s outstanding college basketball player. Toppin, along with Saddiq...

Piktura "profetike" e Bansky-t për Brexit   


10 vjet më parë Banksy krijoi këtë tablo të parlamentit britanik  të titulluar “Devolved Parliament”. Vepra e artistit të famshëm pasqyron Parlamentin Britanik të mbushur me ... shimpanze.  Muzeu i Bristolit vendosi ta ekspozojë me rastin e datës zyrtare të Brexit, planifikuar fillimisht për sot, proces që përfundimisht do të shtyhet.

Piktori e ripostoi tablonë në llogarinë e tij në Instagram me mbishkrimin:

" E bëra këtë punë dhjetë vjet më parë. Muzeu Bristol thjesht duhet ta rivendosë atë për ditën e Brexit. Tani qeshni, por një ditë askush nuk do mbajë përgjegjësi për këtë" . 

Nga ana tjetër teksa opinioni publik në Britaninë e Madhe pret dorëheqjen e kryeministres Tereza Mei pas disfatës së tretë për Brexit, shefja e qeverisë as që e çon ndërmend të dorëzohet.

BBC raporton se kryeminsitrja britanike do të çojë planin e saj të shkëputjes për herë të katërt në parlament, për të tentuar sërish mbështetjen e deputetëve. Përpara se të japë dorëheqjen siç ka premtuar, Tereza Mei kërkon të përmbyllë marrëveshjen e arritur me Brukselin. Mijëra mbështetës të Brexit manifestuan të premten në rrugët e Londrës. Eurodeputeti Najxhëll Farazh, një nga promotorët e shkëputjes nga Unioni, paralajmëroi një tjetër fitore nëse referendumi përsëritet.


Resumen de la Food City Showdown de la NASCAR Pro Series Invitational | Tony Rivera y Luis Solis   

Tony Rivera y Luis Solis presentan el resumen de la Food City Showdown, tercera carrera de la NASCAR iRacing Pro Invitational Series, realizada en Bristol Motor Speedway. “La Última Vuelta” es una serie semanal en español con Tony Rivera y Luis Solis, así que no se olviden de suscribir al Playlist para no perderse de [...]

Logan Seavey on Instagram Live | NASCAR   

Logan Seavey joins Alex Weaver on NASCAR’s Instagram Live following his win in the Saturday Night Thunder iRacing event from virtual Bristol Motor Speedway. ———- Subscribe to NASCAR on YouTube: Visit for the latest news: For more race day in-car cameras check out NASCAR Drive – Shop for your favorite NASCAR [...]

Dillingham urges governor to close Bristol Bay fishery   

The City of Dillingham and the Curyung Tribal Council wrote a strongly worded letter to Governor Mike Dunleavy Monday urging him to consider closing Bristol Bay’s commercial fishery to protect the community from the coronavirus pandemic.

167796-2020: Spojené kráľovstvo-Bristol: Zájazdové autobusy   

Dátum uverejnenia: 08/04/2020 | Konečný termín: 13-04-2020 | Dokument: Dodatočné informácie

Local Class A Owner Operators $10,000 Mo.- Severn MD   

Farruggio's Express is Hiring Local Class A Owner Operators out of: Bristol PA, Baltimore MD, Harrisburg PA, Norfolk VA and Newark NJ Farruggio's Express services ramps and piers in the eastern US. As Farruggio's celebrates its 100th year in business in 2020, we continue to improve and develop the highest quality of service available. We are currently looking for Local Class A Owner Operator Truck Drivers that want to be home daily. We are looking for people with tractor trailer experience. THIS POSITION REQUIRES AT LEAST 2 YEARS EXPERIENCE AND CLEAN RECORD. This is no touch freight, no paper logs and steady work. To apply and learn more: 1. You can call us direct at: 800-432-3934. 2. You can complete the mini application to the right and if on a mobile device, the application is below. 3. You can complete our full application to speed the entire process up. You can access our application by visiting:

Local Class A Owner Operators $10,000 Mo.- Catonsville MD   

Farruggio's Express is Hiring Local Class A Truck Drivers out of: Bristol PA, Baltimore MD, Harrisburg PA, Norfolk VA and Newark NJ Farruggio's Express services ramps and piers in the eastern US. As Farruggio's celebrates its 100th year in business in 2020, we continue to improve and develop the highest quality of service available. Hiring Local Class A Drivers: -- Local Home Daily -- Tractor Trailer -- Clean MVR/PSP -- No touch freight, no paper logs and steady work -- Excellent pay and benefits -- Must have at least 2 years experience to be considered To apply and learn more: 1. You can call us direct at: 800-432-3934. 2. You can complete the mini application to the right and if on a mobile device, the application is below. 3. You can complete our full application to speed the entire process up. You can access our application by visiting:

Local Class A Owner Operators $10,000 Mo.- Ellicott City MD   

Farruggio's Express is Hiring Local Class A Truck Drivers out of: Bristol PA, Baltimore MD, Harrisburg PA, Norfolk VA and Newark NJ Farruggio's Express services ramps and piers in the eastern US. As Farruggio's celebrates its 100th year in business in 2020, we continue to improve and develop the highest quality of service available. Hiring Local Class A Drivers: -- Local Home Daily -- Tractor Trailer -- Clean MVR/PSP -- No touch freight, no paper logs and steady work -- Excellent pay and benefits -- Must have at least 2 years experience to be considered To apply and learn more: 1. You can call us direct at: 800-432-3934. 2. You can complete the mini application to the right and if on a mobile device, the application is below. 3. You can complete our full application to speed the entire process up. You can access our application by visiting:

Internal Medicine Physician General Internist - Physicians Only Apply - Perm   

Medical Doctors Only Apply. A Internal Medicine Physician General Internist practice is seeking a qualified physician for Palm Beach, FL. This and other physician jobs brought to you by ExactMD.

Internal Medicine Hospitalists MD or DO candidates okay.
Relocation Available: Yes
Location: Anywhere USA
We need a Board Certified or Eligible Internal Medicine Doctor interested in a hospitalist position in any of the given locations below. They will consider MD or DO candidates.

Current Hot Openings in the following locations:
AL Mobile
AZ Northwest Area
AZ Phoenix
AZ Tucson
AZ Yuma, AZ
CA Bay Area
CA Inland Empire
CA Napa
CA Sacramento
CA San Bernardino
CA San Fernando Valley
CA San Gabriel Valley
CO Colorado Springs
CO Denver
CO North Denver/Boulder
CO Pueblo
DE Southern Delaware
FL Fort Myers
FL Jacksonville
FL Naples
FL Ocala
FL Palm Beach County
FL Port Charlotte
FL St. Petersburg
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GA Near Atlanta
IL Alton
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IL Glendale Heights
KS Kansas City
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MA Boston
MA South of Boston
MA Southeastern MA
MA Southeastern MA/RI AREA
MI Grand Rapids
MI Lapeer
MI Niles/ St. Joseph
MO Kansas City
MO Lake St. Louis
MO O'Fallon
MO St. Louis
NV Las Vegas
NY Carthage
NY Ithaca, Utica, Corning/Bath Cortland, Syracuse, Endicott
NY Queens
NY Wellsville
NY Western New York
OH Toledo
RI Westerly
TN Bristol
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Please provide an updated resume/CV in MS Word format, forward along with the complete Skills Matrix, your availability schedule for a telephone interview, three references, and your salary requirement to (Registered Profile Required) `

NASCAR-rijder geeft op in simrace en verliest sponsor   

In de eNASCAR-race op de oval van Bristol had Bubba Wallace zijn twee toegestane korte herstellingen al achter de rug. In een derde incident werd hij aangetikt door Clint Bowyer.
Wallace had er genoeg van en besloot dan maar om onmiddellijk de handdoek te gooien. "Daarom neem ik deze rotzooi niet serieus", meldde hij tegen zijn kijkers op Twitch. "Peace out!"
Wallace kreeg op Twitter ...Blijf lezen

Principal Scientist - USA-NJ-Jersey City   

Job Description: Bristol-Myers Squibb is a global Biopharma company committed to a single mission: to discover, develop, and deliver innovative medicines focused on helping millions of patients around...

Today’s Song: Bristol Singer/Songwriter Tomo Rises with Poetic Accountability in Debut “Enough to Drink”   

Tomo © Laure NoverrazBristol, England singer/songwriter Tomo takes an introspective look at becoming the best version of himself with debut single “Enough to Drink.”

Scientist/ Analytical Team Lead   

Join us and make a difference.-- We hire the best people and provide them with a work environment that places a premium on diversity, integrity, collaboration and personal development. Through a culture of inclusion, we create a better, more productive work environment. We believe that the diverse experiences and perspectives of all our employees help to drive innovation and transformative business results.Scientist/ Analytical Team Lead (I), Bioassay Development - Bioassay Center of ExcellenceDescription:Bristol-Myers Squibb is the world leader in Biotherapeutics for Immuno-Oncology. The Bioassay Center of Excellence is the global center for biological potency assay development, biological characterization and clinical lot release. To enable the continuous expansion of our biologics pipeline, we are looking for experienced professionals passionate about bringing recombinant therapeutics to patients to address significant unmet medical needs.The Scientist/ Analytical Team Lead, Bioassay Development has the opportunity to drive state-of-the art potency assay development that supports the company's portfolio of preclinical and clinical- stage biologics. The role requires a working understanding and experience with the development of mechanistically relevant biological assays to assess potency in both GMP and non-GMP environments. This function also requires close collaboration with early discovery groups, process sciences groups, internal analytical functions, as well as with Manufacturing Sciences and Technology and the Quality Assurance organization. The role also offers an opportunity for analytical project management in an Analytical Team Lead function for Biologics.Responsibilities:Directly accountable for bioassay development for early and late stage development programs, development of fit-for-purpose biological characterization assays, assay qualification/validation, lot release and stability analysis, and strong collaboration with stakeholders in partner organizations.Responsible for experimental design, execution, data review and analysis/interpretation, and document authorship.Generates and thoroughly documents results, and maintains instrumentation in a GMP-compliant environment.Inspires innovation and operational excellence and fosters a continuous learning environmentTranslate analytical strategy into actionable objectives, and anticipate and address technical, regulatory, and other business needs.Qualifications:Typically MS in immunology, cell biology, molecular biology or equivalent field with 3-5 years' relevant experience, or BS with 5-10 years' relevant experienceExperience with the development of cell based in-vitro assaysExperience in Immunoassay developmentDiverse experience with biological systems is advantageousMolecular and Cell Biology experience is advantageousBIAcore/SPR and/or FACS experience is advantageousMethodical and committed to high-quality resultsStrong scientific, interpersonal and communication skillsAwareness of regulatory and compliance guidelinesProject management experience for CMC projects in Biologics would be advantageous

FM Project Manager   

SW-bristol, FM Project Manager- Mobile Location; South West England Salary up to £55,000 per annum + car allowance Monday to Friday Candidates must have a flexible approach to travelling around the South West of England Urgently looking for an experienced Facilities Maintenance Project Manager to assist the delivery of a variety of projects across the South West of England (covering Cheshire to Surrey) on beh

Structural Design Engineer   

SW-Gloucester, Job Contact: Greg Mayson Job Reference: WM – 631 Job Start date: ASAP Commutable from: Cheltenham, Gloucester, Stroud, Stonehouse, Bristol, Worcester, Tewkesbury, Bishops Cleeve, Evesham Job Type: Permanent Salary: £25,000 to £40,000 depending on experience Benefits: To be discussed at interview Job Overview: This is a fantastic opportunity for a Structural Design Engineer to be based in our clien

Civil Design Engineer   

SW-Gloucester, Job Contact: Greg Mayson Job Reference: WM – 630 Job Start date: ASAP Commutable from: Cheltenham, Gloucester, Stroud, Stonehouse, Bristol, Worcester, Tewkesbury, Bishops Cleeve, Evesham Job Type: Permanent Salary: £28,000 to £40,000 Benefits: To be discussed at interview Job Overview: Working for a forward-thinking design consultancy based in Gloucestershire, this Civil Design Engineer role is id

Emergency Medicine Physician   

Emergency Medicine opening in Fall River, Massachusetts. This and other physician jobs brought to you by Job Description & Requirements
Emergency Medicine Physician
StartDate: ASAP Available Shifts: Regular 12;Weekend Pay Rate: $203.00 - 215.00

Full-time Emergency Physician Needed
  • 50K Annual volume--
  • Trauma level III
  • Mid-level and Specialist support available--
  • Meditech--
  • Will accept Family Medicine and Internal Medicine boards with extensive emergency experience
  • 4-6 Weeks to credentialDrive-in Candidates Only

    From Horseneck Beach in Westport to horseback riding at Borderland State Park in Easton, Bristol County in Southeastern Massachusetts is filled with scenic state parks and beaches to enjoy in any season. If your passion runs toward biking, hiking, swimming, fishing, and camping, you'll find tons of trails, picturesque campgrounds, and miles of unspoiled coastline. If museums are more your speed, don't leave the area without checking out the UGLYgallery, the Judith Klein Art Gallery, Gallery X in New Bedford, the Trescott Street Gallery in Taunton and the DeDee Shattuck Gallery in Westport.

    Job Benefits
    In addition to the industry's most comprehensive benefits package that includes medical licensing assistance, the arrangement of professional liability insurance, and housing and travel booking assistance, Locum Leaders is proud to offer our providers a reduction in the wait time to be presented at facilities where you were previously presented or worked from 24 months to 6 months.

    About the Company
    Locum Leaders, an AMN Healthcare company, is the nation's leader in temporary and part-time locum tenens jobs. We provide temporary and part-time locum tenens jobs nationwide for physicians of all specialties, as well as physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs) and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs). As a company of AMN Healthcare, we're able to offer more competitive opportunities and benefits for job seekers than any other locum tenens company. AMN Healthcare is an EEO/AA/Disability/Protected Veteran Employer. We encourage minority and female applicants to apply.

    Emergency Medicine Physician, Emergency Physician, Em Physician, Em Doctor, Urgent Care, Emergency Room, Er, Em, Emergency Medicine, Physician, Healthcare, Health Care, Patient Care, Hospital, Medical, Doctor, Md, emergency-medicine, emergency Keyphrases: emergency medicine jobs, critical care medicine jobs, pulmonary critical care jobs, critical care nurse practitioner jobs, surgical critical care jobs, emergency medicine specialist jobs, internal emergency medicine jobs, emergency medical care jobs, emergency cardiac care jobs, wilderness medical jobs, pediatric emergency medicine jobs, emergency medical technician jobs

Registered Nurse (RGN/RMN) - Care Home   

SW-Bristol, ABOUT THE ROLE As a Registered Nurse (RGN/RMN) at a Barchester care home, you’ll look after the physical, psychological and social needs of our residents to help us deliver the quality care they deserve. We’ll look to you to create a safe and supportive environment for residents with range of physical and mental needs, whilst also relying on your professional judgement to make critical clinical de

Angry NASCAR Driver Bubba Wallace Quits Race Halfway; Loses Sponsorship   

Richard Petty Motorsports driver Bubba Wallace must be having a really bad day at Sunday's video game simulation of eNASCAR iRacing Pro Invitational Series last April 5-- enough to rage-quit in the middle of the race and lose a lucrative sponsorship deal.In case you didn't know, the term "rage quit" is a well-known gamer term for a player who gets so mad that they prematurely quit the race.Wallace, who was one of the 32 drivers vying for first place in the Food City Showdown at a Virtual Bristol Motor Speedway,  had a messy encounter with one of the racers.During the 11th lap of the 150-lap race, he was pinned into the wall by Clint Bowyer, and also swung up into Wallace's Chevy Camaro—wrecking it in the process. Wallace, apparently fed up by the messy encounter,  quit the race in a fit of rage.After the "incident", Wallace took to Twitter and tried to make the best of his rage-quitting by showing that he wasn't taking it too seriously.Unfortunately, his sponsor, joint/muscle cream company Blue-Emu, was dead seriously peeved. In fact, they were so serious that they decided to pull out their sponsorship of Wallace. Ben Blessing, executive vice president of Blue-Emu was even quoted in saying : “Can you imagine if he did that in real life on a track?”Blessing also told Action Network that they thought sponsoring Wallace was a "blessing in disguise", but found out they aren't sponsoring a professional driver, but someone like  "my 13-year-old son" who broke his controller while building a house in a game.Too bad for Wallace--Emu company has sponsored his real-life racing team, and just recently signed a multi-year contract to become an official partner of NASCAR.Goes to show why losing your cool and quitting halfway can make you lose a lot of money--just like that. Also Read:  Leclerc to Use Same Engine in China Fast Facts about Lewis Hamilton

167842-2020: Spojené kráľovstvo-Bristol: Úpravňa vody   

Dátum uverejnenia: 08/04/2020 | Konečný termín: | Dokument: Oznámenia o zadaní zákazky

Episode 153 – Phillip Leech   


Guest: Phillip Leech (Flight Lieutenant Phillip Winfield Leech, RAF, Navigator-Wireless Operator/Air Gunner)

Host: Dave Homewood

Recorded: 15th of July 2017

Released: 20th of July 2017

Duration: 1 hour 20 minutes 43 seconds

Phillip Leech was an English-born member of the Royal Air Force, but he served as a Navigator on the Coastal Command Bristol Beaufighter [...]


freundlich und zuvorkommend   

Vivo in Iowa. So che pensi che lo Iowa sia piatto e che coltiviamo patate, ma nessuno dei due è vero! Bene, ok, alcune parti dell'Iowa sono piatte, ma alcune parti no. Vivo nella parte orientale dello stato (Iowa City per l'esattezza), a circa un'ora di distanza dal fiume Mississippi. Se stai cercando delle colline nello Iowa, vai al confine occidentale e orientale e ti garantisco che le troverai.

Per quanto riguarda il tempo, abbiamo letteralmente tutto. Fa freddo in inverno (anche se questo inverno è stato generalmente Nike Air Max 270 React Womens abbastanza caldo con quasi nessuna neve), bagnato in primavera, caldo come l'inferno in estate e le nostre cascate sono fresche e meravigliose. L'umidità può diventare piuttosto brutta a luglio e agosto, ma è un buon allenamento per il calore.

Poiché l'Iowa non è noto per Nike Air Max Jewell Donna la sua scena di trail, puoi scommettere che i corridori di trail fanno uso di ogni singolo trail disponibile. Nella zona di Iowa City, il posto migliore per percorrere miglia più lunghe sono i sentieri vicino al lago Macbride, situato a circa 15 miglia a nord di Iowa City, tra North Liberty e Solon. Troverai una varietà di percorsi che vanno da single track, terra battuta, ghiaia frantumata ed erba. Le migliori vedute sono vicino allo "sfioratore", dove l'acqua del lago Macbride sfocia nel fiume Iowa. Qualsiasi corridore ultra nella zona conosce questi sentieri come il palmo della sua mano.

In questi sentieri si trova anche l'Iowa Raptor Project. Ci sono circa 20 uccelli inattaccabili in mostra (falchi, gufi, falchi, ecc.) Ed è gratuito e aperto al pubblico. Prenditi qualche minuto per salutare questi stupendi rapaci se ti trovi nelle Nike Air Max 1 Damen vicinanze!

Le tracce di picchio sarebbero le prossime nella mia lista. Questi sono sentieri sterrati vicino al Lago Coralville, a circa 10 minuti a nord di Iowa City. Questo è un famoso luogo di escursioni e un bel posto per ammirare i colori dell'autunno. Se colpisci ogni singolo percorso, potresti probabilmente ottenere sette miglia, quindi non è raccomandato per le corse super lunghe (anche se rende un buon allenamento mentale). Di solito mi attengo a Picchio se corro 10 miglia o meno. Puoi sicuramente ottenere anche qualche decente su questi sentieri.

Il prossimo è Hickory Hill. Hickory Hill è un parco carino incastonato nel mezzo di Iowa City. Non ci sono molte miglia, ma è accessibile e ci sono davvero belle viste sul parco e sulle praterie. Questa è sicuramente una graffetta di Iowa City ed è piuttosto popolare nei mesi Nike Air Max 90 Homme più caldi. Troverai sterrato, erba e single track e abbastanza percorsi che a volte mi faccio ancora girare. Questo è un ottimo posto dove portare gli amici per farli conoscere per la prima volta ai sentieri.

L'ultima volta che ho visto Emily a Chicago, quando ci siamo incontrati Adidas Eqt Support Adv Womens per la prima volta, abbiamo corso per 16 miglia insieme, e lei mi ha detto che mi sembrava di aver perso ancora più peso da allora! Non lo sono, almeno sulla scala, ma lavoro sodo per rimanere sano e in forma, quindi mentre non sto perdendo peso / cercando di perdere peso, è sempre bello sentire che il mio duro lavoro mostra.

Quindi, chiaramente ho ottenuto un bagel dopo la corsa. Stavo programmando di fare 10, ma abbiamo fatto un giro (6 miglia) del parco, e il freddo e il passo strategico per non scivolare lo hanno reso dannatamente difficile. Stavamo Nike Internationalist Uomo andando a correre un po 'di più in città mentre Emily tornava nel suo hotel, ma ci fermammo per dire addio ad Ashley e finimmo per camminare e chiacchierare. Ops. Proverò a fare gli ultimi 4 domani mattina.

E avrei corso di corsa con il caldo estremo per questo tempo ogni giorno. Adidas Superstar Damen E sì, me lo puoi ricordare quest'estate.
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